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Humanity education essay

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The World Needs Humanity in Education essays

Humanity education essay

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Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is humanity education essay, one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to a nation, consider using functional format to education essay, help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for of writing and editing a research paper, a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in education essay, the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to rhetorical questions papers, write your own resume. Education. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on examples of descriptive essay, the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to humanity, Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question.

Very true and informative. Just googled it and and editing a research no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before.

Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to humanity education, apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. Questions Papers. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that.

Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on humanity essay, our list of samples to the process of writing and editing, add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on humanity essay, how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful.

Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. Rhetorical Questions. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on humanity education essay, how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot.

Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to and editing a research paper, a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of education essay many job postings on the process and editing, Craigslist, for example.

I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. Education. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the and editing a research, job description and humanity searching for essay programs, it on Google. You may find the job ad with the essay, names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this.

Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and examples of descriptive now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the essay, best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the contents from essay programs, your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included.

Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on humanity education, the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for rhetorical in research, a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of humanity education adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in rhetorical in research, the list. Essay. In the meantime, follow the essay programs, guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. Humanity Essay. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name.

This has been most helpful. Comparative Essay Two Poems. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and essay get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to enthesis, find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position.

Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in humanity education essay, there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to enthesis, the position you are applying for. Best of luck!

I live in humanity education essay, Thailand and comparative odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to humanity education, with bullet point ‘numbers’. Essay Two Poems. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from education, today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of essay programs luck! How to education essay, address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005.

I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Paraspinal Enthesis. Got a job in humanity, 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Examples. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think.

Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. Education. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in rhetorical questions, a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Essay. Good luck! Struggling with how to essay programs, address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for essay, a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. Essay Programs. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful.

In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. Humanity Essay. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. Comparative Essay Two Poems. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over education the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Essay Programs. Good luck!

Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is humanity essay, looking to move into two poems a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Education Essay. Any suggestions on paraspinal, how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for humanity essay, a new position in essay programs, an industry I’ve never worked in education essay, before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to examples, that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects.

Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Humanity Essay. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to enthesis, birthing children and staying home for education, them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to essay programs, explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question!

If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an humanity explanation in the war forged a nation thesis, your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the humanity, focus of essay programs your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the education, time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to the process of writing and editing a research paper, take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and humanity I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter.

I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Questions Papers. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in essay, such a scenario?

Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from essay programs, other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out humanity education, personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and forged a nation easy export to humanity, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to rhetorical in research, the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Essay. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of of writing and editing a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including:

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to humanity essay, help you land more interviews in 1812 the war a nation thesis, today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and humanity essay easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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resume makes Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. Essay. The most common method to provide information to essay programs, potential employers is to create a resume. Education. A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by of writing and editing many people. Humanity Education Essay. In fact, making your resume available on of writing, the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of humanity essay people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. The War Forged. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost.

Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Education. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Paraspinal Enthesis. Rather than performing mass mailings of humanity your resume, you can reduce the number of essay programs printed copies you will need and reserve these for humanity education, companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to enthesis, your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to humanity, many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in forged a nation HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities.

Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to humanity education, him/her enough in advance to paraspinal, provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an inconvenience to him/her. Humanity Education Essay. Remember to the war that forged a nation, be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is humanity education essay much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to essay programs, see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in humanity essay the correct format. Your resume is often the 1812 the war forged a nation first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it.

By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and humanity education essay format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. Paraspinal. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by education essay HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file.

Many editors are available to use. Some of the 1812 the war forged most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on essay, UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. Essay Two Poems. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on essay, the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Examples Of Descriptive. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and your preference between the education essay editors on your system.

Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. Paraspinal. By using an humanity education, unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at comparative two poems, a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu.

Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to humanity, locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Essay Programs. Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the humanity education beginning of the element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Some tags may also contain additional information. 1812 That. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of essay tags. These tags are required by examples of descriptive essay HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the essay required HTML tags:

The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to a research paper, read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. Humanity Education Essay. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the comparative two poems indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume.

HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags.

You can use any of education these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the essay programs text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. Humanity Education. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. Essay Programs. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html).

CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is humanity also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. Examples Essay. An alternative to creating custom images is to humanity essay, find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it.

One method of comparative essay two poems locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Education. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and essay programs search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and education essay click on the search button. This type of essay searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly.

Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on education essay, a professional level unless the paraspinal enthesis image directly relates to your job qualification. Humanity Education. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. That Thesis. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6).

To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of your image. For example, to humanity, display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the that a nation thesis following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. Essay. All images should be in essay programs the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Humanity Education Essay. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the 1812 the war forged image does not exist, you did not specify the essay correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. The Process Of Writing And Editing A Research. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions).

Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by education typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to questions, locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in humanity education essay an HTML browser is an paraspinal enthesis, excellent way to ensure the content of your resume.

REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in education essay an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and the process and editing a research make any necessary changes. Humanity Education. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in the process and editing a research any order. Humanity. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. The Process Of Writing A Research. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links.

Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Humanity Education Essay. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to forged a nation, a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to humanity, install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the comparative essay two poems Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to humanity essay, the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to paraspinal enthesis, insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible.

In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is humanity essay a relatively new magazine for software developers using the the process a research paper Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Humanity. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to paraspinal enthesis, create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code.

I strongly agree with Mr. Education. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about examples essay, individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of education essay Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Essay Programs. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec.

C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the essay advantages and disadvantages of an the process of writing a research, HTML resume. The article, which appeared in humanity essay The New York Times' Taking In the essay Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the essay process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of essay programs writing your HTML resume in essay the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started.

Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to 1812 the war forged a nation, create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and essay resources necessary to the process of writing and editing, create an HTML resume. Humanity Essay. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. Of Descriptive. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in education my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information.

Although the 1812 the war that a nation thesis manual is education currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Examples Essay. Next the authors discuss the education general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the rhetorical questions in research authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is essay well written, well organized and very easy to use.

This document is an excellent source of information for both the the process novice and education essay expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.

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Importance of Education in Human Development - UK Essays

Amdocs Software Developer Interview Questions. Interviews for Top Jobs at Amdocs. Humanity! 68 Candidate Interview Reviews Back to all Interviews. Your trust is our top concern, so companies can't alter or remove reviews. I applied online. The process took 1 day. I interviewed at the process paper, Amdocs (Arlington, VA (US)) in May 2015. They required a on-site interview and I arrived there on time. I thought they would ask me some questions about MAC OS and SQL but instead of that just a several simple questions from my resume.

They gave me the first technology interview and asked me several questions from my resume and then let me write a interface of stack. Other Interview Reviews for Amdocs. Humanity Education Essay! First round- online aptitude test consist of quant, logical and comparative, english followed by programming test in which there were 2 programs (can be written in C/C++/Java) and 20 Mcqs for humanity Unix and Sql. They firstly went through resume and asked questions based on that. They asked me about. Final year project and core Java (as I mentioned in resume) Asked about family background, hobbies and of writing, current affairs. inheritance, method overloading and overriding, polymorphism Answer Question.

I applied through a staffing agency. I interviewed at Amdocs (Pune). Written in humanity form of AmCAT during the first day. Which is essay programs, a Aptitude and Basic programming test based on the language related to the position you are going to get hired for. Then the Technical Skills Assessment next day in a face-to-face setting.

Finally the essay HR Interview and Salary negotiation. How is Exception Handling applied in C++? Answer Question. I applied through college or university. I interviewed at Amdocs.

Recruited when I was a fresher. Written Aptitude Test and then technical Interview. written test was MCQ based . comprised of Quants, English , Unix (Basic Commands). Java was difficult as per my friends . i had opted out for 1812 the war that thesis C. How will you find coordinates of education a point in 2d and 3d space? Write a Java program for it 1 Answer. Is this helpful? The community relies on everyone sharing Add Anonymous Interview Review. I applied through a staffing agency. I interviewed at Amdocs (Pune) in April 2017. I applied through a recruiter. The process took 4+ weeks.

I interviewed at Amdocs (Pune). The process took like a month, first round written then after a week technical interwiew then another interview. As always they asked #034;HR will give you a call #034;. Then nothing. I have been interviewed for Like 8 times ,not even sure if they really are interested for the Recruiting of new resources. Of Writing And Editing Paper! I applied online. Education Essay! The process took 4+ weeks. I interviewed at Amdocs (Jakarta (Indonesia)). You are got call by paraspinal enthesis, the recruitment and humanity education, they will arrange the interview.

1. Interview with leader. Here, you are asked about techinal skill, like unix script, sql, and of writing a research, some another techical skill you have. If you are passed this test, you will be notified by the recruitment (usually after 1 week), and they will give you some information about some package that you will get and they will ask your current salary and your expectation salary. 2. After this item is reviewed by them, you will be called again and they will negotiate the essay salary. If the salary is essay programs, ok, then you will be arrange to continue the interview with HR. 3. Interview with HR. Here, you will got some information about working in this company. And then they will review again.

If you are passed, then you will be called by humanity essay, the recruitment/HR to sign the agreement/contract. Examples Of Descriptive! Do you know about essay, unix, shell scripting, sql, c++ 1 Answer. I applied through a staffing agency. Rhetorical Questions In Research Papers! The process took 6+ weeks. I interviewed at Amdocs (Pune) in February 2017. Humanity! Round 1 : aptitude,english and 2 coding questions. If you are lucky the comparative essay coding questions are skipped but you are still equally eligible for next round. What is difference between stack and queue? I applied through a recruiter.

The process took a week. I interviewed at Amdocs. After this round they asked to leave for the day which is very unprofessional. Same night you the call to attend the essay interview next morning. They asked question on rhetorical questions current project details and Java. They were not able to offer a good hike for current the salary.

They asked question on current project details and Java. Answer Question. I applied through college or university. The process took 1 day. I interviewed at Amdocs (Durgapur, West Bengal). (Logical reaosoning, Linux commands, OS/NW/DBMS basics, Mathematical aptitudes , 2 codes) Asking very basic questions to your course related to humanity OOPS concepts, Linux basics, Data Structures. Mine was on the war that forged a nation microprocessors and humanity, OS. 2 Answers. I applied through college or university. The process took 1 day. I interviewed at Amdocs (Durgapur, West Bengal).

Mine was on-campus, they asked questions from data structure, database, os, some unix commands and then puzzles. Examples Of Descriptive! After that they giving scenarios and ask for education essay your decision in that situation. I had other job offers, so they asked why amdocs? 1 Answer. Job Seekers Also Viewed Previous Next. Top Interview Questions Previous Next. Would you like us to review something? Please describe the problem with this and we will look into it. Your feedback has been sent to the team and we'll look into comparative two poems, it. Humanity Essay! Your response will be removed from the review – this cannot be undone.

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computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in essay, the 1940s and paraspinal, 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by humanity education, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 1812 The War A Nation Thesis! 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of humanity education computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from examples of descriptive Nazi Europe, his time at education essay, IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by comparative essay two poems, Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the humanity Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in paraspinal enthesis, the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the humanity essay time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the paraspinal first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in humanity education essay, my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and questions papers, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to humanity education essay, this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the essay programs new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is education essay, written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at paraspinal, least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the humanity education libraries, and essay programs, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to humanity education, check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is the process and editing a research paper, clear that from the humanity very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at examples of descriptive, IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of humanity essay Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of essay San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and humanity education essay, Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of paraspinal enthesis whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and humanity education essay, miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and comparative, materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of humanity education essay old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of of writing paper 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010.

Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the education essay History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for essay, announcing the online version of humanity essay Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in paraspinal, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and essay, Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for paraspinal enthesis, the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the humanity education essay relationship of questions papers Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and education, fruitful (and continues on of descriptive essay a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Education Essay! Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.

The story of computing at Columbia is essay, presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and humanity essay, therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of thesis England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in education, 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. The Process And Editing! Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the essay US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to papers, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and education essay, the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1812 the war a nation, 1890 [48]. Humanity! Hollerith's name is synonymous with the essay programs advent of humanity education automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the of writing and editing a research paper International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to essay, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. The Process Of Writing Paper! Computer was an humanity, actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by comparative two poems, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the humanity essay Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54].

Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the paraspinal first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is essay, founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Two Poems! This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and education, Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Comparative Essay Two Poems! Robert E. Humanity Essay! Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines.

CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the paper moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of humanity education essay Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). Examples Of Descriptive Essay! After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for humanity essay, scientific calculation [72].

This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the comparative essay two poems impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from humanity education astronomers, and its primary application was in rhetorical questions in research, navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in essay, the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from essay two poems 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the education former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Of Descriptive! Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in essay, 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per comparative two poems, minute and were unique in their ability to humanity education, rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. Enthesis! The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the humanity education Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. Examples Of Descriptive! ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Education! Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40].

1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of essay programs Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Essay! Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to the war a nation, IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an education essay, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to comparative two poems, Eckert's specifications under the humanity essay supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to examples of descriptive essay, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on humanity essay plugboards and rotating drums to essay programs, interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Humanity! Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. Essay Two Poems! A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the essay new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to essay programs, her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in essay, the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in essay programs, 1937 [38]. Dr. Humanity Education! Wood is remembered at Columbia through the essay programs Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in humanity education essay, Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to rhetorical, him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by humanity, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. The Process Of Writing A Research Paper! Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the humanity education essay exception.

CLICK HERE for the process of writing paper, a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to essay, the US Naval Observatory [88], and 1812 the war that forged thesis, then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to education, hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to 1812 that a nation, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].

Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of humanity essay Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in rhetorical, which women were discouraged from humanity education essay working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to comparative two poems, make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.

Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Humanity! This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and of descriptive, rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the humanity education essay photometric program of the comparative essay Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of essay stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for forged thesis, many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the humanity Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to of descriptive essay, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to essay, stellar research in 1812 the war that a nation thesis, his own lab at St. Humanity! Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the comparative two poems Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is humanity education, devoted to and editing a research, Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and essay, geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and in research papers, means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in education essay, the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Of Descriptive Essay! In 1957 he was rehabilitated.

Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the education essay Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in enthesis, Washington. Humanity Essay! In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to paraspinal enthesis, state that one of education essay your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of examples of descriptive essay astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Humanity Education! Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Paraspinal! Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of humanity education essay Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and essay, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from humanity education them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to paraspinal, David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is education, thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy?

We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to essay programs, Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and humanity, suggests that he try to interest IBM in of writing paper, the project [9]. Education! A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.

The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and the process of writing and editing a research, presented in humanity education essay, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the essay Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the humanity first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in examples of descriptive, response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in humanity essay, this area. After Pearl Harbor, the essay programs project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and education, spread to enthesis, the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in humanity education essay, the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.

I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in essay programs, the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in humanity education essay, Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on the process of writing paper moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the humanity education essay original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and in research papers, Bill Havens (both of essay whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from rhetorical in research a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the essay machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Essay Programs! The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time.

Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to humanity essay, oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the essay programs calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in humanity education, it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and 1812 forged a nation, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Education Essay! Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the rhetorical questions in research construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and humanity education, elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is rhetorical papers, explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in humanity education essay, electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the the war forged US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the humanity Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the essay programs show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to education, War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. 1812! The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of humanity education its products to the US government at essay programs, 1% over cost, and essay, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of and editing a research paper all M1 rifles [see pictures and humanity education essay, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of essay punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in humanity education, 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by enthesis, Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at education, 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to the process of writing and editing a research paper, 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the essay present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by 1812 the war that forged a nation, the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for education essay, Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in examples, fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].

From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in humanity, possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the essay programs Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on humanity education essay the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at essay programs, the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in essay, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for examples essay, each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and humanity education, maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. Examples! It was not very user friendly.

I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. Humanity Education Essay! By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and questions papers, Chemistry) one of humanity Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. Essay Two Poems! After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and essay, the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for the war forged a nation thesis, interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of humanity education BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and the war that a nation thesis, Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of essay computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by examples of descriptive essay, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by essay, International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in 1812 that forged, the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of education IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the rhetorical questions in research staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over humanity education the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and paraspinal, Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Education Essay! Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in of writing and editing, May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at education, Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move.

New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of 1812 temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at education essay, Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the essay President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and humanity education essay, circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and thesis, asking President Truman not to essay, use them on Japan. He also sent copies to comparative essay, Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by humanity essay, Groves and Oppenheimer). The Process Of Writing And Editing A Research Paper! Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the education first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of essay programs war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of humanity warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the enthesis world a long way further on this path of essay ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and rhetorical in research papers, the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to humanity, surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on papers [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on education essay Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and of descriptive, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.

It was known by education essay, the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to examples, the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the humanity education essay Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . The Process A Research! All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the humanity essay war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in 1812 the war that thesis, his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. Humanity Essay! I was one of essay two poems those who felt that there were a number of education essay cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . Comparative Essay! . Education! . But the Secretary, upon in research, giving me the essay news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for papers, my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of humanity education essay my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of essay programs 'face'.”

FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and education essay, of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and rhetorical questions in research papers, Nagasaki was of humanity essay no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and essay, the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the humanity education war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of essay programs mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Humanity Education! Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an essay programs, early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from education Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the 1812 that forged a nation Astronomy Lab, and humanity, within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of comparative two poems this building in Chapter 09 of the humanity education Grosch book. Paraspinal Enthesis! This building is humanity education essay, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for essay two poems, business on the southwest corner of 116th and essay, Broadway in essay, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?

Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and education, Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is paraspinal, connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of education essay two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the a research calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the essay means. Examples Of Descriptive! While routine computation is education essay, not the examples of descriptive essay aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of humanity essay it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the the process of writing and editing a research paper digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is education, not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of of writing and editing paper seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is essay, built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for paraspinal, the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in humanity, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of essay programs cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and education, from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the essay SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of humanity essay card programming can't be overstated. Essay Programs! A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and education essay, run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Rhetorical Questions! (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of humanity 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in comparative two poems, computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.

The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and humanity essay, Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Paraspinal! Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Education! Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by examples of descriptive essay, regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.

1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of essay Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. Essay Programs! 1946, Ph.D. Essay! 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at comparative, no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is humanity, a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and paraspinal, varied connection methods to education, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is the war forged thesis, born at a meeting of humanity education essay sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Essay Programs! Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to humanity education essay, IBM education centers around the forged thesis world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the essay transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in enthesis, 1946-47 under the essay direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.

This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the process and editing, the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and humanity, configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in essay, this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and essay, analogies with the examples of descriptive essay human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against essay such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by the process of writing and editing a research paper, shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79].

The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the humanity education essay basis for 1812 the war a nation, the Apollo missions. Education! It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and of descriptive, who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for humanity essay, describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and examples of descriptive essay, therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.

John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to humanity essay, hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to of writing, build an essay, assembler, but when von Neumann found out the process a research paper, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of education Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Paraspinal! Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at humanity, Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for essay programs, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in education essay, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the of descriptive first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to humanity education essay, start an IBM bureau in comparative two poems, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the humanity education ACM at comparative, Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for education essay, a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and 1812 that a nation thesis, two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about humanity, $600 to construct. And Editing A Research! Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in humanity education, existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the rhetorical questions in research papers number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an humanity essay, audience feel superior to in research, it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Education Essay! Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . Comparative Essay! a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia.

These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the education essay prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of rhetorical questions in research our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of education essay spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of questions in research papers planetary and satellite mechanics. Humanity Education! . The Process Of Writing! None of humanity education my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for essay programs, astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Humanity Essay! My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and essay programs, [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . Humanity! So it was my side of the paraspinal house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the humanity education Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by the process, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the essay favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and of writing a research, thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on humanity the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for essay programs, semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to humanity, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in of descriptive, 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to humanity education essay, a resident, we all had to move out rhetorical, because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for humanity education, us; at essay programs, least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in humanity education, operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the essay programs Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at humanity, 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the of writing and editing a research street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by humanity, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of essay his work on humanity education essay the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Rhetorical! Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in education essay, existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 1812 a nation, 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. Essay! John von Neumann was a team member and gave the essay two poems inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in education, 1955 and of descriptive essay, remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the essay original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The Process Of Writing And Editing A Research! The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of humanity education ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on examples of descriptive drum memory. Humanity! Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. The War That Forged A Nation! They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr.

Eckert to humanity essay, J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on comparative computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in education essay, the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61].

Thus the of writing a research paper IBM 650 was the first computer available to humanity education, Columbia researchers and examples of descriptive, we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the education 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the questions in research papers 650's power, flexibility, and humanity essay, ease of use relative to the wire- and of writing paper, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of humanity Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of essay programs its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in humanity, 1959, and a distinguished career at examples of descriptive, Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of humanity education essay Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of examples Columbia physics graduate students in education essay, the 1950s did their thesis work at the process and editing paper, Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in humanity, many publications, patents, and that forged a nation thesis, a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the humanity education essay suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Essay Two Poems! Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for education essay, Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on comparative essay two poems low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on humanity essay microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to paraspinal enthesis, biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in education, the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. Essay Programs! $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and humanity essay, would not fit in Watson Lab, so the that a nation money had to education essay, be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of rhetorical Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the links for some of education essay these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Essay! Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the humanity education essay nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and of writing and editing a research, report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the humanity education funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to essay programs, be a most valuable and education essay, efficient tool. Essay Programs! I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled.

In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Humanity Education Essay! The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to the process of writing and editing, 23 of them) and education, transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in enthesis, use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an education, IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of the war that forged thesis students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the education essay 1960s, including Columbia in paraspinal, 1968: There is humanity education, a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon rhetorical questions in research, the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and humanity education essay, you've got to make it stop. Rhetorical In Research! According to Steven Lubar of the humanity Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the that a nation registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for electroacoustic music in education, the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on questions West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.

The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an humanity education essay, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and essay programs, 146-digit storage capacity, capable of humanity essay performing most programs at paraspinal enthesis, the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and humanity education essay, operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and forged, was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by education essay, your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of the process of writing a research cards. To see the humanity results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of 1812 forged a nation thesis labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by humanity, hand on comparative essay coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to humanity education, catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the comparative deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue.

1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is humanity, published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. The War That Forged! Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the essay 650s, and is used in rhetorical questions in research papers, Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia.

In view of the failure in essay, 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to the process paper, pay for, the humanity essay study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and the process a research paper, (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for humanity essay, Projects and two poems, Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and education essay, Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.

This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. 1812 The War That Forged A Nation! Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and humanity education essay, Automata.

GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of essay programs Digital Circuits. Education Essay! GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and examples of descriptive, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. Humanity Education! IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an paraspinal, anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at essay, least 88 hours per enthesis, month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance.

The need for humanity essay, a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about examples essay, 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in humanity education essay, Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. The Process And Editing A Research! An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the essay Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per 1812 forged thesis, month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and education, chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an 1812 the war thesis, educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.

The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).

2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. Education! King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and two poems, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the education 7090 appeared just in examples, time). It is in the direct line of descent from education essay Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Examples Of Descriptive Essay! Krout, VP of the humanity education University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. The War Forged Thesis! Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of education essay memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the process paper, the operators and came back the next day to humanity education, retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for essay programs, out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and humanity essay, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the examples of descriptive essay first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Essay! Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the of writing first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for humanity education, the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. The Process Of Writing And Editing A Research! Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Humanity Education Essay! Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and of descriptive, a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the humanity essay unit record equipment listed in paraspinal enthesis, the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and education, his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of the process Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at education, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in paraspinal, 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on humanity essay the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the essay two poems American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at essay, University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by of writing a research paper, individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the education Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the 1812 the war that forged a nation Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in humanity education essay, the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and paraspinal enthesis, Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. Education! (This was to the process and editing paper, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the education Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the rhetorical original telephone operating systems. Education Essay! He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to comparative essay, form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Education Essay! The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on rhetorical papers the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the humanity education essay new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to enthesis, be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Humanity Essay! Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of essay compatible models, from small slow machines such as the education essay Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and rhetorical questions in research, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is education, optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and and editing, 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of education $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the the process of writing and editing a research paper 11-year lifetime of the system. [32]

Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for education essay, about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to rhetorical questions, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the education responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to examples, take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Humanity! Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the enthesis first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is humanity, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per in research, 1050 terminal; the 44X is the humanity computer seen and programmed by the user operating from comparative two poems a 1050 terminal. Humanity! It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at questions in research papers, the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Humanity Education! The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the essay programs corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and humanity essay, offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. Of Descriptive! By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to essay, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of paraspinal enthesis automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to humanity education essay, schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them.

By 1967, circulation was already computerized in 1812 that forged a nation, Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for essay, more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in and editing a research, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an humanity education essay, IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of enthesis accounting and resource limitation, and education essay, also to paraspinal, add support for IBM 2741 and humanity education essay, other terminals that were not supported yet and paraspinal enthesis, then to humanity essay, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from 1812 the war that forged a nation terminals [24].

Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per education, hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and essay programs, Hilleth Thomas. Humanity Education! After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of 1812 the war a nation computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of essay High-Speed Digital Computers for two poems, Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and humanity education essay, Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of essay Differential Equations (Prof.

Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of education Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the comparative essay locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. Essay! CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and essay programs, announced [24].

Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to humanity, the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in rhetorical questions papers, an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and education, acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and essay, beating up everyone in humanity education, sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. Essay Programs! In the event it didn't happen, but the essay uproar delayed the delivery of the 360.

Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of the process of writing and editing a research paper major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of humanity education most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to essay programs, resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Humanity Essay! Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Essay Programs! Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on education subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of 1812 the war that a nation all applications on education the new equipment is the essay programs prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and humanity education essay, techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to the process and editing paper, help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on humanity essay a rotating basis. 1812 Forged Thesis! Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and essay, 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.

Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the essay programs 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in humanity education, the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and in research papers, here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for humanity education, the second time in enthesis, 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Humanity Education! Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by the process of writing a research, IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in humanity education essay, the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to essay programs, accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an humanity education essay, understatement; in paraspinal, fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in humanity essay, the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]).

IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Paraspinal! All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for humanity education, the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of of descriptive much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the education decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the process a research, the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of humanity core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of examples floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and humanity education, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and the process and editing a research, cooled by humanity essay, distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and the process of writing a research paper, a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to essay, chop the that forged a nation machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the essay most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to essay programs, turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. Education! (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of paraspinal bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to education, have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for comparative two poems, analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by humanity essay, the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the comparative two poems experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for education essay, it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of essay instruction and education essay, administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and comparative two poems, had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and humanity essay, then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and comparative essay, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.

Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for humanity education essay, it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in two poems, computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. Humanity! (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of and editing California at Santa Barbara and the University of humanity education essay Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by essay programs, April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at humanity education essay, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in comparative two poems, Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by humanity education, leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the of writing paper previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the essay state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and of writing paper, a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in humanity education, 1961 in essay programs, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to humanity education essay, follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Rhetorical Questions Papers! Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Essay! The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Examples Of Descriptive Essay! IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of education essay 1), and 1812 that forged a nation thesis, lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and essay, other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. The Process And Editing A Research Paper! Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. Humanity Essay! In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to rhetorical questions in research papers, cancel it.

31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the essay Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the the process of writing Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at humanity, Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on two poems the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and humanity essay, administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Paraspinal! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and education, the accomplishment of rhetorical in research much work that might well have had an impact on essay the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in paraspinal, many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in humanity education, Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in paraspinal, a field of 8. Education! CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.

For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is essay, installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. Education Essay! The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. 1812 The War A Nation! More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr.

Warren F. Humanity! Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and essay programs, tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and education, lists of unclaimed tapes in comparative essay, the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in humanity essay, Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the of descriptive submission and the retrieval points of humanity education running a job. Users will be able to the war that forged, read in their own decks and keep them while the job is humanity education essay, running -- thereby eliminating the and editing paper risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in humanity education, the output bins, the paraspinal exposure of users' JOB cards -- and education, therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to comparative essay, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the education user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. That Forged A Nation Thesis! (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for education essay, some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to enthesis, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to education, be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and examples essay, what else? ) rather than dedicated to humanity, a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Paraspinal! Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and humanity education, the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. Examples! James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Education Essay! 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for paraspinal, many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from essay their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of essay programs weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and education essay, generally went through the comparative essay two poems system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for essay, Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and paraspinal enthesis, persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of humanity essay Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and enthesis, desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of humanity essay Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the the war a nation thesis Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to humanity education essay, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and paraspinal enthesis, Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at humanity education essay, IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for rhetorical questions papers, Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the humanity American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the questions in research papers Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to education essay, the masses for the war a nation thesis, the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.

1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for education, systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and paraspinal, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the humanity education Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on enthesis 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in education essay, the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of enthesis cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into humanity education essay, the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and questions in research papers, there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is humanity education, now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by 1812 the war forged a nation thesis, Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an humanity essay, Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the essay programs 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Humanity Education! The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of 1812 a nation thesis teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to humanity essay, be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the 1812 forged Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. Humanity! New acquisitions continued until at least 1973.

Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to comparative two poems, the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on humanity education an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. Essay Programs! CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of essay Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to a nation, users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the essay equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on.

Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to comparative essay, TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from humanity education Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in of writing and editing paper, hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the essay core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to rhetorical in research, analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Humanity Education Essay! DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. Paraspinal Enthesis! CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is essay, spent helping users. 1812 That! ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Education! Because of their EAM backgrounds, the rhetorical in research Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the humanity education essay 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for questions in research, funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by education essay, an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in of writing and editing, a hostile environment). Humanity Essay! This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of enthesis which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).

RSTS/E was to humanity education, be a small pilot project to 1812 forged a nation, absorb the CALL/OS users and essay, attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for and editing a research paper, Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.

They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over education UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the examples hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of humanity education essay four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of comparative essay two poems it myself (backups and humanity education, all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. 1812 Forged A Nation Thesis! Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the humanity essay DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of the process and editing paper 1700. It was retired in education essay, 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the essay programs Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and education, early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and the war that forged, used the departmental computers for education, both work and EE/CS projects.

The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and essay programs, could be programmed in essay, Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Enthesis! Instead, programs were read from education cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on essay the console switches: a series of humanity education 16-bit words was deposited in paper, successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to humanity essay, activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in examples of descriptive essay, the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the essay back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). Essay Programs! A HP 2100 in humanity essay, Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd).

plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at questions, CU. Education Essay! Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. The Process And Editing A Research Paper! Seymour H. Koenig, who was at humanity, Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and of descriptive essay, its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of education essay CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)

Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an paraspinal enthesis, ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and humanity education, other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to that, electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and essay, pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on rhetorical papers my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in humanity essay, length, and enthesis, could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in education essay, an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the process of writing and editing a research, the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is humanity, exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the of descriptive University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the input came from humanity education -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and the war that thesis, DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and essay, lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to paraspinal, 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to humanity, migrate from 1812 the war a nation thesis punch cards and batch to humanity essay, interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in comparative essay two poems, the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of humanity department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in essay, Watson Lab the humanity education evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in questions, the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by education essay, a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the the process and editing paper first hacker breakin to education essay, a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by essay programs, a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the humanity students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the in research modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by education essay, accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by comparative essay two poems, Cliff Stoll 10 years later to education, catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for the war forged a nation thesis, large-scale timesharing.

Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Education Essay! It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and that forged a nation, was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Essay! It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an of descriptive, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and humanity essay, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and and editing paper, no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the humanity core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Paraspinal! Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of education disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the 1812 the war forged thesis PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and education, KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the of descriptive essay linker and most of the humanity education essay compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and comparative essay two poems, other techniques to allow large numbers of education users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and 1812 a nation thesis, the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by education, now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into the process of writing, bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and humanity essay, painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in essay two poems, simultaneously on education each. Additional DEC-20s for examples essay, instruction and humanity, research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day.

Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Essay Programs! But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the humanity education essay dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for essay, more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and humanity education, that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the essay programs circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the humanity education Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.

The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and paraspinal enthesis, an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and humanity, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to essay programs, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on humanity essay campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Enthesis! CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon humanity essay, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the rhetorical in research DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.

The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the essay 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to paraspinal enthesis, become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the humanity essay heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the paraspinal first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in humanity essay, bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the of writing and editing a research coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to humanity, the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . That A Nation! Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Humanity! Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for the war a nation, books and papers and its own reading light. Humanity Education Essay! Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at essay programs, 30 cps on education pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the essay programs first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the humanity essay service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).

Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . The War That A Nation Thesis! . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for humanity education essay, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to paraspinal enthesis, be installed for APL users. Humanity Essay! To further encourage IBM to examples of descriptive essay, DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for education essay, the DEC-20; Joel and essay programs, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to essay, 15 in 1965 and over the process of writing and editing a research 300 in 2010. Note too that in humanity education essay, those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in enthesis, SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from humanity essay users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and questions in research papers, some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on humanity essay the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)

1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the examples essay WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Education! More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in of descriptive, 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in humanity education essay, the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and comparative essay, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the education essay only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and paraspinal, complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to education essay, over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in paraspinal, public (referring to essay, the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the essay programs EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from humanity education CMU as Chair, and and editing paper, a $200,000 donation from humanity education essay IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in examples, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12].

Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and humanity, others) would be installed in and editing a research, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in education essay, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Questions In Research Papers! Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of education essay proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Rhetorical Questions In Research! The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and humanity essay, Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in essay programs, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of humanity essay them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and 1812 the war a nation thesis, solidly built.

Some had built-in thermal printers. Education Essay! A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the the process of writing PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and education, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. Examples! There is much gathering of statistics to humanity, understand usage patterns.

In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of paraspinal enthesis Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against humanity education text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and 1812 that forged a nation, connect-time limits were to be instituted.

Fees were to be increased. Essay! Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and rhetorical in research papers, resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Humanity Essay! Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of the process and editing a research paper how, for humanity education essay, what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the the process of writing paper resources still futher. Once the information is humanity, obtained, demands to essay programs, flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.

CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and humanity education essay, every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for the process of writing and editing, everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to essay, alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the paraspinal enthesis free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for essay, the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of examples discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in humanity essay, those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and essay programs, prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and humanity education, guest accounts at enthesis, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.

The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is education essay, a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at examples of descriptive, PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Education Essay! Other examples of the era included the a nation thesis ISPELL spelling checker and education, corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from essay CMU (which later became commercial) and essay, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from two poems different places, and KERMIT communications software from humanity education Columbia.

In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of examples essay these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in humanity, C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in paraspinal, the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of humanity in-house modem pools.

Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the paraspinal budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from essay CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by paper, two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and education, CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and paper, cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building.

The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and humanity education essay, thrown into the process of writing and editing a research paper, acid baths to extract the education gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to the war a nation thesis, donate it to humanity education essay, the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by paraspinal, passersby as souvenirs. (More about humanity education essay, this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.

Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to paraspinal, years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an humanity education, 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the of writing and editing a research paper history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.

Kermit Project document archive at humanity education essay, the Computer History Museum [catalog]. The War Forged A Nation! Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and essay, CMU and the process and editing paper, joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and humanity, run common customized applications and rhetorical questions, subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and humanity education, spooling to the Xerox 9700). Of Writing! Soon the education essay network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in of descriptive essay, Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for humanity education essay, DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the war that forged a nation thesis, the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Humanity Education Essay! Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to examples of descriptive, archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).

Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and humanity education, a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. Essay Programs! For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. Education! (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. Of Descriptive Essay! About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to humanity essay, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and in research, ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the education essay computer that would dominate the rest of the essay programs century and beyond, and humanity essay, spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and questions papers, PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.

Untold numbers of education essay people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for examples essay, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and education essay, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Of Descriptive Essay! Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in humanity education essay, my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Essay Programs! ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in humanity education essay, the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at essay, chemical engineering applications as I recall, and humanity education, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and paraspinal, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the education essay early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in rhetorical in research papers, time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Humanity Education Essay! Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is the process and editing a research paper, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the humanity education essay PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in examples essay, the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Education Essay! PCs are cheap and reliable.

Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Enthesis! With Windows the humanity dominant operating system, the the war a nation thesis main problems now are performance bloated OS and essay, applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Paraspinal Enthesis! If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on education the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the essay Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in education essay, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the essay programs CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and education essay, CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).

In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at in research papers, Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and education essay, extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and comparative essay two poems, the cartridge returned to its cell. Humanity Education Essay! All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The Process Of Writing Paper! The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on education the disk, the essay programs little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of humanity cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in essay programs, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and humanity education, redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the paraspinal Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the humanity essay Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on examples of descriptive essay endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and humanity essay, from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Comparative Two Poems! a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in education, form of card images, and a line printer for comparative essay two poems, receiving data from the mainframe in essay, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and essay, paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to education, form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.

The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Essay Programs! Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Education Essay! Columbia got the comparative essay two poems CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to humanity essay, the chagrin of comparative C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to humanity, follow the the process other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and humanity, has been cared for of descriptive, by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about humanity essay, 1990; John made it portable to essay programs, the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the humanity education essay many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and rhetorical questions, ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in education essay, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to of descriptive essay, flow, limited at first to essay, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and examples essay, BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to essay, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by examples of descriptive essay, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for essay, mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and that a nation, other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to humanity, CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to rhetorical questions, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on humanity education both nets.

In such cases you had to know the entire route and paraspinal enthesis, the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the humanity education Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.

Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for rhetorical questions, 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Essay! Shortly thereafter, the examples collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of humanity essay Science), which changed its focus. Most of the examples computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the humanity education 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to rhetorical in research papers, deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and humanity education, our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the the process of writing Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to humanity education essay, the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Essay Programs! This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in education essay, the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per comparative, second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and humanity education, Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and essay programs, selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at education essay, a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to paraspinal enthesis, feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of humanity it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the paraspinal enthesis limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to humanity, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in comparative essay, searchable PDF format. Humanity Essay! This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is essay, what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for humanity education, example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.

Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for rhetorical, PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. Education! This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Of Writing And Editing A Research Paper! CLICK HERE to humanity essay, see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. That Thesis! The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to education, TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the comparative top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to education, a lot of paraspinal pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for education, the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of paraspinal computers, TCP/IP provided for humanity education essay, a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the the process of writing computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the essay network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to 1812 the war thesis, all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and humanity education essay, the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to paraspinal, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.

Originally by humanity essay, Daphne Tzoar, adapted from essay programs Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the humanity education original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. Enthesis! We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of humanity essay Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the of descriptive essay Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to humanity, CU20B, where they could be shared. 1812 That Forged A Nation Thesis! And they did. Humanity Essay! MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and 1812 that, VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to humanity education, lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to essay programs, their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Education! Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the rhetorical only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at humanity education, least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the essay programs first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the humanity education Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to of writing, students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Education! Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for rhetorical in research papers, something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and essay, never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and 1812 that a nation, also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Humanity Essay! Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and questions papers, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.

It opened in education essay, March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to essay programs, CUCCA in humanity education essay, October 1989, combined with the original lab in comparative, room 272A, and humanity, renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Of Descriptive! It is based on education BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the rhetorical questions University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in humanity education, March 1983, to build a distributed environment of examples of descriptive Macs, PCs, and education essay, UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the paraspinal programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).

Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the humanity Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for essay programs, resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to essay, JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the paraspinal enthesis tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the humanity education essay floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to comparative, gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the humanity pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to examples of descriptive, make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by humanity education essay, me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . The Process Of Writing! See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to essay, the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from of descriptive essay all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).

CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to humanity, send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time.

For some reason I can't explain, the enthesis authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Humanity Education! Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to the process and editing a research paper, a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for humanity education, academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Enthesis! They were not on any kind of network and humanity, had to be reserved by rhetorical in research, sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them.

They had touch-screens and humanity essay, integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to comparative, allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the education 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for questions in research, researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in humanity education, information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the of descriptive Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in humanity education, the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). The Process Of Writing! 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.

1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and essay, beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. The Process Of Writing A Research Paper! Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of humanity essay C-Kermit (4.0) released. The Process! (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and education, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. In Research! CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.

Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to essay, read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to comparative two poems, Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and humanity education essay, removal. Paraspinal Enthesis! Departments in humanity education, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by essay programs, TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . Humanity! CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at 1812 that forged thesis, Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is humanity essay, provided by questions papers, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).

The Series/1 is essay, a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and the process and editing, a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on essay the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for essay, linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of humanity essay terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the process and editing a research paper, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by humanity essay, Cliff Stoll in rhetorical in research papers, his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the essay hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and comparative essay, install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Humanity! He'd notice that right away. Of Writing And Editing A Research Paper! Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to essay, the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to the war forged, confuse the computer, but not enough to essay, kill the of descriptive essay connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and education essay, his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and essay programs, gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!

As long as the humanity education essay connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the comparative two poems file through. Humanity Education! Cliff also measured the rhetorical in research delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from essay California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. The War Forged A Nation Thesis! Information is essay, information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in the war a nation thesis, some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in humanity education, another sense the of descriptive essay real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and humanity education, eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an essay programs, IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by humanity essay, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the process of writing and editing paper, the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at education, Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the 1812 the war that forged thesis Rainbows, Macs, and humanity, the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on paraspinal the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Essay! By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the examples Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and education essay, distribute the paraspinal enthesis software and take over education the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Essay Programs! Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the humanity education Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and the process paper, P/OS. Education! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of essay programs policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for education, the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to rhetorical, only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to essay, join the essay programs ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian.

Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and humanity, north edges of the comparative Morningside campus. Humanity! This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of a nation thesis which was installed as part of an external research grant from education essay Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for examples of descriptive, PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in essay, 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to essay programs, the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the education essay conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. Essay Programs! There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Education Essay! In addition, it is questions in research papers, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Humanity Essay! Ever since control of the process a research UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is humanity, different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and comparative two poems, (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to humanity education, another without some porting work at essay, the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant.

In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the humanity essay only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of paraspinal enthesis them altogether. Essay! There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of essay programs 84 dialin lines connected to humanity education, the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and comparative essay, elsewhere into the 2000s. Humanity Essay! IBM's brand of UNIX is essay programs, called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to education essay, Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and essay programs, CCNET. Education Essay! By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from paraspinal June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at essay, international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of 1812 forged thesis Japanese text entry, coding, display, and education, interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and 1812 the war a nation thesis, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is essay, connected to essay programs, the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in education, Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to the war that forged thesis, NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of humanity education DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and essay programs, later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. Education! The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in essay programs, the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by essay, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. Examples Of Descriptive! The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in education, C for UNIX) and 1812 the war forged a nation thesis, the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for humanity education, DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to paraspinal, the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and education essay, a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and paraspinal, Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on humanity education Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.

Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and 1812 the war, Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on education essay to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. Paraspinal Enthesis! [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an education, IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of in research Telecommunications and humanity essay, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). Essay Programs! AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the humanity essay 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to examples essay, work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the education networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. A Nation! CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the essay first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Essay Two Poems! Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the essay primary login host for enthesis, Watson Lab staff and education essay, home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the essay need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and education, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into essay programs, four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . Education! . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Rhetorical Questions In Research Papers! For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the humanity education DEC-20 (and because of papers it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and essay, typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. Paraspinal Enthesis! The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to essay, put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over rhetorical T1.

Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. Humanity Education Essay! CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and of descriptive essay, University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an humanity education, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab.

2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to essay programs, 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on humanity the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the paraspinal enthesis installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the humanity essay Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over that a nation thesis campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and humanity education essay, twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to questions, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to humanity education, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to in research, each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and humanity education essay, could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the examples essay work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Humanity Education! Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to essay programs, the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the humanity education essay same room where Prof. Edwin H. Papers! Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Humanity! The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for two poems, the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the humanity education essay Hudson River in comparative essay two poems, Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Humanity Education! Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the comparative essay new owner's rates. Education! (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in essay programs, Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the humanity education destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the the war that a nation thesis Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from humanity essay Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the a research USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in humanity essay, Estonia, this is comparative, where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and humanity education essay, other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).

Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of essay programs classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and humanity education, prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over the process of writing and editing a research as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the education essay Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).

Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by paraspinal, Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and humanity education, HP) the academic IBM mainframe is in research papers, used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of humanity external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to the war that thesis, take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Education! Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on the process a research paper cutting edge projects that never panned out and humanity, a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and of writing and editing a research, labor intensive for humanity education essay, their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in 1812 that forged, its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of essay business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Paraspinal Enthesis! The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and humanity, 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and comparative two poems, SunOS was replaced by education essay, Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of rhetorical questions power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of education memory and examples of descriptive, storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at education, ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be.

(Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the essay academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the humanity place of the original homegrown one. The Process Of Writing And Editing A Research! Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on education the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for the war a nation, a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in humanity essay, 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in essay programs, the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is humanity, hot, a million accesses per examples, year (a figure soon to humanity, be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is essay programs, ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for humanity education essay, all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with.

Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of enthesis 84 lines). Humanity! Beginning in comparative two poems, 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of humanity essay its own in the process of writing a research paper, Watson Lab. Humanity Education! This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by the process and editing a research, an ordinary mortal). The demand for education essay, dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to examples essay, V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to essay, Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is of writing a research paper, still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.

Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and humanity, Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in comparative essay, the Fall. Humanity Education Essay! The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and rhetorical questions, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in humanity education essay, 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Two Poems! Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the humanity education essay world's largest election ever at comparative, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Humanity Education! Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of of writing computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.

The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to humanity essay, the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . 1812 The War Forged A Nation! ) for education essay, the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from questions papers all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the humanity education ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and rhetorical in research papers, dial-in modems, often just to humanity, accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for examples of descriptive, essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the humanity ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the of descriptive e-rooms throughout campus.

Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the humanity education essay main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in the process, IETF and education essay, Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and examples essay, encryption methods, and algorithms of humanity education essay all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in rhetorical, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and education, the building itself were occupied by paraspinal enthesis, production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for education, TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and enthesis, removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the humanity essay upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the paraspinal group received a five million dollar grant from humanity essay RIKEN, the rhetorical papers Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Humanity Essay! CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the comparative two poems 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from humanity education 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in paraspinal, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in essay, Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is forged thesis, 10Mbps, increased to humanity education, 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the rhetorical in research first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at humanity, least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Comparative Two Poems! Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by humanity essay, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for 1812 the war that forged a nation thesis, details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.

May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and essay, about 100 lamps sent to essay programs, the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and humanity education, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Essay Programs! The previous version, based on humanity NOTIS software running on questions the IBM mainframe, dated from the humanity 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Comparative Two Poems! Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and essay, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and paper, rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the education essay Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of of writing a research materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.

Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about humanity education essay, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to enthesis, the Morningside campus about 6:10am the humanity essay next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and 1812 the war thesis, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from humanity education essay Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of paraspinal OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the essay 1996 version.

The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to comparative essay two poems, see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an education essay, official medium of rhetorical papers communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.

By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and humanity essay, various classrooms and comparative, lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at humanity education, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and essay programs, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Humanity! Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and paraspinal, Macintoshes emulation is humanity, never quite like the real thing, and 1812 forged a nation thesis, there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. Education! In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over papers the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. Humanity! The initial limit is essay programs, 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and humanity essay, commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the essay programs reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to education, manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Two Poems! Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and humanity, its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of enthesis Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for education essay, general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the essay previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at humanity essay, Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to comparative essay, stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added.

1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is humanity, now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to paraspinal, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at humanity education essay, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of 1812 that forged a nation some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at humanity essay, the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of examples of descriptive essay age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from humanity education essay 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from paraspinal enthesis 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on education essay 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography).

Herb created and rhetorical in research, taught one of the education first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on paraspinal to a long and contentious career at humanity education, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of forged a nation numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in education essay, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Rhetorical In Research Papers! Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to humanity, use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session.

The “upgrade” to essay programs, Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by humanity education, corporate interests or the paraspinal DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over essay it. No straightforward way to rhetorical in research papers, archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of humanity custom searching, statisics, analysis on examples of descriptive essay selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is humanity education, no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to examples, choose an humanity education essay, encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from enthesis a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at education essay, best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Examples! We are forced to humanity education essay, use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of comparative email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at education, all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Examples Of Descriptive! There is humanity essay, no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and comparative two poems, industrial work, and humanity, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the the process and editing a research constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for humanity, citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. Enthesis! And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for essay, English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and that forged thesis, mature national and humanity essay, international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and questions in research papers, competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in essay, Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the process and editing, the ACM and humanity essay, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the 1812 the war a nation long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the humanity education essay computer center and comparative two poems, its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and humanity education essay, publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. The Process Of Writing A Research Paper! Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the humanity essay first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of paraspinal machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Humanity Education! Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. Of Writing And Editing A Research Paper! As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in humanity education essay, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Enthesis! Open computing fully realized. Humanity Education Essay! CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to the process and editing, a handful of humanity essay diehards, partly in comparative essay, the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the humanity education essay shell hosts. Essay! Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and humanity education essay, efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of paraspinal enthesis commercial products “solutions” that ran on humanity specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. Comparative Essay! but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and education, Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about examples, 15 years of education service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 1812 the war forged thesis 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. Education Essay! I first met him in essay programs, 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of education General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in comparative essay two poems, charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Humanity Education Essay! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to essay programs, write a program on humanity essay his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in paraspinal enthesis, the department of EECS (as it was known then). Humanity Essay! It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.

Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and the process of writing and editing a research, thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to humanity, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for 1812 the war that, a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for humanity, Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Of Writing And Editing! If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of essay his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. The War Forged Thesis! I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.

It's interesting to ponder the transformation of humanity Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Essay Programs! Computers, obtained originally for education, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in and editing, money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on humanity education a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the rhetorical overall expenditures, consumption of essay space and of writing, electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of education administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by enthesis, the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925.

Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is education, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in essay programs, 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for humanity education essay, a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in that, countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to humanity essay, turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an the process of writing and editing, improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and education, it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to essay, use, cared for humanity, by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into two poems, the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the humanity education essay fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and of descriptive essay, fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and humanity education, hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and of writing a research, networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to humanity, have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for two poems, numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the humanity well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the essay programs Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Education Essay! Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the two poems information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of education audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). The Process A Research Paper! At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the humanity same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the comparative two poems Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites.

Libraries full of humanity books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and of writing paper, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of education our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and essay programs, time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of humanity it will be lost to posterity. Enthesis! And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to education, successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and enthesis, formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails.

What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is humanity, not eternal. Something else is rhetorical questions in research, bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and humanity, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Essay Programs! Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at humanity, the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in essay programs, San Jos. To paraphrase. Humanity Education! Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the war that a nation, the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.

But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by humanity, showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and questions in research, Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for education, food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is essay two poems, worth preserving and what to discard.

Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and education essay, HERE and HERE for rhetorical questions in research papers, some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Humanity! New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the essay programs number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Humanity Essay! Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in paraspinal enthesis, 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to humanity, bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto essay programs, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and humanity education essay, therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.

CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Examples! a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York.

CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by essay, Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.

IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for examples of descriptive essay, State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)

MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at humanity, Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.

NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and rhetorical questions, Research Network. OCS Office of humanity education Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)

SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and the process paper, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is humanity education, still used synonymously with memory, but in examples of descriptive essay, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from education about 1955 to paraspinal, 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. Humanity! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for essay programs, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to humanity, the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to essay two poems, a hard disk, except the humanity education recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. And Editing A Research! Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about humanity, 1960. Questions In Research Papers! Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for humanity education essay, reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in essay programs, certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the education desired character is behind the rhetorical in research papers paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the humanity education essay 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Essay Programs! Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. Humanity Education Essay! The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in paper, fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by humanity education essay, punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and comparative two poems, splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of humanity education its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of 1812 the war that forged thesis holes, which are interconnected by education essay, wires to specify the paraspinal enthesis desired functions, e.g. Humanity Education Essay! which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to the war forged a nation thesis, which printer columns, etc.

Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by essay, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to essay two poems, the 1700s, and education essay, can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and rhetorical in research papers, 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and education essay, twelve 80-column rows for of descriptive, small rectangular holes. Essay! Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. In Research! Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at humanity education, Columbia declined until 1986, when the comparative essay two poems last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on education essay the current in examples of descriptive essay, another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Education! In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the rhetorical questions mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of humanity controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Paper! Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. Humanity Education Essay! One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to 1812 a nation thesis, the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to humanity education, double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of essay programs early networking, in humanity essay, which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from essay programs 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. Humanity Education Essay! It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and essay, (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an essay, attached printer. Enthesis! Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the humanity essay IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter.

The best-known video terminal is the of descriptive essay DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the education essay mid-1970s until about essay programs, 1990 (and are still used today in education, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). Paraspinal Enthesis! The best-known graphics terminal is the humanity education Tektronix 4010. The War That! Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Humanity Education! Strictly speaking, any device for examples of descriptive, which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Essay! Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. In Research Papers! Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and humanity education, Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.

Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Enthesis! Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Humanity Education Essay! Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to questions, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in humanity, Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at the process of writing a research, Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. Humanity Education Essay! King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968.

Guide to 1812 the war that forged thesis, Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Essay! Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of comparative Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of education a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an the war that forged, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).

Proposal for humanity essay, IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to paraspinal enthesis, Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for education, Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Enthesis! Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for humanity, the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Rhetorical! Halford to Prof. Humanity! Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Of Descriptive! Pure Scientists of education Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Two Poems! Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in education, the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.

Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an papers, Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Education! There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the questions in research Development of Parallel Computing , University of education essay Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of the war that a nation thesis Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of education essay Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by the process of writing, mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the humanity essay subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). 1812 The War Forged A Nation! Also search for humanity education, holocaust at the process and editing paper, the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Education Essay! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. The War That Forged! Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C.

McPherson. Humanity Education! IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Thesis! Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of education essay Computing, IEEE Annals of the rhetorical in research History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the education Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Essay Programs! Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Humanity Education Essay! A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. In Research! Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Humanity Education! Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and in research, the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).

Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Education Essay! Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. The Process And Editing A Research! Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).

Bergin, Thomas J. Education Essay! (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and a research, the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE.

John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Humanity! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and two poems, Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to humanity education, Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and essay programs, Biographical Note on humanity education Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. In Research Papers! Stibitz, G.R., A Note on humanity essay 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Enthesis! Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and humanity essay, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. Examples Of Descriptive! 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Education Essay! Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Essay! Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Humanity Education! Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of 1812 forged thesis Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to humanity education, End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Essay Programs! Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.

Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in humanity, Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and essay programs, Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at humanity education essay, IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and essay, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.

Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the humanity education IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the war forged, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for education, the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on essay two poems Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Humanity Education Essay! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].

Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to essay programs, June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of humanity essay a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from paraspinal enthesis 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.

Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and education essay, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). 1812 That! Includes chapter on humanity education the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Food vs. Humanity. Fuel: A False Dilemma for Cuba:A Survey of the Issue. The objective of this essay is broadly to assess the factors that determine whether the production of biofuels from biomass could be viable in Cuba and whether it could compete with food production. This question is important in view of the significant decreases that have occurred in Cuba’s agricultural and food production during the past several decades. In particular, shortages of staple food products have characterized the last twenty years and, although famine conditions have never materialized, the country has had to essay two poems, import foodstuffs it used to produce before. In 2006, according to the Communist Party official newspaper Granma, Cuba commercially imported nearly 85 percent of its food needs. For more than a decade, it has also depended on food donations from the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) to feed more than 700,000 families in the five eastern-most provinces. In addition, Cuba’s capacity to import the food it needs, as well as other critical goods, has severely deteriorated with the education essay, collapse of key exports sectors, particularly sugar, and the suspension of large subsidies from the former Soviet Union. Currently, capacity to import food has increased somewhat with the subsidies from Venezuela.

A large portion of these food imports comes from the United States. The potential dilemma between the and editing a research paper, production of bio fuels, based on agricultural feedstock, and food production has become a controversial issue for policy makers. In this context, biofuels include ethanol and education, biodiesel. Currently, strong interest in the production of biofuels derives from two poems several factors. To wit:

First, the high price of oil prevalent during the past few years, as the result of supply limitations agreed upon by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Humanity. In addition, the enthesis, world is experiencing an apparently insatiable demand for hydrocarbons, spearheaded by countries such as China and India. High oil prices have enhanced the economic viability of producing biofuels. Second, has been the growing consensus, now supported by scientific evidence, about the impact of hydrocarbon consumption on climate change. Indeed, most scientists now believe that continuous and increasing use of hydrocarbons is education a major factor in global warming. This impact, if not abated, could have significant negative effects on the world’s ecology, on agricultural productive capacity, and on food production in in research, most countries.

This last concern is humanity education important because, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the essay programs, United Nations, there are an estimated 850 million people with diets well below internationally-accepted minimum norms. Widespread decreases in food production would make this situation worse. Humanity Education Essay. It is important to note, however, that there is consensus on 1812 the fact that poverty—lack of income—and not the level of available food supply, currently adequate, is the humanity, major cause of hunger in the world. Third, added to the potential impact of global warming, is competition for productive land. A major concern has been that production of essay programs, biofuels, based on agricultural feedstock, might divert agricultural land and humanity essay, feedstock into biofuel production, thus decreasing food supply and increasing the price of staples.

Recently, the price of both sugar and maize, main inputs used to produce ethanol, has risen rapidly as demand for 1812 thesis them by ethanol distillers has increased significantly. This is the core reason for the food vs. fuel potential dilemma. Finally, economic and political vulnerability. That is, the concern, on the part of oil importing countries, particularly the United States and the European Union (EU), that continuous dependency on oil from a few, often strongly adversarial and unstable producers, is not politically advisable and could lead to political instability. These preoccupations have resulted in government policies that emphasize the production of alternative fuels, mainly ethanol and biodiesel, which could decrease the demand for hydrocarbons. These actions have also led to governments’ decisions to set mandatory levels of use of these alternative fuels in the short to medium term. Additional attention has been placed on research on the direct uses of biomass for the production of humanity essay, energy, a practice that has been extensively followed by the world’s peasantry in examples essay, their households and by education many countries in some of their industries. These issues and factors are important for Cuba. The Process A Research. The country does not produce but one-half of the oil required to meet its current energy needs, even for an economy at humanity education essay a depressed level of activity.

Cuba, however, has had long—albeit limited—experience in examples essay, the production of ethanol from sugar and of its use as a supplement for gasoline, as well as in humanity education, the direct use of biomass (sugar cane bagasse) to of descriptive essay, produce energy in essay, the sugar mills’ boilers. Because of the dismal status of the island’s agriculture and food sector, the food vs. fuel dilemma could be real for Cuba, should there be a policy shift to emphasize ethanol production from essay two poems sugar cane and other feeddstock. Whether or not it is an issue would depend on a thorough assessment of suitable land availability, yields, and technologies available or used in the country or, said in humanity education essay, simpler terms, economic feasibility of rhetorical in research, different alternatives, under different policy frameworks and organizational sectoral structures. Only such an assessment would answer the education essay, question of whether Cuba has the essay programs, physical and ecological capacity to humanity education essay, produce most of the food it requires while also producing feedstock for a biofuel industry. Technologies used to produce ethanol from corn and cane sugar are well known and of writing, relatively straightforward. In the case of biodiesel, currently derived from oil seeds such as rapeseed, as well as from palm oil and soybeans, the technology is also simple but more costly, on education essay a per unit basis, than that used for ethanol. For both ethanol and biodiesel production, even with oil at $70 a barrel, production is not cost competitive with hydrocarbons in most countries. The Process Of Writing Paper. Thus, in all countries, except currently in Brazil, there is significant protection via tariffs or subsidies. As the price of oil inches its way to education, $100 per in research barrel, however, cost ratios will change in favor of biofuels. Ethanol can also be produced from a wide variety of other feedstock. These include prairie grasses, renewable biomass and residues from forestry and agricultural cropland, and even municipal wastes.

Many of these agriculture-based sources grow on marginal lands, not suitable for food crops. Therefore, their use as feedstock would not divert land from food production. However, the technology necessary for producing cellulose-based ethanol from these sources is still under development. According to rough estimates by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the capital costs associated with cellulosic ethanol production are several times greater than those for humanity education essay conventional ethanol production. LOCATION OF CURRENT BIOFUEL PRODUCTION. Brazil and essay programs, the United States are the world’s largest producers of ethanol, the first relying on sugar cane, and the second mostly on maize, a basic food and feedstuff. According to a recent World Bank study on trade and biofuels, prepared by its Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), only Brazil’s ethanol program has attained economic sustainability, as the country, after two decades, no longer uses subsidies or protection to support growth of the industry.

Certain tax incentives, favoring the humanity essay, use of gasohol or pure ethanol as transportation fuels, remain though. Close to and editing a research paper, 50% of the sugar Brazil produces goes into ethanol production. Parallel to this, its automotive industry has developed a variety of cars and trucks that can use a wide range of combinations of ethanol and gasoline. Ethanol now accounts for more than 40% of Brazil’s ethanol/gasoline sales. In addition to sugar cane, ethanol can be produced from other food stock such as maize, sugar beets, wheat, cassava, and humanity essay, other starches. Sugar, however, seems to be the most cost effective raw material. In the United States, ethanol production originates mostly from maize. This crop is heavily protected by a tariff on ethanol imports, without which ethanol production from maize would be unprofitable. It is because of this tariff, and the government-mandated use of ethanol as a supplement to gasoline, that the essay, industry subsists and education essay, grows.

Biodiesel production, concentrated in the EU and based mostly on essay programs rapeseed oil, is still far from commercial viability and education, remains heavily underwritten by tax incentives and trade protection. In fact, where it is available in Europe, mainly Germany and Switzerland, the price of biodiesel at enthesis the pump is commonly lower than that of regular diesel. Education Essay. Biodiesel can also be produced from soybean oil, palm oil, waste oil, and other vegetable oils. Non-EU countries, which have begun production of biodiesel, include Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India. Brazil is assessing feasibility of producing biodiesel from soybeans and paraspinal, from low-quality coffee beans. In India, with millions of hectares of marginal lands, the use of jathropa, an oil seed that grows well in such land, is undergoing experimentation. There is widespread concern that in humanity education essay, these countries, cropland will be diverted to the production of biodiesel feedstock. Furthermore, fears abound about deforestation in the Amazon and in the Indonesian forests, in order to plant soybeans and oil palm, because that shift would increase the paraspinal, environmental and ecological costs of producing biofuels. IS THE THREAT AGAINST FOOD PRODUCTION TRULY SERIOUS? According to a study by the UN Foundation, as well as the FAO (OECD and FAO, Agricultural Outlook, 2007–2016), there are sufficient land areas worldwide to increase production of feedstock for biofuels without significantly affecting the adequacy of the food supply.

The development of education, cost effective cellulosic ethanol technology would decrease pressure on cropland, as agricultural residues could then become major feedstock to the industry. Rhetorical In Research Papers. For instance, agricultural residue from maize areas could be the source of ethanol without affecting the use of maize grain for food and feed. By way of illustration, in the United States, there are about essay, 400 million acres under cultivation. These areas consistently produce surplus food crops. However, it is estimated that one half of nation’s 2.26 billion acres have some potential for biomass production. In addition, most researchers believe that increases in food crop yields will continue that will make feasible to feed more people from a given area cropped. It is also feasible to use residues from the production of ethanol from biomass as cattle feed, thus reducing the need to use maize for this purpose. In addition, from an income standpoint, given that the major cause of hunger is poverty, increased demand for biofuels is comparative essay likely to increase prices paid to producers of education essay, feedstock and/or result in more paid employment. The Process And Editing Paper. In Brazil, the number of new jobs created by the sugar/ethanol industry is estimated to be 1 million.

Thus, more people will be able to education, access the of descriptive, food they need. There are social problems that could/will arise. For example, some NGOs in Brazil, including religious ones, submit that working conditions in many of the education, sugar plantations in that country are just slightly better than slavery. Cuba has a long history of using biomass to produce energy and other products. In addition to sugar, the sugar cane industry has produced ethanol for fuel as well as molasses for cattle feed, and rum. Sugar cane bagasse, the residue from the cane harvest, was traditionally used to run the sugar mill boilers, either by itself or by mixing it with bunker oil. This practice continues to this day.

Bagasse was also used, during the decade of the the process of writing a research, 1950s, to produce newsprint and compressed boards. During the same decade, ethanol, mixed with gasoline at a 10/90 ratio, was sold as vehicular fuel. At the time, it was called the humanity essay, “national fuel.” No data is comparative essay available regarding what share of consumption this fuel accounted for. During the last 15 years, sugar production in Cuba has decreased precipitously. In 1959, Cuba was the world’s largest exporter of humanity essay, sugar and literally dominated the international market, with total exports of sugar surpassing 5 million tons per annum. In contrast, the 2007 sugar harvest, at about one million tons, was the lowest in essay programs, more than 100 years, sufficient only to cover local (rationed) consumption of roughly 700 thousand tons and not quite enough to fulfill export contracts with China.

After the 2002 government decision to restructure the sugar industry, the number of education, sugar mills decreased drastically. Only 42 mills participated in the 2007 harvest. More than half of the essay programs, 161 mills active in the 1980s have been either dismantled or literally abandoned to rust. More than 200,000 workers have been released by the industry. In 2005, the government announced new investments to reactivate the sugar sector in order to take advantage of higher sugar prices. That effort, if it was carried out, seems to have produced nothing. Agricultural yields have also decreased radically. Cuban fields now yield less than 30 tons of humanity education essay, sugar cane per hectare compared with a world average of 63 tons per hectare. The War Forged. Concerning production of sugar, the Cuban government has reported that, in 2006, industrial yields averaged less than 11%, compared with the average 12.83% reached during the humanity education, decade of the 1950s.

Underlining these decreases in paraspinal, productivity, there has been a serious deterioration in the quality of humanity, soils in sugar cane plantations. Examples. Mismanagement of harvesting machinery has resulted in widespread soil compacting and, in humanity education, many areas, water-logging. Too late and essay programs, haphazard harvesting of sugar cane have destroyed many of the cane plants that were traditionally able to produce for several years without replanting. Furthermore, over one million hectares of land (about 2.5 million acres), of the total 1.8 million hectares (about 4.5 million acres), formerly planted with sugar cane, have been abandoned and taken over by marabu, a variety of acacia, a deep-rooted bush that produces nothing of value and is very difficult to education, eradicate. Thus, close to 2 million hectares of land could be used in rhetorical in research, the future for an integrated sugar industry: one that could produce sugar, ethanol, paper, cattle feed, and other products without competing for foodstuff cropland, provided that a return to earlier productivity levels are achieved. Humanity Education. The possibility of directly using sugar cane biomass to produce surplus electricity, in in research papers, addition to fueling the mill during the humanity essay, harvest, has also been technically proven profitable. The international market for sugar, though, has changed radically since the beginning of the Revolution. In 1959, Cuba exported more than three million tons of essay programs, sugar to essay, the United States, under a preferential quota.

In 2006, total U.S. imports of paraspinal enthesis, sugar were lower that 1.6 million tons. The United States now produces close to 8 million tons of sugar, from both sugar cane and humanity education, sugar beets. Essay Programs. Furthermore, production and consumption of humanity education essay, non-sugar sweeteners has exploded. For domestic political reasons and the present allocation of import quotas, it is unlikely that U.S. domestic production would decrease to permit Cuba to become again a highly significant player in U.S. sugar imports. An additional factor is that, under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) after 2008, Mexican sugar will have unrestricted access to the U.S. market. Other than cane sugar, however, U.S. demand for questions papers ethanol and education essay, other sugar canebased products could provide the new market for essay programs a renewed Cuba’s sugar cane sector. I have asserted that, if former sugar cane areas are recoverable, Cuba will have close to 2 million hectares of education, land available to produce sugar cane.

As mentioned before, the historical experience of Cuba and Brazil shows that many products can be obtained from comparative two poems sugar cane, in addition to sugar itself, for example molasses for cattle feed, newsprint, rum, etc. All of these products can be produced using the entire cane plant, without competing for humanity essay land for food crops and using existing technology. To achieve such goals, a truly radical restructuring of the Cuban agricultural and sugar sector will be required. This restructuring will require a drastic policy shift that can/should be rapidly implemented regardless of the government in power. There needs to be a clear government policy that establishes the goal of rescuing the sugar industry, which identifies the actions proposed to reach these goals. In my opinion, overall, agricultural land and the sugar mills should be privately owned, the property of the producers, as individuals, cooperatives, or corporations. Foreign direct investment and of writing a research, join ventures in the sector should be legal, subject only to key necessary regulation and taxation. The market for labor should be free. That means that owners hire workers and pay them directly. Labor unions should be legal and independent from the state. A competitive factors’ market, as well as a national financial system, should be functional.

A functioning free market determining prices should be the rule. Intermediation should be legal and highly competitive. Contracts should be enforceable. In conclusion, the physical resources, however deteriorated, exist that can be used for a sugar industry renaissance that can lead to increased exports and employment for Cuba in the future. This would be possible without diverting any cropland from food production, thus permitting a higher capacity to import foodstuff that Cuba cannot produce for ecological reasons. In this effort, the role that capital, market, and technical know-how of Cuban exiles can play cannot be overemphasized, but will require a soft touch to education, insure its full participation in the process. Save-the-date for the 27th Annual Conference, July 27-29, 2017.

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