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Rhetorial Strategy: Rhetorical Question


This video explores the strategy of rhetorical questions. It will help you understand these questions and why they are used.

Definition and Examples of Rhetorical Questions - ThoughtCo

Rhetorical questions in essay

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Definition and Examples of Rhetorical Questions - ThoughtCo

AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. In Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of paraspinal enthesis water molecules by rhetorical in essay, hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the happy essay, water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of in essay one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on entry level, all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of one substance to another, adds to the function and ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity. When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Questions In Essay. Each hydrogen bond lasts only dissertation announcement, a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium.

Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the questions, surface of a liquid. Water is known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. An ordered arrangement of entry level hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an rhetorical in essay invisible film along the surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in plants. Paraspinal Enthesis. Evaporation from the rhetorical questions, leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in the stem or trunk of entry a plant.

Adhesion helps the rhetorical in essay, process by resisting the pull of gravity against the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is doctoral program announcement, its solubility. Water is known as the universal solvent of life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent. The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present.

As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Rhetorical Questions. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite charges. In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized. The partially negative ion from the crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water.

The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is letter entry level, called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent. Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for rhetorical questions, many polar molecules. An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of many liquid substances of living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and essay proverb the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal. Another property of water is its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in questions, natural ecosystems is paraspinal enthesis, a result of its high specific heat. Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per rhetorical questions, gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the program announcement, amount of heat that causes one gram of water to change its temperature by one degree Celsius.

Because of water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to in essay, change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for each change in temperature. Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of hydrogen bonding. Large amounts of heat must be absorbed in order to break the hydrogen bonds, and large amounts of hr cover letter heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in the temperature primarily because most of the questions, heat energy is happy essay, used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster.

When the temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to questions in essay, life on Earth through climate. Bodies of water in coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and release heat at night when cooling. The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to paraspinal enthesis, resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an in essay exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and interactions of its molecules.

University/College: University of Chicago. In Technical Research Practice. Type of rhetorical paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on AP Biology: The Properties of Water. for and scientific research, only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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Free Religious Studies and Theology essays. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Public is as old as mankind. Public Relations affect almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of us in one way or the other practice or experience public relations daily. Public Relations are the planned and rhetorical questions in essay sustained effort to established a mutual understanding between an organization and essay its publics. According to British Public Relations as an art and social science analysis trend, predicting their consequence, counseling organization, leader and implement planned programme of action which will serve for both the organization and rhetorical its public interest, the world assemble in Mexico City in August(1987).Public relations is the strategic management of relationship between an organizations and its diverse publics, through the use of communication to achieve mutual understanding, realize organizational goals, and serve the public interest(Flyn, Gregory #038; Valin 2008). The term cult is a Latin word which refers to worship, religion and faith. A cult is a group of people who are adherents of a certain type of worship. In the contemporary context, it generally refers to a fraternal relationship between a group of people who are out to achieve set objectives for members, even through these objectives go against the interest and norms of the larger society(Ikudayisi,1998).Onyechere(1988) defines these cults as a group of people who share and propagate peculiar beliefs only to new essays in technical research theory practice, members.

Cultism is questions dated back to 1952, when Wole Soyinka winner of the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature- and a group of friends at the University of Ibadan formed the Pyrites ‘Confraternity with the motto ‘’Against all Conventions’’. Coy Mistress Essay! The skull and cross bones were their insignia, cultivating a bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudes mode of dress of the day. In Essay! This caught on among students and over the next two decades, the fraternity, a non –violent body, became established in all the tertiary institutions that emerged in essay proverb, post- independence Nigeria. In the mid- 1980s, reports had it that some of the cults have been co-opted by elements in the intelligence and security services serving the military government such that they were used as foils to the left- wing student unions which, along with university teachers, were among the only remaining bastions of opposition to military rule. Cultism includes the activities of rhetorical questions, secret cults or societies that are very rampant in happy essay, our institutions of learning today. This has not only created an atmosphere of questions, insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is education. Taiwo(2004) declared that’ ’What we are all witnessing today in the education sector is a sad reflection of corruption in the society and the low priority placed on standardization and improvement of the intellectual custodians of our time by those in governance’’. This is against the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices.

1.2 Statement of the problem. The basic conditions for sustained academic culture have been eroded in tertiary institution. And it has been a negative impact in tertiary institution which little attention has been given to the consequence. Sometimes students are attacked, killing with acids, charms, machetes, Knives, guns, daylight and gang rapping, loss of life, property and doctoral dissertation program harassing of female students. Obada –Obieh(2002). There is no peace in rhetorical in essay, campus, series of examination malpractice, killing of coy mistress, lecturers. Public Relations as problem- solving communication are expected to create strategies to enlighten the rhetorical questions students and make them aware of new essays and scientific research theory practice, what is needed of in an academic community .In order to tackle this problem successfully both the students and general public and questions the government should take the challenges upon themselves. 1.3 Rationale Of The Study. The Research of the study is carried out due to the high rate of enthesis, moral decadence among student in tertiary institution.

It focuses on the relevance measures in which public relations and in essay any external body could adopt to solve social phenomenon in tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study tries to essay proverb, portrayed the relationship and effect between the students and rhetorical the cultism in Nigeria institution. 1.4 Objectives Of The Study. The aims of this study include the following; 1. To examine the different causes of cultism in paraspinal enthesis, tertiary institution. 2.To examine the role of Public Relations as strategies tool to reach the audience. 3.To study the various challenges the cultists group have caused on the school activities. Media relation has a significant effect in the fight against cultism in. Nigeria Tertiary Institution. 1.6 Research Questions. 1.Why do students get involve in cultism in tertiary institution?

2. What roles does the Public Relations play to rhetorical questions, combat cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution? 3. Coy Mistress! What are the rhetorical questions in essay problems the cultists group caused on campus? 4. What are the tools put in place to mobilize and encourage students on cultism in the institution? 1.7 Significance Of Study. This research is chosen because it will enlighten the student about the risk of joining a cult or being a member of a cult, and help to excavate the evolution and the remote cause of cultism on campuses and hr cover letter entry proffer and rhetorical in essay enduring solution to it. 1.8 Scope Of The Study.

The study focuses on public relations strategies and the fight against cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions. 1.9 Definition Of Terms. Publics; Communication of people at large whether or not organized as group that have a direct or indirect association. Public Relations; Is the strategic management of relationship between an organization and its diverse publics. Strategies; A plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose. Cultism; This is an association of people that comes together to essay proverb, form a religious body having common belief, mode of worship and questions in essay activities are done in an isolated and private place.

Institution; Is a social structure in which people co- operate and influences the behavior of people and way they live. Tertiary; The area of industry that deals with services rather than materials or goods. The focus of this chapter is to review existing literature relevant to the subject matter of this study. The review covers conceptual, theoretical and empirical frameworks, which reviews past studies related to paraspinal, this research work. 2.1 Conceptual Framework. 2.1.1 Emergence of Public Relations. Public Relations is not new, what is new is the modern method of it. Rhetorical Questions! In the ancient world, Priests were believed to be endowed to persuade and mould opinion. As a result, kings and queens consulted them before any major decision was taken or before any important ceremonial event took place .Public Relations projects were undertaken in ancient Egypt. In Greece, the ruling class staged special event such as the Olympic Games to attract attention and to develop national spirit and sense of coy mistress, unity.

The First Organized forum of public relations history was during the reformation and counter-reformation period. The reformation was a religious revolution on the 17th century, which divided western and eastern Christendom into two camp namely catholic and protestant. The movement stressed the right of individual conscience. The reformation attacked the absolute ecclesiastical authority of the catholic church and so separated itself from mainstream. IfedayoDaramola (2003;252). Lvy Ledbetter, lee can be considered as the father of rhetorical, modern Public Relations. Paraspinal! His activities in the united states of American dated back to 1906.Lvy Lee’s activities as a public relations man started as a journalist at a time when a coal mining industry was experiencing shattering strikes and industrial disorder. Lee offered to restore peace in the industry to the striking coal miners on the contribution that he was allowed to communicate all facts as and when necessary to the public. Lvy lee was later to issue his famous’’ Declaration of principles which he gave to all editors.

Lloyd (1980;3). In Great Britain, the activities of Sir Stephen Tallent who was the founder of the rhetorical in essay Britain institute of public relations between 1926-1931 contributed immensely to the birth and growth of public relations in the United Kingdom. Enthesis! Colonial government employed public relations practice to persuade people to go into war. Public Relations started as an information office which was an rhetorical, arm of British government. The purpose of information office was to make people go into war. D.C Fletcher was the head of program announcement, information office. Oriola (2009). Rhetorical Questions In Essay! In 1946, the information office was transformed into ministry of information. An army of the ministry of information was public relations department that carry out public relations functions. 2.1.2 Concept Of Public Relations.

Public Relations Society of America ( PRSA)(1982) Persist that Public Relations help our complex, Pluralistic society to entry level, reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and institutions. It serves to bring private and rhetorical questions public policies into harmony. Public relations serve a wide variety of institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and hospitals, educational and religions institutions. Taye (2002), quoting News and Carel (2001) says that the essay first world assemble of public relations association regards public relations as the art and science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organization’s and the publics interest. Tejuoso (2003) see public relations as a management function of a continuing and planned character through which public and private organization and institution seeks to win and in essay retain the understanding, Sympathy and in technical and scientific theory support of rhetorical questions in essay, those with whom they are.

Johnstone and Zawawi (2004;6) define public relations as the’ ’ethical and strategic management of communication and relationships in order to build and enthesis develop coalitions and policy, identify and manage issues and create and rhetorical direct messages to level, achieve sound outcomes within a socially responsible framework. Meanwhile, Lvy Lee and Edward Louis Bernays (1990) describe public relations as a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the rhetorical in essay policies, procedures and interest of organization by doctoral dissertation program announcement, executing a program of rhetorical in essay, action to earn public understanding and acceptance. New Essays In Technical Practice! Basically Public Relation is an act that can be seen to rhetorical questions, involved artistic skills, language, writing, and public speaking. It is a social science using social scientific instrument to understand and predict human behavior Nwosu (1968). 2.1.3 Public Relations Strategies. Generally, the public relations strategies for tertiary institution should be fashioned out of the corporate objectives of such institution from paraspinal where public relations derive its objectives. Press release; It serves as the data bank of institutions. It informs the external publics of the institutions about events that is about to take place or have taken place, through press to rhetorical questions in essay, the media. Media Relation; Public relations should maintain mutual relationship with the journalist through letters, personal calls on point of interest as a practice measure in order to effectively manage the reputation of the institution. Interviews; It is veritable tools of getting the support and understanding of the student for their popular and unpopular policies and new essays communication research theory decision. Meeting; This is an important communication strategies that can be most effective if brilliantly used.

Sponsorship; By providing entertaining radio and television programmes to the publicity. 2.1.4 Public Relations Campaign Planning. Franks Jerfkins (1998) outline four point for public relations activities in the following order; Appreciation of situation; Although public relation activities are meant to place organization in good state before its public in order for the organization to be able to achieve its corporation aims. 1.Appreciation situation involves tactical monitoring of in essay, trends within and coy mistress essay around the campuses of the questions in essay institution making use of essay proverb, formal and informal research techniques relevant to public relations practice. 2.Defining The Objective; Specific public relations campaign objective for higher institutions are;

1. To pass information to community on the day to day activities of the board, management staff, student union and other members of the community. 2. To fight against cultism in tertiary institution. 3. To correct misconception of management activities by staff, students and other members of the community. 4.Defining The Publics; Public relations programme are designed for rhetorical questions different publics to the institution, for effectiveness of specific campaigns a clear understanding of the’’ Specific public’’ being targeted is essential for the success of campaign. Therefore, for every programme, a list of target public should be made. 5.Selection Of Media And Techniques; Public relations media serve as the instrument of hr cover entry level, communication used by an organization to questions in essay, disseminate information to in technical communication practice, the different publics and also provide feedback needed for further actions on the part of questions in essay, management, before selecting media, public relations must have deep knowledge of the in technical theory practice characteristic of both the publics and media. 2.1.5 Public Relations For Tertiary Institutions. Currently, public relations practice in higher institution has been faced with enormous challenges.

The focus of public relation has been directed lately towards getting the institution out in essay of the woods and consequently repositions them to new essays and scientific communication, brazen up for questions in essay the task of extinguishing the extraneous factors that have rotten the system. Adefolakan (2001).The presence of cultism in our citadel of hr cover level, learning has done a lot of havoc to the nation’s educational systems just as it has negative impact on in essay the socio-economic and political systems. The current state of higher institutions and higher education in Nigeria is the combined responsibility of the governments of these institution, parent, lecturers, and the larger society Mojaye (2005). Public relations in tertiary institution have faced a lot of challenges in recent time. It is now evident that tertiary institutions in Nigeria are seeing the need of employ public relation services and strategies to tackle their image deficiencies but it is also true that most manager of these institution often rebuff practitioner’s counsel in favor of the use of essay proverb, contemporary public relations approaches for solving most of the problems that plague the sector Nwosu (2002). 2.1.6 Public Relations As A Management Function In Tertiary Institutions. The dynamic nature of education and educational institution has made it somehow to in essay, have stereo-type public relations for educational institutions especially in Nigeria .Nkwocha (2004).

However the following would serve as the basic for articulating function of public relations in tertiary institutions. 1.To serve as communication link between the happy essay institution and its internal and external publics. 2.To embark on all activities and programs that would greatly reduce student’s agitation and crisis. 3.To secure the rhetorical understanding and support of major donors and philanthropist for the institution. 4.To secure the confidence and support of government. 5.To undertake community relations activities that will create lasting friendship between the institution and the host communities. 6. To monitor trends in education as they may affect performance and doctoral dissertation program fortunes of in essay, tertiary institutions. 2.1.7 Role Of Public Relations Officer In Higher Institutions. Operators and managers of higher institutions have since realized the essay importance of public relations in the day to day running of the institutions.

They have come to realized that the institutions cannot survive without the support of its crucial publics(internal and external), and in order for rhetorical them to function properly there is happy essay need to align their policies, goals and objectives with the interest of larger society .Nkwocha (2004). Jubril (1997;22) opines that, public relations reduces industrial crises and student unrest, help raise the quality of learning, and in essay the acceptance of certificates, safeguards the tenure of chief academic officers, enhances the employment of graduates, raises the profile of graduate and attract funding for communication research practice the institutions. Rhetorical Questions In Essay! From the foregoing, it has become apparent that public relations in institutions strive to achieve what Jefkins (1988;9) calls the and scientific practice “transfer process” This entails transforming public perception from negative dimension to rhetorical in essay, the positive. Specifically, public relation is considered as capable of converting public ignorance to knowledge and awareness; apathy to interest and support, prejudice to sympathy and lastly, hostility to letter entry, understanding and acceptance. Fayoyin (1992), underlie the national and philosophical basic of public relations which is primarily concerned with achieving understanding through knowledge. 2.1.8 Public Relations And Crisis Management In Tertiary Institutions.

A crisis is an extreme situation of conflict, which has reached a turning point, Where critical decisions have to be taken or else the conflict escalates to a point of extreme violence. Sometimes, a crisis is a degenerated state of rhetorical, conflict, that serve as threats to human security, intense violence characterized by fighting, death, injury, large-scale displacement of Populations, destruction of property, etc. Nwosu (2005). Once a crisis occurs, it is the responsibility of the government of a state or any other authority to de-escalate the situation and bring a cessation to violence. This may be done through various means, including the paraspinal enthesis use of the coercive state apparatus, where necessary(Best,2007;10). The Public Relations Executive should follow basic steps; identified by Lesly(1978) to avoid panic-baton crisis management. Premediate; This is the rhetorical questions act of developing plans well ahead of crises situation.

The plan must be well understood, revised and announcement updated. Coordinate; This involves letting staff know and understand his/her assignments should there be An emergency or crisis. Communication; All communications gaps should be bridged during crisis. Evaluation; The best way to questions in essay, avoid panic in crisis situation is for and scientific the public relations executive to learn from his/her past mistakes. This means that the public relations executive should be able to identify those things he did wrong the last time. 2.1.9 Evolution Of Cultism In Tertiary Institutions. The origin of the secret cults in the Nigerian universities can be traced back to the Pyrates confraternity, also known as National Association of Sea Dogs, that was founded at the university college, Ibadan(now called the rhetorical University of Ibadan),in 1953 when the institution was still a satellite campus of the University of London. It has the skull and crossbones as its logo.

Professor Soyinka also explained that confraternities are not cults(Dixon 1994). According to him, Confraternity was part of the social life of the institution. Essay Proverb! Adebayo (2001) has pointed out some evil minds have twisted the original aims of rhetorical, this noble tradition that was simply one of campus life. According to Adelola (1997), the first notable departure came in 1968 with the formation of the Eiye Confraternity at the University of Ibadan. According to Owoeye (1997) the Eiye Confraternity had sprung from the’ ’Buccaneers’’’ which also had sprung up from the sea dogs. The protestant groups which sprang up from the Pyrates Confraternity included Black eye, Vikings, Buccaneers, Mafia, dragons, Black beret and others. The female cults include, Temple of Eden, Frigrates, Barracudas, Daughters of Jezebel and coy mistress essay others. Today in Nigeria, there is rhetorical questions in essay hardly any tertiary institution which has not suffered the adverse effects of the activities of secret cults which have been characterized by violence. 2.1.10 Causes Of Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. There are various causes of cultism on campuses some of which are examined as follows, as identified by Eberendu (1999). 1.Influence of peer Group; There is hr cover letter no doubt that peer group influence is questions in essay a potent factor that compels young undergraduates to join secret cults.

Ibeh (2005) posited that, the period of adolescence is marked by intense social relationship in letter entry level, any environment he/she finds himself. Akinfolarin (2003) and Omoegun and Akanle (2007) also reported in their studies that peer group influence is rhetorical questions in essay one of the reasons student join cultism. 2.Parental Background; Students, who come from homes where codes of good conduct and discipline are not strictly enforced, are found to be member of cultism. Olajuigbe (2001) reported that parental background, lack of moral instruction at home and the manner in which the child is brought could be a factor in enrolment as a member of a cult. According to essay, Mgbekem (2004), some parents love their children to the extent of pampering them. when they do wrong thing instead of in essay, scolding them, they allow the children to essay proverb, go free from the offence. Ayodele (2002) also identified family breakdown as one of the causes of cultism on campuses. According to rhetorical questions in essay, him, a child who comes from broken home is exposed to essay proverb, parental negligence and frustration, such child is questions easily induced into cultism. 3.Societal Decadence; Ogunbameru (1997) lamented that the Nigerian society has willingly or Unwillingly provided an enabling environment for all forms of crimes among which is the problem of campus secret cult. Mgbekem (2005) also lamented that youths nowadays imbibed in immoral values instead of inculcating moral and decent values. 4.Erosion of Education Standards ;The economic downturn in the 1980s and early 1990s in the country encouraged corruption and erosion of standards in the educational system. Doctoral Dissertation Announcement! Most students gained admission into the institution with dubious credentials (Akinfolarin 2003).

Such students, because of in essay, their low self-image find solace in cultism in order to survive the academic rigors at all cost. 5.Militarization of the Nigerian Polity; Adewale (2005) remarked that the culture of violence which has become part and parcel of Nigerian polity has many faces among which are military Coups, state sponsored violence, political assassinations, activities of ethnic militia and communal clashes. Ibukun (1999) also highlighted militarization of the Nigerian polity for decades as a factor for cultism in Nigerian Tertiary institutions. While the happenings in the institution are an offshoot of the larger society, violence became pressed into the psyche of an average Nigerian. Other reasons for cultism in tertiary institutions include lack of recreational facilities, decay in social life and increasing materialism of the society (Omoegun and Akanle 2007).

2.2.11 Effects Of Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. The attendant effect of cultism on the learning process cannot be exhausted as both intra and inter- cult clashes negatively affect the hr cover level students in a very high proportion. It sometimes leads to incarceration, rustication or expulsion of both innocent and student members (Opaluwah 2009). A lot of rhetorical, lives and properties have been destroyed through cult violence (Mgbekem 2004).Young undergraduates who are supposed to be leaders in future have fallen victims of doctoral program, trigger happy cultists (Jamiu 2008).Our youth population is being gradually decimated due to cult activities. The peace on rhetorical questions in essay campus is adversely affected whenever there is level cult invasion, this may result in suspension of academic activities for some time. Due to the activities of the rhetorical questions in essay cultists and their sponsors who supply them with sophisticated weapons to doctoral dissertation program, prosecute communal clashes or to questions, gain upper hand in power struggles ,there are illegal weapons in all nooks and crannies of the tertiary institutions. The cultists who are in possession of such illegal weapons sometimes used them for perpetration of crimes. Mgbekem (2005).Those who eventually enlist in secret cult group might have been compelled to do so because of communication research theory, “Sagging egos’’ that need to rhetorical questions, be boosted. Others join in order to have a sense of belonging and doctoral dissertation the need to be “well connected’’(Eneji 1996).Still others may join because of the rhetorical questions need for financial assistance, to secure girl friends or for self protection (Ogunbameru 1997).

2.3 Theoretical Framework. 2.3.1 Persuasion Theory. Public relations people try to in technical communication research theory, persuade audiences to learn new information, to rhetorical questions, change emotions, and act in certain ways. We use the following terms to and scientific research theory practice, talk about persuasion; Awareness; Accepting information for in essay the first time. According to Folarin (1998), the theory holds that for a persuasive message to be considered effective, it must succeed in altering the psychological function of the recipients(students) in coy mistress, such a way that he/she will respond in questions in essay, tune with the behavior desired by the communication. Aina (2002) further said the theory appreciates new learning awareness through provision of information in order to manipulate the internal psychological structure of individuals which can result in entry, behavioral change as the best ways to effective persuasion communication. It must be stressed that public relations as persuasive communicators must analyze and understand the audience that information /messages are directed to. 2.3.2 The Social Judgment Theory. Social judgment is proposed by Carolyn Sherif, Muzar and Carl Hovand (1965) as the perception and evaluation of an questions, idea by comparing with current attitudes. It is a study that studies human judgment. This is a theory of essay, persuasion that gives every public speaker a direction on how to set, and effectively achieve objectives.

This theory based on anchor which means the listeners pre existing positions, deposition about particular issues. There are three Zones within the response to persuasive messages. They are; latitude of acceptance, latitude of rejection, latitude of non-commitment. Latitude of in essay, Acceptance; It refer to position or argument which audience will accept with little or no persuasion. Latitude of Rejection; This is a position or argument that audiences oppose on which basic they would reject. Latitude of Non commitment; These are position or argument that listener neither accept non reject.

2.4 Empirical Framework. A research carried out by hr cover letter level, Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) November 6,1982. Public Relations help our complex, pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and rhetorical in essay institutions. It serves to bring private and public policies into harmony. Public relations serve as a wide variety of institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and happy essay hospitals, educational and religions institutions. To achieve their goals, these institutions must develop effective relationships with many different audience or publics such as employees, members, customers, local communities, shareholders and other institutions and with society at rhetorical, large. The management of happy essay, institutions needs to understand the attitudes and valves of their publics in order to achieve institutional goals. The goals themselves are shaped by rhetorical, the external environment. The public relations practitioner acts as a counselor to management and as a mediator, helping to translate private aims into reasonable, publicly acceptable policy and action.

This chapter focused attention on the method and procedure adopted in happy essay, carrying out this study. 3.1 Research Design. The research design for this study is descriptive design type. The descriptive design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in anyway Shuttleworth (2008).The descriptive design has a major function of describing accuracy and characteristics of a particular phenomenon Fagbohungbe (2003). 3.2 Sample And Sampling Techniques. The study adopted purposive sampling techniques to select student who fall within the age range of 18-25,26-30,30 and questions above. 3.3 Population of the study. The desired target population for this study consisted of paraspinal, all students in polytechnic and university.

Adewale ,R. (2005).Violence in the Citadel; The menace of secret cults in the Nigerian universities’’ Nordic, journal of African Studies, 14(1) 79-98. Adebayo, W.(2001,July 8).VCs use secret cults to settle scores . Sunday Punch, PP.1-2. Adiamoh, G.(2003,Jan 12). Our citadel of rhetorical in essay, knowledge , our dens of hr cover letter, cults, Sunday Tribune, P .32. Aguda, A.S. 1997. The Environment of secret cults. In; Reading on Campus Secret Cults, O.A. Ogunbameru (ed).Ile –Ife; Kuntel Publishing House. Best, S. G. (2007) The methods of conflict resolution and transformation in Best S.G.(ed).Introduction to peace and conflict studies in West Africa Ibadan; Spectrum Books.

Biagi , S.(2003) Media impact; An introduction to mass media, Canada; Thomson Wadsworth. Black, S. (1989). Introduction to Public Relations Lagos; West African Books Publisher Limited. Brown, A.(1999). Shocker, Female Cultists on Rampage. Weekend Sketch, 2nd Jan, Pp 4-31. CAM Foundation (1982). Guided Studies, London CAM.

Daramola ,I . In Essay! (2003). Introduction to in technical research theory, mass communication, Lagos; Rothan Press Limited. Eberendu, A. C. (1999). Arresting the Evil Called Campus Cult’’. Lagos, Nigeria; Frigate Limited.

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The Family Check-Up in Early Childhood: A Case Study of Intervention Process and questions in essay Change. This article describes a case study in the use of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-based and ecological preventive intervention for children at risk for problem behavior. The FCU is an assessment-driven intervention that utilizes a health maintenance model; emphasizes motivation for change; and offers an adaptive, tailored approach to intervention. This case study follows one Caucasian family through their initial assessment and subsequent treatment for their toddler daughter#x02019;s conduct problems over a 2-year period. Clinically meaningful improvements in child and family functioning were found despite the presence of child, parent, and neighborhood risk factors. The case is discussed with respect to the findings from hr cover entry level a current multisite randomized control trial of the FCU and its application to other populations. There is growing interest in identifying young children at in essay risk for early and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior (Shaw #x00026; Gross, 2008), motivated by several studies of early-starting antisocial youth (Moffitt, 1993). New Essays Practice! Several researchers have documented that compared to late starters (who begin delinquent activity in mid-to late adolescence), early starters (who typically initiate antisocial activities before age 10) show a more persistent and chronic trajectory of antisocial behavior extending from rhetorical middle childhood to adulthood (Moffitt #x00026; Caspi, 2001; Patterson #x00026; Yoeger, 1993). Early starters represent approximately 6% to 7% of the general population of youth yet are responsible for program almost half of all adolescent crime and three fourths of violent crimes (Offord, Boyle, #x00026; Racine, 1991). During the past 2 decades, prevention scientists have focused on generating interventions for preventing early-starting pathways from developing, including programs for expectant mothers with first-born children (Olds, 2002) and preschool-age children (Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997).

However, despite research suggesting that early-starting pathways of rhetorical questions antisocial behavior can be identified as early as age 2 to 3 (Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, #x00026; Nagin, 2003), few interventions have focused on the developmental transition of the #x0201c;terrible 2s,#x0201d; a time of great maturational change (Shaw #x00026; Bell, 1993). The Family Check-Up (FCU) is a preventive intervention that has been adapted specifically to essay proverb, address the rhetorical in essay normative challenges parents face during the enthesis terrible 2s, particularly in high-risk environments where these normative challenges are more likely to lead to rhetorical questions, negative outcomes (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Supplee, Gardner, #x00026; Arnds, 2006). Our article discusses a case study that follows one family through their involvement in the FCU. The FCU was initially developed and shown to be efficacious in reducing problem behavior among adolescents (Connell, Dishion, Yasui, #x00026; Kavanagh, in press; Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). However, it has recently been associated with reductions in young children#x02019;s conduct problems and internalizing problems, as well as improvements in maternal depression, parental involvement, and positive parenting in two independent, randomly controlled trials (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Connell, Wilson, #x00026; Gardner, 2008). In these studies, changes in maternal positive parenting and depression were found to mediate improvements in child problem behavior. The FCU model differs from traditional clinical models and practice in three important ways: it utilizes a health maintenance model, derives much of its power from a comprehensive assessment, and emphasizes motivating change. In contrast to the standard clinical model, the in technical communication theory practice health maintenance approach of the FCU explicitly promotes periodic contact with families (yearly at a minimum) over the course of key developmental transitions.

Whereas traditional clinical models are activated in response to clinical pathology, the health maintenance model involves regular periodic contact between client and provider to proactively prevent problems. Rhetorical Questions! Examples of coy mistress essay health maintenance models include the use of questions semiannual cleanings in dentistry and well-baby check-ups in pediatrics. Another key difference from traditional clinical practice is the FCU#x02019;s explicit focus on providing a comprehensive assessment of child and family functioning. Data obtained from assessments are shared with families in feedback sessions to enhance motivation for change (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002). Feedback sessions are often followed by family management meetings (Forgatch, Patterson, #x00026; DeGarmo, 2005) to promote change in parenting and child problem behavior. The comprehensive assessment drives the intervention, providing detailed information about domains of coy mistress essay child (e.g., negative emotionality, child behavior problems), family (e.g., parental depression, marital quality), and community-level (e.g., neighborhood dangerousness) risk factors that past research has shown to be directly related to the development of early-onset conduct problems. In addition, there is a primary focus on evaluating caregiving practices through direct observation of questions parent-child interaction.

In the case of the FCU for enthesis toddlers, this task is accomplished by having parent#x02013;child dyads participate in rhetorical in essay, a series of structured (e.g., clean-up and teaching) and semistructured (e.g., preparing a meal and serving it to the child) tasks. The FCU is also #x0201c;ecological#x0201d; in its emphasis on improving children#x02019;s adjustment across settings by new essays in technical research motivating positive parenting practices and involvement in rhetorical in essay, those settings. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment allows tailoring and and scientific practice adaptation, in that the intervention is rhetorical #x0201c;fit#x0201d; to the family#x02019;s circumstances and their desires for more or less or different forms of research theory intervention. The FCU utilizes two main components to facilitate change: motivational interviewing and rhetorical questions in essay family management practices. The motivational interviewing component is based on Miller and Rollnick#x02019;s (2002) work using the Drinker#x02019;s Check-Up, in which assessment data regarding the entry level negative consequences of alcohol abuse on individual#x02019;s work and family life are shared in rhetorical questions in essay, a feedback interview with clients. This approach has been shown to be as effective as 28 days of costly inpatient treatment for reducing problem drinking in adults (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002).

In working with families of young children, the FCU feedback session is designed to new essays in technical research practice, elicit motivation for the parent(s) to change problematic behavior in their child, which is often achieved by modifying parenting behavior (Forgatch et al., 2005) or aspects of the caregiving context that compromise parenting quality. Rhetorical Questions! Whereas motivational interviewing was originally developed for adult drinkers, it has been incorporated into the FCU model to engage parents in preventive interventions. In one study of the FCU with parents of adolescents, analyses comparing those adolescents showing significant reductions in substance use and antisocial behavior to hr cover letter level, those who did not indicated that motivational interviewing was the key strategy for promoting change (Connell et al., in press). After addressing motivation, the FCU provides options for intervention. The therapist (i.e., Parent Consultant) may provide referrals for help with problems outside of parenting (e.g., language development) or work with families themselves on these issues depending on rhetorical, his or her expertise (e.g., parental depression, marital therapy); however, the core of most intervention addresses family management issues. Family management includes a collective set of parenting skills, commonly referred to as Parent Management Training (PMT), based on enthesis, social learning principles of reinforcement and modeling (Forgatch et al., 2005; Patterson, 1982; Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997). PMT has been consistently associated with improvement in parenting and reductions in child conduct problems (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005; Patterson, Reid, #x00026; Dishion, 1992) and questions in essay has been formally deemed an #x0201c;empirically supported treatment#x0201d; (Chambless #x00026; Ollendick, 2001). PMT focuses on four main skill sets for the parents of young children: limit setting, proactive parenting, positive reinforcement, and relationship building. Using PMT typically involves providing parents with a rationale to stimulate interest, careful explanation of new skills, and in-session practice using role plays and in enthesis, vivo practice with the child. In the FCU, PMT is applied to specific behavior problems highlighted in the assessment.

THE FCU IN THE EARLY STEPS MULTISITE STUDY. The current case illustrates how the FCU integrates basic research on rhetorical questions in essay, the developmental antecedents of early-starting pathways with validated methods for effecting change in young children#x02019;s conduct problems. The case was drawn from the Early Steps Multisite Study (ESMS), which is the second randomized control trial to test the effectiveness of the FCU with young children. Essay! The ESMS is an early intervention project aimed at reducing early-onset conduct problems among high-risk families with toddlers and offers the opportunity to examine the efficacy of the FCU with a nonclinical yet high-risk sample of families whose children are at elevated risk for early-starting conduct problems. The ESMS examines the efficacy of the FCU among 731 low-income families with toddlers recruited between 2002 and 2003 from Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement programs in the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Eugene, Oregon; and Charlottesville, Virginia. The current case was recruited from the Pittsburgh site.

Families were approached at Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement offices and questions invited to participate if they had a son or daughter between 2 years 0 months and 2 years 11 months of age, following a screen to ensure that they met the study criteria by having socioeconomic, family, and=or child risk factors for child conduct problems. Families who met the screening criteria and essay agreed to participate were contacted by research assistants to schedule the initial home assessment. During the initial home assessment, described in detail next, examiners carefully reviewed a comprehensive consent form with each primary caregiver. Questions! Families were informed about the reason for conducting the research, the source of funding, study procedures (i.e., description of random assignment procedures and intervention), risks and benefits, payment, their right to withdraw at any time, and confidentiality. Dissertation Announcement! Regarding confidentiality, participants were informed that they would not be identified by rhetorical questions in essay name in any publication of research results unless they signed a separate form giving their permission. The FCU intervention involves at least three sessions. First is the hr cover letter entry in-home family assessment. The second session involves rapport building via the Parent Consultant#x02019;s (PC#x02019;s) initial interview with the caregiver(s), referred to as the Get-to-Know-You (GTKY) visit.

The third is a feedback session during which the rhetorical PC discusses the results of the assessment and initial interview with attention focused on happy essay, the caregiver#x02019;s readiness to change and rhetorical in essay the delineation of specific change options. The assessment, which is the first component of the essay proverb FCU, typically takes place in the family#x02019;s home when research assistants visit the family to collect questionnaire and questions observational data. The assessment, which lasts 2.5 hr, is organized by three central theoretical domains: (a) family management, (b) sociocultural contexts and resources, and (c) problem behavior at home and in alternative care settings. Careful attention was given to selecting measures that could provide useful information in and scientific communication research practice, each of the aforementioned domains. When possible, constructs within each domain are measured using multiple informants (parents, other care providers, observers) and methods. This assessment provides a wealth of information about child behavior, parenting skills, family dynamics, and life stressors; it also sets the stage for the therapeutic contact between caregivers and parent consultants. The initial contact between the PC and the family occurs when the PC calls to set up the GTKY session. At this time, the PC introduces himself or herself, briefly explains the intervention portion of the study, and invites the rhetorical parent to participate in an introductory meeting and happy essay a feedback session. Rhetorical! The caregivers#x02019; first session with their PC, the GTKY visit, is happy essay usually held in the family#x02019;s home. Rhetorical In Essay! The GTKY visit focuses on developing a collaborative framework for subsequent intervention activities by enthesis emphasizing rapport building and exploring concerns with respect to parenting and the family context (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). Rhetorical In Essay! Caregivers also provide information about family resources (e.g., help of coy mistress essay extended family members, strong marital relationship) and liabilities (e.g., unstable housing, a father who is incarcerated).

By the rhetorical questions in essay end of essay this visit, caregivers have discussed their concerns and perceptions of their motivation for change. The PC works to ensure that caregivers feel understood and questions clarifies discrepancies between caregivers#x02019; goals and current family functioning. Finally, the PC discusses the purpose of the feedback session and how it will be used to review and address caregivers#x02019; identified concerns. For example, given a concern about noncompliance and temper tantrums, the essay proverb PC will review the assessment with attention to specific strategies that might help improve the cooperation between the caregiver and the child. The third session of the FCU, the family feedback session, takes place at the family#x02019;s home or at an ESMS office, whichever is preferable to the family.

Case conceptualization is a critical feature of the feedback session and is informed by questions in essay both the assessment and GTKY visit. Family change is approached in dissertation, a realistic, stepwise fashion, focusing first on issues of rhetorical questions in essay safety and security, then moving to issues of behavior management, parenting skills, and relationship building. The feedback session involves a delicate balance among reporting the facts about strengths and problems, building motivation for change, and maintaining rapport with parent(s). The feedback session is coy mistress a collaborative process, one in which the PC delivers the factual information from the assessment and frequently checks in with parents about their perspectives (see Figure 1 ). Rhetorical Questions! An emphasis on strengths helps build rapport and therapeutic alliance with the family while encouraging maintenance of positive behaviors. Essay Proverb! Statements about rhetorical questions problem areas are framed in a way that reflect the current research findings and in doing so, ground the information in a meaningful way for parents. The PC tailors the feedback material so that it takes into consideration the contextual factors of the family, including cultural variation, child development, family structure, socioeconomics, and community and neighborhood factors. At the entry level end of the feedback session, the PC discusses a menu of family-based interventions with the caregivers.

The intervention options stem from questions in essay previous work using the FCU and focus groups with parents (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). These options include (a) monthly to weekly follow-up support, either in-person or by phone; (b) assistance with specific child behavior problems or parent issues; (c) PMT; (d) preschool/day care consultations; and (e) community referrals. The PC encourages the doctoral dissertation program announcement parents to choose the level and questions type of services that best meet the family#x02019;s needs. The family chosen for this case study qualified for inclusion in coy mistress, the ESMS based on the presence of sociodemographic risk (i.e., low income and rhetorical questions in essay educational attainment), child risk (i.e., high levels of conduct problems and high levels of parent-child conflict), and doctoral dissertation program announcement family risk (i.e., elevated maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles). In addition to using a pseudonym, identifying information about the in essay family has been altered to letter entry, protect their confidentiality. At the rhetorical questions time of the age 2 assessment, the Smith family consisted of the mother, a 34-year-old Caucasian female; the father, a 36-year-old Caucasian male; and five children living in the home (ranging from 11 months to 15 years). The Target Child (TC) is their daughter who was 2 years old. The mother was a stay-at-home parent and the father was an unemployed former bus driver. Neither parent held a high school diploma. This marriage was the mother#x02019;s third with multiple children by each husband, including two children with her current husband. The father had children from a previous marriage with whom he has no contact.

The mother and coy mistress TC participated in a home-based assessment, during which the mother completed questionnaires about rhetorical questions TC#x02019;s behavior and her own well-being. Well-established measures were used when possible (see Table 1 ), and PCs were trained to code the videotaped tasks using an observation manual (Veltman et al., 2003) derived from research with families from similar high-risk environments (e.g., Shaw et al., 2003). Both mother and program child participated in observational tasks, including clean-up, teaching, waiting, and meal preparation tasks. The father was not present for the home visit but did complete and return his questionnaires 1 week later. Results from the assessment measures and observational tasks are noted in Table 2 and were incorporated into the feedback session. Both parents were present for rhetorical the GTKY at happy essay age 2. The mother was very talkative during the questions in essay 1-hr interview.

The mother provided a detailed history of the family and talked openly about her own struggles with depression. She reported that she refused antidepressant medication because of coy mistress unpleasant side effects. She also talked about an ongoing source of familial stress: severe harassment by her second ex-husband despite the procurement of several Protection from Abuse orders. The harassment by the ex-husband was persistent over the course of questions in essay 2 years, and both parents expressed a sense of hopelessness about hr cover entry level its resolution. In addition, the family lived in a high-crime neighborhood, as described by both parents and observed by questions the PC and assessment team. The parents expressed their intention to move to another part of the city within the next year. When asked about the TC, the mother reported concerns about the child#x02019;s developmental progress and the father reported that she had a #x0201c;bad attitude.#x0201d; When asked about the TC#x02019;s behavior problems, both parents agreed that it was #x0201c;her anger.#x0201d; Both parents reported that TC had a #x0201c;quick temper and lashes out,#x0201d; hit her siblings, and yelled frequently.

The parents also agreed that she had an #x0201c;emotional problem,#x0201d; referring to her temper tantrums. The parents did not spontaneously state any positive qualities about the TC; when asked, the mother reported that she felt that she had a good relationship with the TC. Feedback Preparation and Case Conceptualization. Consistent with typical practice, the feedback session at age 2 was held 1 week after the GTKY. The PC used videotaped and questionnaire data from the assessment to doctoral program announcement, prepare a Child and Family Profile (see Figure 1 ) designed to visually represent the child#x02019;s and rhetorical questions family#x02019;s strengths and areas of concern. Areas of strength and concern were determined based on published norms, when available, and data from similar high-risk samples (Shaw et al., 2003). Happy Essay! At a broader level, components of the in essay data were used to generate a conceptualization of the hr cover letter family#x02019;s strengths and challenges so the review follows a logical storyline for rhetorical questions in essay the parents. In the FCU process, the program announcement PC prepares a comprehensive report about the family#x02019;s and child#x02019;s strengths and rhetorical potential problems based on the assessment. Scoring the happy essay Smith#x02019;s assessment measures revealed a number of strengths, including that the mother and father viewed their marital relationship positively and were willing to questions in essay, participate in the feedback session. In addition, the mother felt confident in her parenting skills (see Table 2 ). When coding the observational tasks, the PC observed that the mother was responsive to essay proverb, her daughter#x02019;s bids for questions in essay positive attention and demonstrated a warm and affectionate relationship with her. Enthesis! The child demonstrated strengths in her language ability, as indexed by a score at the 70th percentile on the McArthur Communicative Development Index (Fenson et al., 2000).

Several areas of concern were evident, most notably the TC#x02019;s level and breadth of problem behavior and the mother#x02019;s level of depressive symptoms. According to mother#x02019;s report on two different measures of child behavior, the TC was well into the clinical range for both internalizing and externalizing problems (see Table 2 ). Based on rhetorical, 45 min of observational data, she was found to be in the clinical range for noncompliance (i.e., follows directions less than 50% of the happy essay time) and in the borderline clinical range for positive play (i.e., exhibits neutral to questions in essay, positive affect) and aggression (two to five instances of aggression toward both objects and essay people). Compared with other girls her age, the TC appeared to be on questions in essay, a worrisome behavioral trajectory. There were some areas of concern regarding the mother, namely, that she reported levels of depressive symptoms consistent with clinical depression, a high level of daily stress, and a high level of conflict with her daughter. Mother also demonstrated few skills for setting limits and being proactive during observational tasks.

The family#x02019;s residence in a high crime neighborhood was also seen as an important factor that impacted their level of stress (see Table 2 ). The combined clinical picture for happy essay the TC and mother suggested that there were deficits in parenting skills, perhaps because of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptomatology and daily stress, which contributed to rhetorical in essay, the child#x02019;s behavioral and emotional problems. Enthesis! In addition, the child was demonstrating high levels of behavioral and emotional problems, which were posited to contribute to coercive cycles of rhetorical questions in essay interaction with her mother (Patterson, 1982). A related concern was that if the mother and hr cover letter entry level child did not find more positive ways to interact, both child and maternal behavior would become exacerbated, moving the child into a more entrenched and less malleable trajectory of problem behavior. Interventions aimed at improving these areas could capitalize on existing family strengths, namely, the rhetorical questions positive marital relationship, parental willingness to participate, and TC#x02019;s language skills. The family#x02019;s high crime neighborhood and enthesis harassment from the questions in essay ex-husband were also noted on the Child and Family Profile and incorporated into essay proverb, the feedback session, reflecting the family#x02019;s particular needs and context.

During the age 2 feedback, the Smith family expressed a willingness to receive information about their daughter and in essay some hope that they might receive help to better manage her problem behavior. After a brief rapport-building introduction, the PC began the feedback session and asked the self-assessment questions (#x0201c;Over the course of the assessment, what did you learn about TC? What stood out for you?#x0201d;). Both parents responded by stating that their child #x0201c;behaves better when other people are around.#x0201d; The PC clarified that the mother believed that the videotaped portions of the assessment reflected better-than-usual behavior from the hr cover entry level TC. After orienting the parents to the FCU profile and explaining the feedback process, the PC discussed the identified areas of strength and concern (see Figure 1 ). The Child and Family Profile begins with a focus on child behavior in an effort to align parents with a shared focus about their child#x02019;s well-being. The PC informed the questions parents that TC was in the clinical range for her aggressive behavior and anxiety-related problems. Program Announcement! The mother#x02019;s initial response to this information was to in essay, elaborate on the areas where TC was aggressive, in particular with her siblings. Coy Mistress! When the PC asked the mother about rhetorical in essay her biggest concerns related to TC#x02019;s fights with siblings, she initially minimized the problem by stating that TC would probably outgrow her aggressive behavior. The PC agreed that this was a possibility (rolling with resistance) and then inquired about essay proverb alternate outcomes.

When invited by the PC to consider what would happen if TC did not #x0201c;outgrow#x0201d; the problem, the mother admitted to her fears that TC and in essay siblings might seriously hurt each other #x0201c;by accident.#x0201d; Mrs. Smith then elaborated on several parenting strategies she and her husband had tried without success. The PC affirmed their efforts and then offered a normalizing statement about the parents#x02019; struggles with TC. Next, the PC discussed the happy essay potential usefulness of additional or new parenting strategies to address TC#x02019;s problem behavior.

The PC also provided information about questions in essay TC#x02019;s likely behavioral trajectory (i.e., behavior problems would likely get worse) and the benefits of essay proverb early intervention versus #x0201c;wait and see.#x0201d; The PC utilized observational data about TC#x02019;s observed defiance and noncompliance to underscore the seriousness of the rhetorical concerns about her conduct problems. In addition, the PC and parents discussed TC#x02019;s fearfulness and anxiety, as reported by coy mistress essay the mother and rhetorical questions observed by the PC. The mother and father expressed moderate concern here and were able to identify some ways in which TC#x02019;s fearfulness is a problem for paraspinal them, including her #x0201c;clinginess#x0201d; and inability to sleep through the night in her own bed. PC also reported on rhetorical in essay, TC#x02019;s strengths, most notably her language skills and positive affect when spending time with her mother. TC#x02019;s language development was presented as a positive indicator of her ability to learn new behavior and respond to her parent#x02019;s requests.

In addition, the PC worked to enhance the communication theory practice parent#x02019;s understanding that a positive relationship with their daughter could motivate their daughter to change her behavior. When reviewing the profile sections on parent wellbeing, the rhetorical PC informed the parents that the mother#x02019;s scores on self-report measures were indicative of clinical depression. The PC expressed concern about the severity of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms, and when PC inquired about them, the mother began to cry and coy mistress essay stated that she #x0201c;didn#x02019;t want to talk about rhetorical questions in essay it.#x0201d; The PC acknowledged that it would be difficult to parent when feeling so depressed. The PC also provided her with information about the impact of maternal depression on child behavior, as well as effective interventions and possible resources. Later in the session, the PC indicated that her level of daily parenting stress was another area of concern and linked this to her depressed mood. In addition, the PC noted that the harassment by her ex-husband was also a significant source of stress likely to be influencing her mood. The mother agreed to in technical communication research practice, look into intervention for her depression and stated her intention to resolve the situation with her ex-husband.

When the PC reported to the mother about her strengths, including her parenting confidence and relationship with TC, the mother responded with big smiles and verbalized appreciation. Acknowledgment of her strengths provided the mother with the opportunity to verbally elaborate on her positive skills and to rhetorical questions in essay, express how much she values the relationship she has with her daughter and husband. Furthermore, the PC invited the parents to elaborate on the strengths of their marital relationship, stating that the letter entry level qualities they mentioned (e.g., communicating well, ability to reach agreement about challenging issues) provided a foundation from which they could parent more effectively as a team. In Essay! The PC highlighted parent strengths with the aim of supporting parental efficacy and instilling hope for happy essay successful behavior change. A key element of the feedback process is the goal setting that concludes the session. When the questions entire profile has been reviewed, the PC offers the parents a summary that highlights the strengths and areas of concern. In this case, the PC revisited the concerns about the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and linked them to other areas of coy mistress stress and challenges in parenting. Questions! The PC also highlighted the parents#x02019; concerns about TC#x02019;s behavior problems and noted the coy mistress congruence with the observations of noncompliance and defiance. In Essay! These concerns were presented with the acknowledgment and essay proverb validation of child and parent strengths. Rhetorical! The PC then asked the parents to consider the feedback and invited them to set goals for their child and themselves. They set three goals: (a) for the family to paraspinal, move to a new neighborhood that was safer and removed from the ex-husband, (b) for rhetorical questions the mother to happy essay, meet with a psychiatrist to discuss antidepressant medication and other intervention options, and (c) for the parents to work with their daughter to reduce her temper tantrums and aggressive behavior.

As part of the FCU, families are able to determine the amount and intensity of rhetorical follow-up intervention, if any, they wish to receive. Doctoral Dissertation Program Announcement! The intervention plan is derived in a collaborative manner, focusing on the issues identified in the feedback session and any other issues the parents want to address. In Essay! In this case, the PC met with both parents for 10 sessions following the feedback session. Sessions were scheduled for new essays and scientific communication every other week. Early sessions focused on the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and harassment from her ex-husband. With regard to nonparenting issues, clinicians using the FCU model typically respond in rhetorical questions in essay, a manner consistent with standard clinical practice, for example, utilizing cognitive behavioral techniques to deal with depression, offering advocacy and creating a safety plan for letter entry level domestic violence. Nonparenting issues are addressed with the in essay aim to support family functioning and cohesiveness, as appropriate. For example, a common service PC#x02019;s provide is referral and advocacy for accessing community resources. The FCU model works to facilitate connection with services in a family#x02019;s community to increase their network of support and self-sustainability. In this case, while the PC worked with the mother to reduce her depressive symptoms, she also assisted the mother in finding a psychiatrist.

Regarding the harassment from the mother#x02019;s exhusband, the PC explored possible responses with both parents. The family formalized their plans to move to a better neighborhood farther away from the ex-husband and completed this move within 3 months of the feedback session. Once these initial issues were addressed, the mother expressed willingness to work on TC#x02019;s disruptive behavior. Happy Essay! Specifically, she was interested in reducing the number of fights her children had during the day and increasing TC#x02019;s compliance. Questions! Over the course of the next seven sessions, the PC explored TC#x02019;s problem behaviors and their associated patterns with both parents by using several tools. Dissertation Announcement! These included the Good Behavior Game (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996); the use of incentives, praise, and encouragement; troubleshooting problem areas; and teaching the proper administration of a Time Out. In general, the intervention phase of the questions FCU prioritizes teaching parents better skills for positive reinforcement, including praise and encouragement. When parents choose to focus on parenting skills, the paraspinal enthesis PC typically spends about 45 min on the chosen skill area, with the additional 15 min of the session addressing nonparenting concerns and questions in essay generating a plan of action. Typically, sessions involve the parents and bring the child in on occasion for in vivo practice. For each content area, which in this case included incentives, praise and encouragement, and limit setting, the intervention followed a typical process: (a) providing parents with the rationale for essay proverb the new skill; (b) having the PC demonstrate the new skill to parents; (c) having parents practice the new skill in rhetorical, session with role plays and making corrections; (d) assigning parents homework; and (e) reviewing homework, successes, and challenges during the next visit.

This model is drawn from PMT (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005). For example, these parents expressed an interest and willingness to learn more about the proper use of incentives. The PC first provided the parents a rationale for essay proverb incentives, explaining that they can be used to help children learn new behavior by rewarding positive behavior. The PC then invited the questions in essay parents to generate a list of positive behaviors they would like to encourage in their daughter. Once the parents generated this list, they were asked to select one behavior that they would like to essay proverb, focus on for the next week. The PC then invited the TC into the room and demonstrated to the parents how a sticker could be used to in essay, encourage positive behavior. The PC provided parents with stickers and asked them to practice this, thus clarifying an effective way to doctoral dissertation, explain and introduce the behavior to the TC. Another tool used to encourage good behavior is The Good Behavior Game.

The Good Behavior Game promotes prosocial behavior among young children by (a) asking the parent to rhetorical, tell their children that they can earn a reward if they can play nicely for program 10 min (with use of a timer), (b) establishing and describing reasonable and motivating rewards, (c) carefully explaining what #x0201c;play nicely#x0201d; means, (d) asking children to repeat back the instructions, and rhetorical questions in essay (e) using a sticker chart to keep track of doctoral program children#x02019;s positive play. In sum, the PC provided information about motivating children, the benefits of praise and encouragement, the role of parent involvement, and key components of proactive parenting. In addition, the PC introduced the book Preventive Parenting with Love, Encouragement and Limits (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996) and provided ESMS project-based brochures and informational materials. Over the rhetorical course of the next two assessment periods (when TC was age 3 and 4, respectively), both TC and paraspinal the mother demonstrated marked improvement in several domains. At the age 3 assessment, TC#x02019;s behavior had improved to the extent that she was no longer in the clinical range for either the internalizing or externalizing scales on the Child Behavior Checklist, improvement that was maintained at the age 4 assessment.

In addition, the mother#x02019;s Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale score, which was well into the clinical range at the age 2 assessment, dropped to well within the normal range at the age 4 assessment. In addition, observations of questions parent-child interaction revealed steady and stepwise improvement over the next 2 years, including marked improvements in doctoral dissertation, child noncompliance and aggression, as well as maternal limit setting and rhetorical questions in essay proactive parenting (see Table 2 ). The FCU represents a cost-effective intervention that can lead to clinically meaningful results, such as improvements in child behavior and maternal wellbeing. The main components of the FCU are the GTKY and paraspinal enthesis Feedback Sessions, which last 30 min and questions 90 min, respectively. Essay Proverb! Upon completion of the feedback session, parents can choose to participate in tailored follow-up sessions, if they wish. Rhetorical Questions In Essay! Even when more numerous follow-up sessions are involved, the FCU is time and cost effective.

To date, there has been no formal cost effectiveness assessment of the FCU. New Essays And Scientific Research! However, compared with other relatively brief and empirically validated interventions for child problem behavior, such as Forgatch#x02019;s PMT and Webster-Stratton#x02019;s family-based intervention, the FCU appears to require a fewer number of sessions to achieve beneficial effects. Conducting a cost assessment of the FCU is clearly an questions issue that merits attention in the near future. In the case study presented in this article, the PC spent a total of 18 hr of face-to-face time with the Smith family in the 1st year. The time spent decreased steadily over the subsequent years of the study, with a total of 8 hr of direct contact in coy mistress, the 2nd year and questions 2 hr of direct contact in the 3rd year. In terms of paraspinal enthesis case preparation (scoring assessment measures, coding videotaped interactions), the amount of time the PC spent in these activities also decreased over the years.

Activities not involving direct service delivery, including case preparation and scoring, required 10 hr of PC time in Year 1, 3#x000bd; hr in questions, Year 2, and only 2 hr in doctoral announcement, Year 3. Thus, once the process is learned and PCs become adept with the process of preparing for feedback sessions, the FCU becomes a potent and brief intervention. In terms of completing the home assessment, research assistants spent an in essay average of 1 hr of travel time in addition to the 2#x000bd; hr home visit, for a total of 3#x000bd; to 4 hr per assessment. Hr Cover Level! Whereas in actual practice the same individual might be responsible for rhetorical questions conducting the coy mistress essay assessment and the intervention, the research project elected to have a different person serve these roles. The FCU was designed to integrate research on risk factors for children#x02019;s early conduct problems into an ecological, family-based intervention to prevent problem behavior among high-risk families with toddlers. Questions! The Smith family is enthesis a representative illustration of this innovative method to reach families at key developmental transitions in at-risk environments. The Smith family presented with a complicated family history, a number of contextual risk factors, and a 2-year-old daughter who was demonstrating both conduct problems and emotional problems. Over the course of the FCU, the family showed improvement in questions, several areas, including parenting and child problem behavior, as well reductions in maternal depression and contextual risk. Essay Proverb! This is consistent with the research showing that improvements in child conduct problems are accompanied by increases in the mother#x02019;s positive parenting and decreases in maternal depression (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). This family was atypical in one respect#x02014;families in rhetorical in essay, the ESMS participate in an average number of 3.7 in-person sessions with the PC per year, including the GTKY and the Feedback sessions , whereas this family engaged in 12 sessions their first year, and then 3 to 4 in the following 2 years. After their 1st year of more intensive involvement, which was consistent with the family#x02019;s breadth of risk, the family followed the more typical pattern of direct contact with the PC.

One of the strengths of this health-maintenance model is the essay proverb repeated nature of assessment and intervention. The FCU model involves yearly #x0201c;check-ups,#x0201d; which provide clinicians with the unique opportunity to rhetorical, collaboratively track family and child behavior over time and continue to motivate families to change persistent areas of difficulty. For example, it is not uncommon for enthesis a family to minimize problems and decline intervention in the 1st year and then engage in the intervention the next year when they discover that the problem behavior has not changed. Rhetorical In Essay! With some frequency, during the age 3 GTKY, families are able to acknowledge the reality of a problem situation in their 2nd year that they were #x0201c;waiting to see#x0201d; about at the age 2 FCU. It is sometimes the repeated review of data, demonstrating that without intervention these problems persist and often worsen over new essays in technical communication theory practice, time that can elicit motivation from parents to take action. This phenomenon is an essential strength of the FCU approach: Through repeated regular contact with families using assessment-driven feedback aimed at motivational change, families who would not usually seek intervention on their own are motivated to rhetorical questions in essay, change . This change in motivation is particularly important for toddlers at risk for early starting conduct problems based on their high probability of persistence (Shaw et al., 2003; Shaw, Lacourse, #x00026; Nagin, 2005). In addition, it is common for interventionists to happy essay, spend time working with basic issues related to rhetorical in essay, safety and harm reduction early in intervention (e.g., excessive conflict between divorced spouses).

We find that this initial work sets the foundation for establishing trust in the PC, for families to be open to viewing their child#x02019;s behavior more realistically, and for families#x02019; willingness to learn new child management strategies. It is important to note that the FCU can be adapted and tailored for use in a range of happy essay service settings such as the public school environment or community-based clinic (Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). For example, interventionists may choose to focus the assessment primarily on school-related behavior or only on the child#x02019;s behavior in rhetorical in essay, the home. In addition, the assessment portion of the FCU could be shortened to make it easier to happy essay, deliver in a typical mental health clinic or school setting. The content of the FCU can also be tailored to the needs of different developmental stages (toddlerhood, school age, adolescent), client populations and specific issues. For example, the FCU has been adapted to questions, examine the health-related behaviors of children transitioning to adolescence, with a particular focus on children#x02019;s sleep, emotion regulation, and physical activity. Happy Essay! In this #x0201c;health promotion#x0201d; version of the in essay FCU, the assessment and essay proverb follow-up interventions focus on youth#x02019;s sleep quality, level of physical activity, and emotion regulation as a set of domains that are relevant for navigating the challenges associated with this developmental stage.

In addition to showing intervention effects on child problem behavior, parenting, and maternal depression, the FCU has been found to be effective for promoting change in a wide range of family structures, cultural backgrounds, and in essay contextual risk factors as well as across a broad range of age groups (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). For example, the FCU is doctoral program currently being used with older children and adolescents in Oregon and with American Indian families living on a reservation. Perhaps the most novel feature of the FCU is the flexibility it provides clinicians in tailoring interventions to the individual family#x02019;s challenges and in essay strengths, as well as to the family#x02019;s perception of the child#x02019;s problem behavior. Hr Cover Letter Entry! By integrating the use of motivational interviewing within an ecological framework and utilizing empirically validated methods for in essay promoting change, the model also fits well with current conceptualizations of developmental psychopathology that recognize multiple risk factors and pathways leading to similar problematic outcomes for children (Richters #x00026; Cicchetti, 1993). One important issue for the use of the information provided in this case study in clinical practice is that family participation might follow a different pattern or level of happy essay engagement outside of the research setting. ESMS families receive payment for their participation in the assessment and gift cards for their participation in the feedback session.

It remains to questions, be seen whether the FCU will appeal to families in pediatric or other community settings without such incentives. In addition, retention of families over paraspinal, time may be more challenging in a traditional community setting, where staff may not have the questions time to search for families who have moved or to conduct follow-up phone calls. Presently, the creators of the enthesis FCU are considering innovative ways to apply this model more broadly and are working to tailor the assessment and feedback process so that it is more user friendly for both therapists and parents. Ideally, the FCU assessment can be reduced to about 35 to 45 min with the feedback session more finely tailored to specific family needs. Despite these limitations, we believe the FCU holds much promise for preventing the onset of child problem behavior across developmental status of the child, the type of child problem behavior, the family#x02019;s cultural and socioeconomic background, and questions in essay the setting for contact with families. Future follow-up studies of the ESMS efficacy trial will test whether intervention effects found for reductions in early child problem behavior and maternal parenting and depression will endure across time and setting as children transition to the school-age period. However, as such effects appear to essay proverb, be evident across adolescence for a similar sample of at-risk youth (Connell et al., in press), we are optimistic about the rhetorical questions FCU#x02019;s effectiveness and use in other settings with other at-risk populations for promoting child and family well-being.

Moreover, as the presented case illustrates, the FCU can be a powerful preventative intervention for families who might not otherwise seek services for their children by addressing motivation and program announcement giving families flexible intervention plans that match their unique situation. This research was supported by rhetorical questions grant DA16110 from the happy essay National Institute on rhetorical questions, Drug Abuse to the third, fourth, and fifth authors. We gratefully acknowledge the Early Steps staff and the families who participated in this project. This article may be used for research, teaching and coy mistress private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.

The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Anne M. Gill, Department of Psychology, University of in essay Pittsburgh. Luke W. Hyde, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Daniel S. Shaw, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Thomas J. Entry! Dishion, Department of Special Education, University of Oregon.

Melvin N. Questions! Wilson, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the scientific study of how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to the simple act of in essay, our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of new essays in technical communication research theory practice, different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of questions, coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of essay, social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an in essay area of essay, social psychology but go no further. This is partly the result of a proliferation of research in rhetorical questions in essay, social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on in technical research theory practice, a specialised field and take less notice of in essay, what is happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to an integrative approach. The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in what are called the happy essay, different 'levels of explanation' at which social psychological research operates at. Rhetorical Questions In Essay? The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and hr cover, intergroup and the research has tended to concentrate on one of rhetorical in essay, these levels without integrating them together. This can lead to program announcement, an incomplete answer to the original research question.

Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the example of social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to questions, integrate social psychological knowledge and outline some of these attempts. The continuing rise of cognitive psychology as an overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. Doctoral Dissertation Program? For example, explanations of social cognition are made in terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis. This can be seen in a variety of experiments on the effects of motivational and emotional factors on behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Here participants were told they were going to be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral.

The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of rhetorical in essay, different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the happy essay, mood state would affect the social judgement of the participants. They found different levels of 'affect infusion' depending on the particular circumstances of the study. The main criticism of this type of formulation of motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is rhetorical, that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on many areas of psychology and lays claim to being another overarching theory - although this is more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Happy Essay? Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in terms of adaptations to the environment, both social and physical.

This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on interpersonal relationships, specifically in in essay, terms of sexual attraction and how it relates to essay proverb, differing levels of investment in offspring. Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today. While it is possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in modern technological societies. Both the evolutionary theory and ideas from cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on in essay, which social psychology can build an integrated perspective. Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for new essays communication theory practice an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and Branscombe Spears (2001) is in questions, a particularly social psychological perspective. Essay Proverb? These authors suggest that one of the most successful attempts at integrating analyses from a variety of different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986). Social identity theory grew out in essay of the minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an extremely arbitrary and loosely formed grouping so as to prefer the in-group members over happy essay the out-group members. This would occur with only the smallest and rhetorical, most subtle provocation (described in Tajfel, 1978). This theory is based on the idea that society is structured by social groupings with different levels of power and interests and that people gain their social identity from essay proverb these groups. Attached to questions in essay, this social identity are particular ways of behaving to be adhered to.

People are not limited to a single social identity though and can, and coy mistress essay, generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the situation. Questions In Essay? To counter the criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to separate personal identity from social identity as it is precisely the confounding of these two levels that has drawn the censure of critics. Because of its concentration on the importance of groups, a number of established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically. These include, for example, in-group favouritism and intergroup differentiation. Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to essay proverb, gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to questions in essay, other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about intrapsychic processes? Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory. Self-categorisation theory grew out of social identity theory and concentrates on how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987). It sees a person as choosing from new essays in technical and scientific communication theory a number of rhetorical, fuzzy categories about how to behave in particular situations as compared to dissertation announcement, a kind of prototype. This analysis brings in the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and then comparing individual behaviour to that.

These kinds of distinctions between levels of understanding and categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in research like that carried out by rhetorical questions Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). In this study psychology students were encouraged to compare themselves to fine arts students and then physics students respectively. The results showed they tended to enthesis, emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to fine arts students, and questions, their creativity when comparing themselves to physics students. Paraspinal? This clearly shows how people have a need to compare themselves favourably to others but also effectively shows how people's image of themselves is affected by the exact nature of the social comparison that they are making. The combination of social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and cohesion and the maintenance of self-esteem. One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the salient points is that of crowd behaviour.

Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of changes in individuation and in self-awareness in an individual person. Like many areas of social psychology this analysis has come under fire for ignoring or playing down the intergroup interactions. Rhetorical Questions In Essay? In an analysis of crowd behaviour based on social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Essay? Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the result of this is that there is often a high level of the rhetorical questions in essay, sharing of social identity. But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to how to behave and so people tend to look for those members of the group that they identify with and copy them. To look at it from another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity. The simple result is that people tend to conform to the group norms to a greater extent. Studies of riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for this point of view. And Scientific Communication Research Theory Practice? Reicher (1984) studied the riots that occurred in rhetorical questions in essay, 1980 in the St Paul's area of Bristol. It was found that, for example, people only targeted symbols of the state such as the police and banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate.

There was a strong sense of positive social identity and entry, the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of findings tend to support ideas from social identity and self-categorisation theory. The fragmentation and rhetorical questions in essay, attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the most important major differences or splits in the practice of social psychology came with the so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in the late 60s and early 70s. This was lead by coy mistress essay critics of traditional approaches to social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and positivism. The effect of concentrating on rhetorical questions, reductionism in psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on intrapersonal psychology at coy mistress essay the expense of understanding the rhetorical, social nature of coy mistress essay, human relations. Critics of positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of traditional scientific methods. They contended that it was not possible to study a person or group of in essay, people in an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to be objective about yourself - by definition! While traditional experimental approaches to social psychology continued then, new methods began to grow from different traditions that challenged the way social psychology had been 'done' in the past. Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the essay proverb, banner of 'social constructionism'.

This new plurality of approaches has at rhetorical in essay its centre the idea that reality is socially constructed. In essence this idea is that there is coy mistress essay, no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the primary focus for investigation. Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is one method of analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of rhetorical, written or verbal text. While these new approaches to social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in terms of the methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to the way that mainstream psychology is carried out. Still, their concentration on the social in social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in the same direction. Enthesis? Whether integration is desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is questions, certainly questionable. The main problem for social psychologists is that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is little communication between specialisms and little opportunity for the sharing and integration of knowledge. Happy Essay? As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of questions, discrete parts or modules. Happy Essay? Unless bridges can be built between the sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the widening cracks.

There is some evidence that some level of integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the rhetorical questions, gap between mainstream social psychology and social constructionist analyses look less likely to be bridged despite the boost to paraspinal enthesis, qualitative methodologies in the mainstream. Branscombe, N. R. Spears, R. (2001) Social Psychology : Past, Present, and rhetorical in essay, Some Predictions for the Future. In J. S. Halonen S. F. Davis (Eds.). The many faces of psychological research in the 21st century (text-only version; chap. Hr Cover Entry? 7). Retrieved September 5, 2005 from rhetorical questions in essay http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/teachpsych/faces/text/Ch07.htm Buss, D. Coy Mistress Essay? M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164-168. Forgas, J. In Essay? P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66.

Gergen, K. Coy Mistress? J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Rhetorical Questions In Essay? Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. Essay Proverb? (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed. Eysenek, M. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman. Potter, J., Wetherell, M. Rhetorical In Essay? (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. Coy Mistress? London: Sage.

Reicher, S. (1984) St. Paul's a study of the limits of rhetorical questions in essay, crowd behaviour. In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in social psychology. Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of social psychology, Vol. 6, pp.

161-198). Chichester, UK: Wiley. Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to doctoral, group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. Personality and rhetorical questions in essay, Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553. Tajfel, H. Enthesis? (1978). Interindividual behaviour and rhetorical, intergroup behaviour. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp. 27-60).

New York: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., Austin, W. G. (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall. Turner, J.C. (1987). Happy Essay? A self-categorization theory. In Turner, J.C. Hogg, M.A. Oakes, P.J.

Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. (Eds.), Rediscovering the questions in essay, social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. 42-67). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of communication practice, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to in essay, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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