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Introduction domestic violence essay

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Introduction domestic violence essay

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Ben Stein How Can Someone Who Lives in Insane Luxury Be a Star in Today#8217;s World? Claim: Ben Stein penned an essay on the nature of stardom. How Can Someone Who Lives in domestic essay Insane Luxury Be a Star in essay Today#8217;s World? As I begin to write this, I #8220;slug#8221; it, as we writers say, which means I put a heading on top of the document to domestic, identify it. This heading is #8220;eonlineFINAL,#8221; and it gives me a shiver to write it. I have been doing this column for so long that I cannot even recall when I started. I loved writing this column so much for so long I came to believe it would never end. Lew Harris, who founded this great site, asked me to do it maybe seven or eight years ago, and event management I loved writing this column so much for so long I came to believe it would never end. Introduction! But again, all things must pass, and my column for E! Online must pass. In a way, it is actually the culture perfect time for introduction violence it to pass.

Lew, whom I have known forever, was impressed that I knew so many stars at Morton#8217;s on soccer and football essay Monday nights. He could not get over it, in fact. Introduction Essay! So, he said I should write a column about the humanity education essay stars I saw at Morton#8217;s and essay what they had to say. American Family Culture! But Morton#8217;s is introduction violence essay, not the star galaxy it once was, though it probably will be again. Beyond that, a bigger change has happened.

I no longer think Hollywood stars are terribly important. They are uniformly pleasant, friendly people, and they treat me better than I deserve to be treated. But a man or woman who makes a huge wage for memorizing lines and reciting them in front of a camera is no longer my idea of a shining star we should all look up to. A real star is the soldier of the 4th Infantry Division who poked his head into difference a hole on introduction essay a farm near Tikrit, Iraq. Dissertation! How can a man or woman who makes an eight-figure wage and lives in insane luxury really be a star in today#8217;s world, if by a #8220;star#8221; we mean someone bright and powerful and attractive as a role model? [Rest of article here] Stein, a lawyer by introduction essay training, has also served as a speechwriter for President Richard M. Nixon, has to date authored sixteen books (both novels and dissertations non-fiction efforts), and continues to write editorials and introduction domestic columns for a number of american family essay, prominent publications. He is perhaps best known to the world at large, however, for introduction domestic essay his in-front-of-the-camera work as the dreadfully dull economics teacher in essay the film Ferris Bueller#8217;s Day Off (and his similar role as the monotonic science teacher Mr. Domestic! Cantwell on the TV series The Wonder Years ) and as the keenly competitive host of the Comedy Central game show Win Ben Stein#8217;s Money . Event Dissertation! For several years (through the end of 2003), Mr. Stein penned a regular column for E! Online , and the excerpt quoted above is taken from his final. piece for that venue, published on 20 December 2003. He seized the introduction domestic violence occasion of his last column to muse on the nature of stardom, asking #8220;How Can Someone Who Lives in Insane Luxury Be a Star in Today#8217;s World?#8221; and questioning whether actors and trying actresses who make huge sums of introduction domestic violence, money and live in luxury should truly be considered #8220;stars#8221; or #8220;heroes#8221; in the modern era, especially in comparison to new foods, the #8220;noncoms and officers who barely scrape by on domestic military pay but stand on guard in Afghanistan and Iraq and on ships and in submarines and near the Arctic Circle [and] are anonymous as they live and die.#8221; Mr. Stein#8217;s column evidently struck a chord with a good many readers, as it continues to be circulated widely via e-mail forwarding several years after its original publication. Ben Stein biography.

Last updated: 14 July 2009. Stein, Ben. #8220;How Can Someone Who Lives in Insane Luxury Be a Star in Today#8217;s World?#8221; E! Online. Essay! 20 December 2003. Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Published: Jul 15th, 2009. Are the introduction domestic violence essay Spires on us history Disney World#8217;s Cinderella Castle Removable in Case of Hurricane?

Oct 2nd, 2017 An old but still thriving urban legend about introduction domestic essay, Walt Disney World in Florida holds that the theme park's tallest structure, Cinderella Castle, was built such that it can be fully or partially dismantled in the event of a hurricane. Management Dissertation! Snopes Facebook Group. Oct 2nd, 2017 The musician suffered cardiac arrest a week after he and his group the domestic violence Heartbreakers had concluded their 40th anniversary tour. Are NFL Players Required to Stand on the Field During the National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on the sideline during the pre-game playing of the U.S. national anthem. CBS Fires Lawyer Over Facebook Comments About Las Vegas Mass Shooting. Oct 2nd, 2017 The comments, which have since been deleted, express a lack of event, sympathy for shooting victims in Las Vegas because they may have been Republicans. Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of tweets gets some facts right about introduction domestic violence, a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico.

Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the difference and football more than 3.4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit. Updated What appears to domestic violence essay, be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is actually a scam. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to be holding as an incendiary device. Management! Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to introduction violence, Build a Protective Wall? Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to protect a town from the between and football end of the world.

Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on a radio talk show. Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by introduction taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in 3 Steps.

Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check! Be sure to use our checklist to easily find out what you may be missing on your letter. It is free to download.

Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job. Introduction? It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library.

To begin, include both the essay employer’s and your contact information. See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the information you need to include in essay the section, there are various ways to format it. Vs Enemies? Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in introduction domestic violence essay the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and trying essay, “to whom it may concern” is introduction domestic essay very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by trying new foods essay doing your research.

Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to violence essay ask for culture essay, the hiring manager’s name. Introduction Domestic? Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an new foods essay effort. In the introduction domestic first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for humanity education essay, and how you learned about the essay opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the american culture essay goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager. Violence Essay? Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and friends vs enemies, phrases from the introduction domestic essay job description in your cover letters.

No bombast! The rule of thumb is that you’re allowed to difference between soccer and football be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the evidence to domestic violence back it up ! To go the humanity essay extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to domestic essay find out what they are doing — and why — given the education essay current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and violence, achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back.

Thank them for spending the difference soccer and football essay time to domestic read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the difference soccer and football essay actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the domestic your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to new foods essay the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on introduction violence essay one page, there is essay some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the introduction domestic violence essay content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is really a matter of trying, preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website.

Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Essay? Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Us History Dissertations? Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to introduction domestic violence essay let you through to the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not.

You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. American Culture Essay? If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from violence essay, it in american family culture your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of violence essay, a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job.

Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for filling in these template letters: In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of soft skills you can use to new foods essay describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the introduction domestic violence essay parentheses – (BS Engineering)

My name is [your name]. Friends Vs Enemies Essay? I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in introduction domestic essay your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in between soccer a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for introduction domestic violence, the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and us history, extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to domestic leverage into the [name of open position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time.

Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Confident (Authoritative) Tone. My name is [your name]. Thank you for the opportunity to apply for vs enemies essay, the [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a candidate that is extremely familiar with the responsibilities associated with the role, and can perform them confidently. Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and perform above expectations.

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While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the introduction essay type of skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and management dissertation, abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at introduction [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from management, you soon. My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at your company.

After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the domestic violence necessary skills and abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into between soccer and football essay the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

My name is [your name]. I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the domestic role and humanity, develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the introduction perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and friends essay, managers.

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I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and event dissertation, I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is essay [your name]. I’m grateful for event management, the opportunity to introduction domestic violence essay apply for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a versatile candidate to handle the numerous and varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations.

I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and managers. During the course of my academic career, I also managed to accrue nearly [# of months/years of soccer, experience] of work experience. I had the privilege of domestic essay, working for [your current company’s name] in a [your current job title] role in my free time, where I learned valuable professional skills such as [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Whether working on us history dissertations academic, extracurricular, or professional projects, I apply proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. Violence? I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time.

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After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] recent high school graduate ([insert GPA]) who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. Us History? I look forward to elaborating on violence how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to trying new foods essay arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for domestic violence, your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

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We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in vs enemies full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in violence essay advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is between essay one of introduction domestic, our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback.

We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to essay consider using functional format to introduction essay help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. Education? We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. Introduction Violence Essay? What title I need to put in the header of the difference between and football essay resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on introduction the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you.

Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. Essay? (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and essay, informative. Just googled it and trying, no doubt remains now. Domestic? Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful.

Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for between soccer and football essay, Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and introduction domestic violence essay, Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions.

Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in new foods the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to introduction domestic essay lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Dissertations? Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter?

We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on domestic essay the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it.

Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Us History Dissertations? Please let us know if you have any question.

I remain stumped as to how to domestic address a cover letter in management response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of violence, hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and dissertations, searching for introduction violence essay, it on Google. You may find the dissertations job ad with the violence names included.

If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. American Essay? I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. Introduction Domestic Violence? If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.”

I’m going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to event do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is violence wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to essay CL, because there is almost the same to write. Introduction Domestic Violence Essay? please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter.

Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to difference and football write a cover letter for violence essay, a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in essay the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for introduction domestic violence essay, and why I am qualified for education, the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and domestic violence essay, type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and education essay, type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name.

This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on introduction domestic essay a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is american family essay a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at domestic this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the friends traffic fine and introduction domestic essay, get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice.

I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the american money. Essay? which I happen to be in management short supply of. Violence Essay? Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain?

Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the humanity education tips written above. That should get you started. Best of introduction domestic essay, luck! How to address gaps in between soccer employment.

My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to domestic work from 2005-2008. And Football Essay? Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at domestic home mom. Ready to go back to work again. Trying New Foods? How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of introduction domestic violence, resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice.

Thanks for the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Humanity Education Essay? Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for introduction domestic violence essay, a summer internship.

I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. Management? I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to essay say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Vs Enemies Essay? Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about domestic a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again.

How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the trying new foods essay leverage, so it would be fair to introduction ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Vs Enemies? Good luck! Hi, I am trying to introduction domestic essay help a friend who is friends essay looking to move into introduction domestic violence essay a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in essay a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field?

Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to introduction violence retire. Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for vs enemies, a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in introduction domestic violence essay before? When applying for between and football essay, a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in introduction domestic essay before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the friends essay relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. Violence Essay? From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Dissertations? Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this.

Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the violence essay project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the american family culture company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for introduction domestic violence essay, my ailing child . Difference Soccer? Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter.

Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. I am wondering if this is violence essay something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is us history dissertations longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter.

Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is domestic violence exactly what convinced you that now is the time to management dissertation do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and introduction essay, I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt!

Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in event such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for introduction domestic essay, the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in friends essay the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to essay be careful when sending out friends vs enemies, personal information.

Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to domestic violence Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to american family culture MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to violence your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to humanity education essay the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to introduction domestic violence essay download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.

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Domestic Violence Essay | Bartleby

MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and domestic essay, liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in event 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the domestic essay, medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing.

Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the humanity, more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . Domestic! You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is us history typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of introduction domestic essay, in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Management! Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on violence, all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined.

According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the difference between and football, headings have to be italicized or typed in introduction domestic essay bold. The first line of humanity, each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is introduction essay not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation.

Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. Essay! The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the domestic violence, author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in humanity education round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154).

Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the introduction domestic violence essay, author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in dissertations reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case.

However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to introduction violence, kill the Sahibs’ wives and trying, children.

Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of violence essay, words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the trying essay, statement of the introduction essay, author in the original source, which is difference and football essay located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the introduction domestic violence essay, details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to between and football, “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is introduction violence allowable to event dissertation, add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is introduction hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the soccer and football essay, Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to introduction essay, millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the education essay, Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in introduction domestic violence italics and the page number in friends the parenthesis.

Example: As stated by introduction domestic violence essay the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of us history dissertations, essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. Introduction Domestic Violence! In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used.

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P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the introduction essay, highest quality. The title page in vs enemies the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of domestic essay, writing it, never do it. Essay! However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in introduction domestic essay the upper left-hand corner of the event management, first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in introduction essay the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in humanity education quotation marks. The text of introduction domestic, your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style.

MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an event essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. Domestic Essay! The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of humanity essay, outline can’t have only introduction domestic violence essay one sub-section. Trying! So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on violence, Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the difference soccer essay, year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in domestic violence essay a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in humanity the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography.

The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the essay, author. In cases when there is no author, the between, references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is violence essay listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to trying new foods essay, italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Domestic Violence Essay! Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916.

Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to trying essay, be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of domestic essay, several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to difference between essay, be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the introduction essay, first name and then only the essay, last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the introduction domestic, book, you can choose to event dissertation, list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and introduction domestic violence, Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. Family Culture Essay! New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors.

When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of domestic, Art. Us History! A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the domestic violence essay, formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the culture, title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and introduction, year of publication, followed by the number of pages.

Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in management the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. Introduction Domestic Violence Essay! The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. Humanity Education Essay! 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the domestic violence essay, title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the trying, title of the periodical and not the title of the domestic violence, article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).

Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to american essay, formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to essay, be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and trying new foods essay, year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the introduction, above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information.

When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the difference between soccer essay, standard rules. Though the preferable format of introduction, a MLA essay includes the dissertation, in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style.

Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on introduction domestic violence essay, a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the us history dissertations, MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at essay, the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:

The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the essay, rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in introduction domestic violence the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the education essay, sections in domestic violence MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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Domestic Violence: Free Definition Essay Samples and Examples

7 Things Every ESL Teacher Should Teach Students About Essay Writing. “Every good story has a beginning, a middle and violence an end.” Many of us recall our teachers drilling this writer#8217;s mantra into trying new foods, us and our fellow students. Domestic Violence Essay! This is as true for between soccer, a good essay as it is for a good story. An essay needs a coherent structure to successfully articulate its arguments, and strong preparation and planning is crucial to providing that structure. So, how do we go about this? After all, essay writing can be challenging for the ESL student.

Not only does the student writer have to contend with the challenges of ordering their thoughts and constructing their arguments, they have to do this in introduction violence essay, their second language. Navigating the rocky bluffs of syntax and idiomatic expressions isn#8217;t easy at the best of times! So, here are some helpful hints that will allow your students to weave together a coherent and persuasive essay with less stress. The 7 Helpful Habits of ESL Essay Writing. Trying New Foods Essay! 1. Build the essay around a central question. Encourage your students to build all their writing around one central question of the essay. That central question is the engine of the writing, it should drive everything! If a word or sentence is introduction domestic violence, not assisting that forward motion toward the explication of management dissertation that question and its possible answers, then it needs to be reworded, rephrased or just plain cut out and discarded. Lean writing is merciless. Focusing on that central question throughout the prewriting, writing and rewriting stages helps develop the essay critical faculties required to discern what to keep and what to throw away.

2. Use the traditional 5-paragraph essay structure. Providing a clear structure for the student to approach essay writing can do much to build their confidence. The 5-paragraph essay, or #8220;hamburger#8221; essay, provides that clear structure for emergent ESL writers. Essay! Generally, this structure employs five separate paragraphs for the entire essay. Each paragraph serves a specific purpose, melding together to form a coherent whole. Paragraph 1: The introductory paragraph.

It makes the thesis statement, orientating the reader to the purpose of the introduction domestic essay essay. Paragraphs 2 to 4: The body paragraphs. These make individual points that are further backed up by the various forms of evidence. Paragraph 5: The conclusion paragraph. This provides a summation of the arguments and a final statement of the management dissertation thesis. While they do not need to follow it rigidly forever, this simple structure outlined above can serve as excellent training wheels for your students. Using the 5-paragraph structure as outlined above makes planning clear cut. Once they have their theses and are planning their paragraphs, share with the students the ridiculously useful acronym P.E.E. This stands for point, explanation, evidence.

Each body paragraph should make a point, or argument, in favor of the central thesis, followed by an explanation of this point and introduction relevant evidence to back it up. Extol the necessity for students to constantly refer to their planning. The mind-mapping techniques popularized by Tony Buzan can be useful at family essay the planning stage and make for introduction essay, easy reference points to ensure focus is maintained throughout the essay essay. Having a visual reference such as this can help ensure that your student-writers see each piece of the whole as well as that elusive #8220;bigger picture,#8221; so it become a case of seeing the forest and the trees! Just as the essay planning is crucial, so too is the research. Often ideas or connections do not occur until the writing process has begun. This is a good thing. Essay writing is humanity education essay, a creative act, so they can have more ideas along the way and work them in. Introduction Domestic Violence! The key is to always be able to back up these ideas. Event Management! Students who have done their homework on their subject will be much more confident and articulate in expressing their arguments. Even with thorough planning and research, writing oneself into a linguistic cul-de-sac is a common error.

Once the plan is completed and the student embarks on the choppy seas of essay essay writing, it may or may not be plain sailing. Often, especially with our higher level students, unforeseen currents can pull the student-writer off course. Sometimes just abandoning the sentence helps. Going back to trying new foods the drawing board and rewriting it is often best. Students can be creative with their sentence structures when expressing the simpler ideas and arguments. However, when it comes to expressing the more complex concepts, help them learn to use shorter sentences to introduction break down their arguments into smaller, more digestible chunks. Essay writing falls firmly in the camp of non-fiction.

That is a given. Essay! However, that does not mean that some of the techniques more traditionally associated with fiction, poetry and drama cannot be used. Introduction Essay! One technique that is particularly useful in essay writing is repetition. Just as poetry relies heavily on rhythm, so too does argument. Repetition can provide that sense of rhythm. Written language has its origins in the oral language. Think of the great orators and demagogues and american essay their use of repetition.

Speech-writers are well aware of the introduction essay power of repetition. The writing principle of the #8220;rule of 3#8221; states that ideas expressed in these terms are more convincing and memorable. This is true of words and the ideas they are expressing. The very structure of the 5-paragraph essay lends itself to trying planning for this repetition. Each idea that is explored in violence essay, a body paragraph should be outlined first in the introductory paragraph. Difference Essay! The single body paragraph devoted to the idea will explore it at greater length, supported by evidence. The third rap of the hammer occurs in the summation of the concluding paragraph, driving the point securely and convincingly home. As mentioned at the start of this post, every good essay has a beginning, middle and an end. Each point made, explained and supported by evidence is a step toward what the introduction writing teacher Roy Peter Clark calls closing the circle of meaning. Humanity Education! In planning for the conclusion of the essay, the introduction domestic essay students should take the opportunity to reaffirm their position.

By making reference to the points outlined in the introduction, driving them home one last time, the student-writer is bringing the essay to a satisfying full circle. This may be accomplished by employing various strategies: an apt quotation, referring to future consequences or attempting to event management inspire and mobilize the reader. Ending with a succinct quotation has the double benefit of introduction essay lending some authoritative weight to the argument while also allowing the student to humanity education essay select a well-written, distilled expression of their central thesis. This can make for a strong ending, particularly for ESL students. Often the essay thesis will suggest its own ending. Introduction Violence Essay! If the trying new foods essay essay is structured around a problem, it is frequently appropriate to end the essay by offering solutions to that problem and outlining potential consequences if those solutions are not followed. In the introduction domestic essay more polemical type essay, the student may end with a call to education arms, a plea for action on the part of the reader. The strategy chosen by the student will depend largely on what fits the central thesis of their essay best.

For the ESL student, the final edit is very important. It is one final chance to check form and meaning. For all writers this process can be daunting, but for language students especially. Often ESL students will use the same words over and over again due to a limited vocabulary, encourage your students to employ a thesaurus in introduction essay, the final drafting before submission. Difference Soccer And Football Essay! This will freshen up their work, making it more readable.

This will also increase their active vocabulary in the long run! Another useful strategy to use at this stage of the process is to encourage students to read their work aloud before handing it in. This can be good pronunciation practice, and allows for an opportunity to listen for grammatical errors. It also helps the students to hear where punctuation is required in the text, helping the overall rhythm and readability of the writing. Introduction! Essays are a great way not only for trying new foods, students to learn how the language works, but also to learn about themselves.

Formulating thoughts and arguments about various subjects is good exercise for not only the students#8217; linguistic faculties, but also for introduction violence essay, understanding who they are and how they see the world. American Family Culture! If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to teach English with real-world videos. FluentU brings language learning to life with real-world videos. Introduction Domestic Essay! Learning a foreign language becomes fun and difference soccer essay easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks. FluentU is violence essay, a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to difference between and football Amazon.com. We also participate in violence, other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in. Dissertation! By purchasing through our affiliate links, you are supporting our ability to provide you with free language learning content. 2017 FluentFlix Limited.

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Domestic Violence: Free Definition Essay Samples and Examples

dna destiny essays International Socialist Review Issue 38, November#150;December 2004. Genes, Evolution, and Human Nature. THE IDEA that human society and behavior are to domestic essay, some significant degree determined by our biological inheritance is both widely believed and enormously influential. One version of this argument bases itself on evolutionary theory, claiming that human evolution has made such characteristics as social hierarchy, gender inequality, competition, and violence inevitable features of every social system. Claims of dissertations this kind are closely linked to arguments that claim that significant aspects of human behavior#151;from alcoholism to criminality#151;are genetically determined.

1. Newspaper reports and TV programs, for example, inform us almost daily that scientists have uncovered evidence for the genetic basis of introduction domestic essay one human characteristic or another. Difference Between Soccer And Football! Sometimes the characteristic in question is a disease, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington#146;s disease. But just as often the essay, reports are about psychological characteristics and patterns of culture essay behavior, such as violence and criminality, or sexual orientation. A Time magazine cover story asked Why Are Men and Women Different? It Isn#146;t Just Upbringing. New Studies Show They Are Born That Way. The picture showed a little girl in a dress watching a little boy make a muscle.

2 The following month, a Newsweek cover story was headlined Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of Homosexuality. 3 Another Time cover pictured a cracked wedding ring and proclaimed Infidelity: It May be in Our Genes. 4 And U.S. News and World Report ran an article titled Sex: It#146;s All in Your Brain, claiming that men and women think differently and that Every social explanation has been exhausted. It is innate.

5. Leading U.S. scientists have made similar claims. James Watson (co-discoverer of the introduction domestic violence essay, structure of DNA and former head of the Human Genome Project) says, We used to think that our fate was in american family essay our stars. Now we know, in large part, that our fate is in introduction violence essay our genes. 6 Daniel Koshland, former editor of Science , the most prestigious scientific journal in trying new foods the country, has claimed that genetic research can help to domestic violence, eliminate key social problems.

According to Koshland, the homeless are impaired#133;. Indeed, no group will benefit more from the application of humanity education human genetics. 7. There is no question that there have been important advances in genetic research in domestic violence essay recent years. But the claim that these advances contain the solution to pressing social problems is not only false, but dangerous. Such claims are deeply ideological.

They are, in effect, an attempt to use the prestige of science to defend the status quo, which is why they are given prominent coverage in the media. The attempt to explain important features of society in evolutionary or genetic terms#151;biological determinism#151;has two goals. Friends! First, it tries to convince us that the social order is a consequence of unchanging human biology, so that inequality and injustice cannot be eliminated. Second, in the case of introduction domestic essay problems that are impossible to essay, ignore, it tells us to look for the solution at the level of the individual and not at domestic violence the level of social institutions. The problems lie not in the structure of society, but in new foods essay some of the individuals who make up society. The solution is thus to change#151;or even eliminate#151;the individuals, not to domestic violence, challenge existing social structures. From eugenics to genocide. The claim that biology holds the key to solving social problems and the related claim that biology demonstrates the limits of soccer and football social reform and the impossibility of radical change, both have a long history, going back even before the birth of modern genetics. In 1865, Charles Darwin#146;s cousin Francis Galton published an article called Hereditary Talent and Character 8 in which he claimed that talent is introduction violence biologically determined and proposed improving society through better breeding. A few years later he introduced the term eugenics#151;meaning good birth#151;to describe his proposal.

9. In his most famous book, Hereditary Genius, 10 Galton attempted to demonstrate that intelligence is inherited by tracing the genealogies of well-known English families and showing that, generation after generation, the members of such families tended to acquire prestigious social positions. Between Soccer And Football Essay! The alternative explanation, that what is inherited is not intelligence but access to social power and domestic violence essay, influence, seems not to have occurred to him. Since biological theories of this kind assume that existing inequalities reflect fundamental facts about human nature, it is not surprising that Galton reached racist conclusions. He claimed that [T]he average intellectual standard of the negro race is some two grades below our own, 11 and that the Jews are specialized for a parasitical existence upon other nations. 12. Despite the fact that there was no evidence whatsoever for difference between soccer essay, the underlying assumptions of eugenics, organizations promoting better breeding gained numerous supporters by the early part of the introduction, twentieth century.

Eugenics was adopted most enthusiastically in event management dissertation the U.S., where it was used by the nativist movement as part of domestic violence essay its attack on immigration. One of the us history dissertations, principle advocates was the biologist Charles Davenport, who was the founder of the Cold Spring Harbor Lab and violence essay, the Eugenics Record Office. The latter#151;which was financed by us history dissertations the widow of the railroad magnate E.H. Harriman#151;gathered information on thousands of American families for genetic research. Davenport was a serious scientist. Domestic Violence Essay! He demonstrated the trying new foods, heritability of eye, skin, and hair color. But he also held that characteristics such as pauperism, criminality, and feeble-mindedness were biologically inherited. Davenport even claimed that the introduction essay, capacity to be a naval officer is an inherited trait, composed of two subtraits: thalassophilia (love of the sea) and hyperkineticism (or wanderlust). Because there were no women in the navy, Davenport concluded that the education, trait is violence unique to dissertations, males. 13.

Davenport#146;s tendency to postulate a genetic basis for nearly everything would be amusing if the domestic violence essay, consequences had not been so tragic. Against evidence that pellagra, an often deadly disease that was at epidemic proportions in the South, was caused by dietary deficiencies, Davenport (who was also head of the U.S. Pellagra Commission) argued that there was a genetic susceptibility to the disease. New Foods! Successive administrations used Davenport#146;s false claims to avoid spending money on nutritional programs. As a result, hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, died unnecessarily between the time of the First World War and the New Deal, when the policy was finally changed. Eugenicists such as Davenport encouraged nearly thirty states to enact laws permitting the forced sterilization of introduction violence thousands of people in prisons and american family culture essay, mental hospitals who were judged to be feeble-minded or defective in some other way.

The first sterilization law was passed in Indiana in 1907. A quarter of a century later, the German Nazis used laws such as these as a model for their own racist legislation. Eugenicists in the U.S. also urged the federal government to restrict the immigration of undesirable races and introduction domestic, played an important role in helping to education, pass the viciously racist federal immigration laws of 1921 and 1924. Their arguments dovetailed with those of psychologists like H.H. Goddard and essay, Lewis M. Terman, who developed the event management dissertation, first standardized intelligence tests, which unsurprisingly reflected the racist and cultural biases of their designers. Even when testing led to the conclusion that half the U.S. population#151;including most Blacks and immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe#151;were of substandard intelligence, the domestic essay, results were taken seriously.

Terman advocated vocational training and placement for such unfortunates, warning that they could drift easily into the ranks of the management dissertation, anti-social or join the army of Bolshevik discontents. Carl Brigham of introduction domestic violence essay Princeton University (who later developed the Scholastic Aptitude Test, SAT) warned that [t]he average intelligence of essay succeeding waves of immigration has become progressively lower and that the situation was made worse owing to the presence here of the negro. Brigham advocated not only violence essay, severely limiting immigration but also prevention of the trying new foods, continued propagation of the defective strains in the present population. Domestic! 14. The passage of immigration restrictions also didn#146;t satisfy Davenport, who complained in 1925 that. our ancestors drove Baptists from Massachusetts Bay in to Rhode Island but we have no place to drive the Jews to. Also, they burned the education essay, witches but it seems to essay, be against the mores to burn any considerable part of our population. Trying! 15. This was not mere hyperbole. Domestic Violence! Earlier he had written that. though capital punishment is a crude method of grappling with the event management dissertation, difficulty [of those with inferior genes] it is infinitely superior to that of training the introduction, feeble-minded and criminalistic and trying, then letting them loose upon society and domestic violence essay, permitting them to perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits.

16. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that a few years later, leading U.S. eugenicists were praising Nazi race laws in Germany. The Eugenical News called the Nazi sterilization law of 1933 clean-cut, direct and essay, #145;model.#146; In 1935 the introduction domestic essay, American Eugenics Society argued that crime and dependency keep on increasing because new defectives are born, just as new cancer cells remorselessly penetrate into sound tissue, and it reminded its members that we treat cancer by means of the surgeon#146;s knife. Frederick Osborn, secretary of the American Eugenics Society, wrote in 1937: The German sterilization program is apparently an new foods, excellent one. Taken altogether, recent developments in Germany constitute perhaps the most important social experiment which has ever been tried. And Charles R. Stockard, president of the board of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, warned that the introduction essay, human race faced ultimate extermination unless low grade and american essay, defective stocks could be absolutely prevented from reproducing. Eugenicists in the U.S. continued to advocate the sterilization of millions of Americans right up until 1940.

17. Thus the idea that society#146;s problems are due to defective individuals played an important role in paving the way for domestic, the Nazi Holocaust. But largely because the Nazis took these ideas to their logical extreme, by the end of the Second World War, biological determinism in general and the eugenics movement in particular became completely discredited in the eyes of most mainstream scientists. Yet this period in which biologists rejected racist pseudo-science was remarkably short-lived. The return of humanity education essay biological determinism. Biological determinism first began to introduction domestic violence essay, make a comeback in the late 1960s as part of the ruling-class response to dissertation, the movements for social change in domestic the U.S. and essay, elsewhere. In 1969 Arthur Jensen, a professor at introduction domestic violence Stanford, published a paper arguing that Blacks are innately less intelligent than whites, based on trying essay, the fact that the introduction domestic essay, average African American IQ score is dissertations consistently lower than the average score for whites and the claim that IQ has a high degree of heritability.

18 Soon afterwards, the Harvard psychologist Richard Herrnstein defended the view that socioeconomic status is a direct function of inherited intelligence. In future generations, said Herrnstein, the tendency to introduction domestic violence essay, be unemployed would run in families just like the dissertations, tendency to have bad teeth. 19. But these claims that social inequalities have a biological basis were no better supported than the earlier claims of the eugenics movement. Jensen claimed that IQ is 80 percent heritable, citing as evidence research done on identical twins by the British psychologist Sir Cyril Burt. According to Burt, the IQs of identical twins who were separated and introduction domestic, raised in distinct environments are much more closely correlated than the IQs of event other individuals from the two environments. Violence! But Burt#146;s data seemed suspicious to the Marxist psychologist Leon Kamin, and a careful examination of trying new foods Burt#146;s research revealed that it really was too good to be true. For example, Kamin discovered that even though Burt#146;s sample sizes got bigger, some of the domestic essay, correlation coefficients he claimed to have calculated stayed identical to three decimal places. 20 It soon emerged that Burt#146;s work had been perhaps the biggest scientific fraud of the twentieth century. His supposed coauthors and research assistants did not exist, the twins he claimed to have studied were fictitious, and event, his data had been completely fabricated.

21. Not only is the claim that IQ is highly heritable unsupported, it is also irrelevant to Jensen#146;s main conclusion, which was that compensatory education programs are doomed to introduction violence essay, fail. Even if IQ was highly heritable, it would not follow that differences between groups could not be overcome by improved educational opportunities. Heritability is a measure of the variation in a trait due to genetic differences within a group, and is irrelevant to the issue of event management whether a characteristic can be altered by changing the environment. The same genotype (or collection of introduction domestic violence essay genes) may be expressed differently in essay different environments, so heritability estimates apply only to a specific population in introduction domestic violence essay a specific range of friends vs enemies environments. Hereditarians such as Jensen simply assume that we have already done all we can to alter the environment#151;a laughable assumption when it comes to education.

More generally, the domestic essay, idea that IQ tests measure an individual#146;s innate and fixed degree of intelligence, or that intelligence can be measured on humanity essay, a single scale, are equally dubious. 22. Who knows what IQ measures? asked the biologist Stephen Jay Gould. It is violence essay a good predictor of family culture #145;success#146; in school, but is such success a result of intelligence, apple polishing, or the assimilation of values that the leaders of society prefer? 23 Historically, IQ tests have been used to justify existing social hierarchies.

The tests are calibrated to ensure that those who occupy more privileged positions in the hierarchies receive higher scores. The scores are then used to claim that social inequalities reflect natural differences. The philosopher of science Hilary Putnam has argued that the notion of introduction violence IQ is built on the assumption that there are a few #145;superior#146; people who have this one mysterious factor#151;#145;intelligence#146;#151;and who are good at event management everything, and a lot of slobs who are not much good at anything. If this assumption seems plausible to some people, it is only because we live in a society that is highly stratified. In fact, ordinary people can do anything that it is in their interest and do it well when (1) they are highly motivated and (2) they work collectively. As Putnam points out: That motivation plays a decisive role in acquiring almost any skill is a matter of everyone#146;s experience. The importance of essay working collectively is culture essay also evidenced in many ways. The Black and Latin prisoners in Attica Prison are presumably part of [what Herrnstein calls] the violence essay, low IQ residue. But they organized brilliantly. Every popular revolution in event management history makes the same point#151;that ordinary people in a revolution can perform incredible feats of violence organization, planning, strategy, etc.

But collective intelligence is not restricted to the context of revolution. Since the difference between, 1950s a series of studies have shown that even in domestic violence the context of modern capitalist production, workers perform better, and find their jobs less dissatisfying, when the managerial hierarchy is reduced. 24. The claims of Jensen, Herrnstein, and trying new foods, other biological determinists, were simply an attempt to rationalize race and class inequalities as more or less inevitable. As genuine science, they lacked all merit. 25. From sociobiology to evolutionary psychology. From the mid-1970s, new attempts were made to use biology to explain social phenomena.

In his widely read book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 26 the Harvard entomologist E.O. Introduction Domestic! Wilson attempted to extend evolutionary explanations of essay social behavior in non-human animals to explain human behavior as well. Essay! Wilson argued that certain forms of human behavior are universal, and event, that the best explanation for this is that they are the introduction domestic essay, result of friends essay natural selection and introduction domestic essay, hence are coded for in our genes. Like the eugenicists of the early twentieth century, Wilson postulated genes for friends, a wide variety of traits, including entrepreneurship, creativity, spite, conformity (human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate#151;they seek it), xenophobia, and homosexuality. 27 Again, like the earlier eugenicists, Wilson claimed that these supposed biological facts made certain aspects of society, such as male domination of public life, all but inevitable. My own guess is the genetic bias is intense enough to cause a substantial division of labor even in the most free and egalitarian of future societies, he wrote shortly after Sociobiology was published. Thus, even with identical education and equal access to all professions, men are likely to play a disproportionate role in political life, business, and science.

If we attempt to create a more egalitarian society, Wilson continued, we will place some personal freedoms in jeopardy. 28 Concerning Marxism in introduction violence essay particular, Wilson reportedly joked later, Wonderful theory. Wrong species. 29. Sociobiological claims about human society received massive attention in management the media. A Time magazine cover story was headlined Why You Do What You Do. According to introduction essay, the accompanying article, the theory can explain loyalty to church, corporation and nation.

30 BusinessWeek soon claimed that sociobiology provided A Genetic Defense of the american culture essay, Free Market. Sociobiology means that individuals cannot be molded to fit into socialist societies without a tremendous loss of efficiency. Bioeconomists say that government programs that force individuals to be less competitive and selfish than they are genetically programmed to be are preordained to fail. 31. Even Playboy got into the act: Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes. Inside, the magazine#146;s readers were told that. Males are#133;driven by violence essay their genes to reproduce.

They tend to be more promiscuous because in friends time past that was their best way to reproduce the most offspring. Introduction Domestic Essay! If you get caught fooling around, don#146;t say the devil made you do it. Event Management! It#146;s the introduction, devil in your DNA. 32. Like their eugenic predecessors, these sociobiological speculations lacked any serious evidence in their support. 33 Consider for instance the claim that supposed human universals have a genetic basis. The mere fact of universality (if it is a fact) does not show this, since there might easily be a non-genetic explanation. German speaking is american culture essay nearly universal in Germany, but the explanation is not that inhabitants of the country are genetically predisposed to speak a particular language. Often sociobiologists claimed that non-human animals share the characteristic in essay question#151;aggression, for management, instance#151;and that this shows that it probably has a genetic basis.

But this kind of reasoning is quite unpersuasive, as Wilson#146;s Harvard colleague Richard Lewontin has pointed out: How do we decide that slavery in ants and ant queens are like human slavery and like human royal families? How do we decide that the coyness we see in people is the same as the behavior in animals called coyness? What happens is that human categories are laid on animals by analogy, partly as a matter of convenience of language, and then these traits are discovered in animals and laid back on humans as if they had a common origin. Introduction Domestic! There is in humanity education essay fact not a shred of domestic violence essay evidence that the anatomical, physiological, and genetic basis of what is called aggression in essay rats has anything in introduction essay common with the German invasion of Poland in 1939. Essay! 34. Similarly, there is no convincing evidence for the claim that various behaviors have been selected for in humans because they increase our biological fitness. Sociobiologists were initially interested in the question of why some animals are apparently willing to reduce (or even give up) their own chances of reproducing in order to benefit others. An extreme example is the existence of sterile members of introduction domestic violence essay insect colonies. How could such traits have evolved? One possible explanation is that an individual might give up its own prospects of reproducing in order to increase the chances of family culture essay its relatives reproducing, thus passing on some of introduction domestic violence essay its genes to american culture, the next generation indirectly.

These are known as cases of kin selection, in contrast to domestic violence, cases of individual selection, in which the management dissertation, organism attempts to pass on its genes directly by having offspring. Another possible explanation in cases in which the sacrifice is violence essay temporary is that the individual that benefits is likely to reciprocate in the future. This is essay known as reciprocal altruism. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are important ideas in evolutionary biology, but whether or not they are the correct explanation for any particular trait has to be demonstrated. But sociobiological explanations of human behavior simply assume what they need to prove. When we combine individual selective advantage with the possibility of kin selection and reciprocal altruism, it is hard to imagine any human trait for which a plausible scenario for its selective advantage could not be invented. Introduction Domestic Violence! The real problem is to find out whether any of these stories is true .#133; At the very minimum, we might ask whether there is any evidence that such selective processes are going on humanity education essay, at the present, but in fact no one has ever measured in domestic violence essay any human population the actual reproductive advantage or disadvantage of any human behavior. All of the sociobiological explanations of the evolution of human behavior are like Rudyard Kipling#146;s Just So stories of how the management, camel got his hump and how the elephant got his trunk. They are just stories.

Science has been turned into introduction violence essay a game. 35. But perhaps the most basic point is that the behaviors that sociobiologists claimed are coded into our genes, are not universals at all. Difference And Football! Not every human society has exhibited the same sexual division of labor as our own. And not every human society has been capitalist or even competitive. For example, the violence essay, anthropologist Peggy Sanday conducted a survey of about 150 different societies going back as far as the sixth century BC to see whether they were male-dominated, female-dominated, or based on trying, collective decision-making. Introduction Domestic Essay! She found a huge diversity of american family culture essay sex roles in these societies, showing that such roles derive not from human nature, but from specific historical and political circumstances.36 More generally, there has been tremendous cultural evolution in the past few thousand years that cannot be explained in biological terms because there simply hasn#146;t been enough time for domestic violence, natural selection to operate. New Foods Essay! 37.

Sociobiology reinvents itself. Sociobiology, however, has proven too ideologically useful to introduction domestic essay, die, and essay, it has reemerged over introduction domestic essay, the past decade renamed as evolutionary psychology. Books by New Republic editor Robert Wright, 38 science writer Matt Ridley 39 and between and football, Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker 40 have popularized the ideas of evolutionary psychology for a general audience. Pinker is particularly pugnacious. He claims that inequality and conflict are inevitable features of human society. Introduction Domestic! He attacks Marxists, academic feminists and cafe intellectuals and says The standard Marxist theory of human nature has probably been refuted by many sources of evidence, including the anthropological record and Darwinian theory. 41. Evolutionary psychology claims to be an advance of friends essay old-style sociobiology in at least two respects. First, it proposes that it is not specific behaviors but underlying psychological mechanisms that are shaped by natural selection.

This leads evolutionary psychologists to adopt a modular theory of the human mind, which sees it as consisting of a large number of distinct informational processing devices (or modules), each with a specialized task#151;in other words a Swiss army knife model of the mind. There is considerable evidence that at least some aspects of the domestic violence, mind#151;such as language abilities and the visual system#151;are independently functioning modules, but evolutionary psychologists take this idea to absurd extremes, proposing such modules as a cheater detector (able to tell you when someone is deceiving you) and a sexual attraction module (which supposedly leads human males to be attracted to young females, and us history dissertations, females to essay, be attracted to high-status males). Even more modest versions of the modularity thesis leave us with a picture of the mind that is atomized and relatively inflexible. 42. Second, the more technical work in dissertation evolutionary psychology makes use of sophisticated mathematical models in order to determine what kinds of psychological mechanisms would have been optimal for our ancient ancestors to evolve in the supposed environment of introduction domestic evolutionary adaptation that they had to face. The underlying assumption is that the human mind evolved to solve the problems faced by hunter-gatherers hundreds of thousands of years ago in the Pleistocene era and that its basic psychology has remained unchanged ever since. Contemporary social problems are thus rooted in the fact that we find ourselves with a Stone Age mind in an increasingly complex modern world.

43. But this whole approach is highly problematic. First, we have very little detailed knowledge of the environment of evolutionary adaptation faced by our early ancestors, so anything we say about us history, this is introduction domestic violence highly speculative. Second, just like sociobiologists before them, evolutionary psychologists often ignore alternative explanations of human behavior, as well as evidence that the psychological characteristics that they claim were built into the human mind hundreds of thousands of years ago are not universal after all. I#146;ll consider just one example#151;violence. American Family Culture! It is certainly true that human history is characterized by high levels of violence#151;including war, blood feuds, and violence, murder#151;much of which seem on the face of us history dissertations it highly irrational.

So why have generations of human beings killed each other rather than cooperating in ways that might have been mutually beneficial? Here is one possible explanation. Our distant ancestors, hundreds of thousands of years ago, found themselves in an environment in which violence was necessary to survive. Those individuals who developed a psychology that distinguished between members of their own group and domestic, strangers, and who were psychologically prepared to use deadly violence against the latter, were better adapted to this environment than those less inclined to use violence, and so these psychological characteristics were selected for in early humans. This tendency to event, violence continues to exist in modern humans even when it is no longer beneficial and the only way to domestic, keep it under control is to set up a strong central state that can, at least to some extent, hold these tendencies in check. That, in a nutshell, is the story that Steven Pinker tells about violence in his most recent book The Blank Slate , where he argues that human beings have a bloody prehistory stretching back hundreds of thousands of years and that violence in humans is#133;part of our design. 44. Unfortunately for Pinker, and fortunately for us history dissertations, the rest of us, this view of human prehistory is introduction domestic essay quite simply a myth.

In support of the claim that long before history began murderous strife was universal and unending, 45 Pinker cites the work of the University of Illinois archaeologist Lawrence Keeley, who claims that humans have always made war. 46 In fact, Keeley demonstrates nothing of the kind. His evidence consists of a compilation of various instances from the archaeological record in which humans died violent deaths at the hands of others. Management Dissertation! But what Keeley fails to show is that these cases were typical or common, rather than relatively isolated aberrations. According to the Rutgers anthropologist R. Brian Ferguson, probably the leading expert on the early history of war, the global archaeological record contradicts the idea that war was always a feature of human existence; instead, the introduction, record shows that warfare is largely a development of the humanity, past 10,000 years. 47 In a continuing global survey of essay all the available archaeological evidence, Ferguson has so far discovered no evidence of systematic violence in pre-historic human societies in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, or North America. Ferguson argues that warfare became a feature of human society only as a consequence of specific historical developments, including the establishment of permanent settlements with accumulated wealth and the emergence of social hierarchy, an elite, perhaps with its own interests and rivalries. Culture! The fact that for most of human existence there is no evidence of systematic large-scale violence, totally undercuts Pinker#146;s theory, which is really just a restatement of one of the oldest elements of ruling-class ideology#151;that states exist to protect us from ourselves, not to protect the domestic, interests of the elite and to new foods, keep the mass of the population in its place. But the problem is not just what Pinker says about violence. The whole idea that human psychology is relatively rigid and unchanging#151;one of the central claims of evolutionary psychology#151;is incompatible with what we actually do know about human evolution. The first modern humans are believed to have evolved in domestic violence essay southern Africa about 120,000 years ago.

According to Marta Lahr, Professor of Evolutionary Studies at Cambridge University, these creatures had the potential of humanity education essay invention that we have. And I think that#146;s actually what makes them modern#151;they [could] invent solutions to new problems. 48. Around 50,000 years ago groups of modern humans began to migrate from Africa and disperse around the world, coming into contact with other hominid species that had left Africa about a million and a half years earlier. Modern humans arrived in Europe around 35,000 years ago, where they lived side by side with Neanderthals, a closely related but distinct human species. Neanderthals, unlike modern humans, were physiologically well adapted to the cold European climate, but they were intellectually inferior to our ancestors. According to the archaeologist Paul Mellars, the most remarkable thing about introduction, Neanderthal technology is the way it hardly changes significantly over about a quarter of new foods essay a million years. You get essentially the same shapes of tools made by the same techniques over domestic essay, this whole period. Now as soon as you get modern humans on the scene you get a whole range of dramatic changes. American Family Essay! They suddenly start producing new shapes of stone tools obviously designed for different functions, and they start producing tools from introduction domestic essay bones, antler and ivory, which had never been used before. 49.

It was this creativity and ingenuity of our ancestors#151;also exhibited in difference between essay their elaborate ornaments, art, and burial rituals, and the complex networks of trade and domestic violence, exchange they established#151;that explains why they survived and the Neanderthals did not. When temperatures in Europe began to difference between and football essay, plummet with the onset of a new ice age, Neanderthals were unable to adjust to the new conditions. But modern humans continued to introduction domestic violence, thrive, even in mountainous areas. By 28,000 years ago the last remaining Neanderthals had disappeared. Similar developments took place around the world, where modern humans replaced other hominid species. Thus the key to our ancestors#146; success was their enormous flexibility and ability to learn, not patterns of behavior hardwired into their brains. 50. Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists distort Darwin by adopting an family culture, ultra-adaptationist view that tries to introduction domestic, explain every significant aspect of human behavior or psychology as a biological adaptation, shaped by natural selection. But while human intelligence was surely the subject of natural selection, it is highly implausible to think that specific behaviors or psychological characteristics are hardwired into our brains. As Stephen Jay Gould once put it: The central feature of our biological uniqueness also provides the major reason for doubting that our behaviors are directly coded by specific genes.

That feature is, of course, our large brain. [M]arkedly increased brain size in human evolution. added enough neural connections to convert an inflexible and trying new foods essay, rather rigidly programmed device into a labile organ, endowed with sufficient logic and memory to substitute non-programmed learning for direct specification as the ground of social behavior. Flexibility may well be the most important determinant of introduction essay human consciousness; the direct programming of education essay behavior has probably become inadaptive. 51. The evidence for sociobiology and evolutionary psychology is just as weak as for introduction domestic, earlier versions of biological determinism. Next issue: The New Eugenics. Phil Gasper is a member of the ISR editorial board. He teaches philosophy of science at Notre Dame de Namur University and is an associate editor of the online journal Human Nature Review (www.human-nature.com). 1#9;The arguments are linked because natural selection can only operate on characteristics that have a genetic basis. 2#9; Time , January 20, 1992.

3#9; Newsweek , February 24, 1992. 5#9; U.S. News and World Report , February 27, 1995. 7#9;Quoted in Evelyn Fox Keller, Nature, Nurture, and the Human Genome Project, in Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood (eds.), The Code of Codes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 282. 8#9;Originally published in Macmillan#146;s Magazine , 12, 157#151;66, 318#151;27, available online at http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Galton/talent.htm. 9#9;Francis Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (London and New York: Macmillan, 1883; second edition, Dent and Dutton, 1907), 17. 10#9;Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius (London and New York: Macmillan, 1869; second edition 1895). 11#9;Ibid., second edition, 338.

12	Correspondence With Alphonse de Candolle, from the Web site Life of Francis Galton by Karl Pearson, Vol. 2, 1884, available online at http://www.mugu.com/browse/galton/search/pearson/_vol2/pages/vol2_0239.htm. 13#9;On Davenport and the history of the eugenics movement see Allan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), Daniel J. Kevles, In the event management dissertation, Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), and Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America#146;s Campaign to Create a Master Race (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003). 14#9;Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981), 182, 227, and 230. 15#9;Letter to Madison Grant, April 7, 1925, quoted in C. E. Rosenberg, No Other Gods: On Science and domestic violence essay, American Social Thought (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 95#151;96. 16#9;Quoted in Chase, The Legacy of Malthus , 159#151;60. 17#9;All quotations from this paragraph are from Barry Mehler, Eliminating the Inferior: American and Nazi Sterilization Programs, Science for family culture, the People (Nov#151;Dec 1987), available online at http://www.ferris.edu/isar/archives/mehler/eliminating.htm. Osborn, incidentally, was also one of the founders of The Pioneer Fund, which still promotes theories of black inferiority and is a major financial supporter of the ultra-right Federation for domestic, American Immigration Reform. 18#9;Arthur Jensen, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39: 1#151;123. 19#9;Richard Herrnstein, IQ, Atlantic Monthly , September 1971, 43#151;64.

20#9;Leon J. Friends Vs Enemies Essay! Kamin, The Science and Politics of IQ (Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974). 21#9;Gould, The Mismeasure of Man , Ch. 6. Violence! R.C. Friends! Lewontin, Steven Rose, and Leon J. Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 101#151;06. Other genuine studies of identical twins are problematic on other grounds. See for example Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, 106#151;16 and Jay Joseph, Twin Studies in Psychiatry and introduction, Psychology: Science or Pseudoscience? Psychiatric Quarterly , 73:1, Spring 2002, 71#151;82. 22#9;The originator of education essay IQ tests, the French psychologist Alfred Binet, viewed them as simply a diagnostic tool to essay, determine which school children needed additional assistance, not as a measure of difference between soccer and football essay fixed intellectual capacity.

It was only when the tests were adopted in introduction domestic violence essay the U.S. in the early twentieth century that American hereditarians began interpreting the results in dissertations this latter way. See Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, 146#151;58. For the introduction violence, most influential critique of the idea that intelligence is a single entity or capacity, see Howard Gardner, Frames of us history dissertations Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983; second edition, 1993). 23#9;Steven Jay Gould, Racist Arguments and IQ, in Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History (New York: Norton, 1977), 245. 24#9;Hilary Putnam, Reductionism and the Nature of Psychology, Cognition 2:1, 1973, 141#151;43. 25#9;This, of domestic violence course, did not stop either Jensen or Herrnstein from continuing to get a respectful hearing for their pseudo-scientific views. Jensen elaborated his views at education essay length in Bias in introduction violence essay Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1979). Essay! Herrnstein later collaborated with the right-wing pundit Charles Murray to write the racist tract The Bell Curve: The Reshaping of introduction domestic essay American Life by Difference in Intelligence (New York: Free Press, 1994). New Foods! Jensen#146;s views are demolished by Stephen Jay Gould in Jensen#146;s Last Stand, in An Urchin in introduction domestic essay the Storm: Essays about Books and Ideas (New York: Norton, 1988).

For an equally devastating demolition of The Bell Curve , see Ned Block, Race, Genes, and IQ, Boston Review , December 1995/January 1996, available online at http://www.bostonreview.net/BR20.6/block.html. 26#9;E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975). 27#9; Sociobiology , chap. 27. 28#9;Quoted in Human Decency is Animal, New York Times Magazine , October 12, 1975. 29#9;Quoted in humanity education essay J. Getlin, Natural Wonder: At Heart, Edward Wilson#146;s an Ant Man, Los Angeles Times , October 21, 1994. 30#9;Time, August 1, 1977.

The article also reported a claim by the sociobiologist Robert Trivers that feminism was going to introduction domestic essay, decline because feminists were not having children and, therefore, would not pass on their feminist genes! 31	A Genetic Defense of the Free Market, BusinessWeek , April 10, 1978. 32#9;Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes, Playboy , August 1978. Event Management Dissertation! In a 1981 issue, Playboy went further, claiming that rape is very likely genetically based. a strategy genetically available to low-dominance males that increases their chances of reproducing by making more females available to them than they would otherwise acquire.

Claims of this kind remain a staple of introduction sociobiology and its more recent descendant evolutionary psychology, most notoriously in Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer, A Natural History of Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). For a thorough critique of friends essay Thornhill and domestic, Palmer see Cheryl Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003). 33#9;The most comprehensive critique of sociobiology is Philip Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985). Kitcher, who is perhaps the most respected contemporary philosopher of science, concludes that most human sociobiology is based on unrigorous analyses, problematic concepts, dubious connections, and culture essay, spurious arguments. Introduction! Also see Marshall Sahlins, The Use and event dissertation, Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976), and Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, Not in Our Genes, Chap. 9. 34#9;Richard C. Domestic Essay! Lewontin, Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993), 95#151;96. 35#9;Lewontin, Biology as Ideology , 100. 36#9;Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (New York: Cambridge University Press, l981). 37#9;Attempts by sociobiologists to deal with cultural evolution have not been successful. See Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition , Chap.

10 and Gould, Genes on the Brain, in An Urchin in the Storm . 38#9;Robert Wright, The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Pantheon, 1994). 39#9;Matt Ridley, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994). 40#9;Steven Pinker, How the friends vs enemies, Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997) and The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of violence Human Nature (New York: Viking, 2002). 41#9;Quoted in John Horgan, Darwin on His Mind, Lingua Franca , November 1997. 42#9;For critiques of evolutionary psychology see Hilary Rose and Steven Rose (eds.), Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Harmony Books, 2000); David Buller, Evolutionary Psychology, in Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa (eds.), A Field Guide to management dissertation, the Philosophy of introduction domestic violence essay Mind (An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 3, 2000), available online at http://host.uniroma3.it/progetti/_kant/field/ep.htm; John Dupré, Human Nature and essay, the Limits of introduction violence Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); and Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape . Buller#146;s forthcoming book, Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for humanity, Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), due out in 2005, promises to be the most comprehensive critique to date. 43#9;Leda Cosmides and introduction domestic violence essay, John Tooby, Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer, available online at http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/_research/cep/primer.html.

Buller calls this the american family, Flintstone theory _of human nature. 44#9;Pinker, The Blank Slate , 306 and 314. 45#9;This is a quotation from Winston Churchill with which Pinker begins his chapter on violence. The quotation, together with the fact that most of the chapter borrows heavily from the pessimistic seventeenth century philosopher Thomas Hobbes, suggests that Pinker#146;s views reflect old prejudices rather than a careful assessment of the available scientific evidence. 46#9;Lawrence Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 47#9;R. Brian Ferguson, The Birth of War, Natural History , July/August 2003, available online at http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/0703/0703_feature.html. 48#9;Quoted in Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution , a BBC/The Learning Channel documentary, originally broadcast on TLC in August 2000.

Also see Robin McKie, Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution (New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2000). 49#9;Quoted in introduction violence Dawn of dissertations Man . 50#9;For more on the Neanderthals see Paul Jordan, Neanderthal: Neanderthal Man and the Story of introduction violence Human Origins (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999). For an up to trying new foods essay, date guide to introduction essay, what is currently known about human evolution see Roger Lewin et. al., Principles of Human Evolution, second edition (New York: Blackwell, 2004). 51	Potentiality vs. Determinism, in Ever Since Darwin , 257.

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Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site - Mobile Version. The goose is getting fat, Please put a penny in the old man's hat. Sleigh bells ringing, children singing, Yule logs aglow, toy-filled stockings hanging by the hearth, Currier and Ives, Tiny Tim, and introduction domestic violence a beer baron's Clydesdales tromping through the management dissertation, snow. 'Tis Christmastide again, and as Grand Illumination heralds the season in Williamsburg, we can easily imagine the way it was in colonial times. Holly wreaths on every front door, mistletoe in the hallway, candle-lit tree in the parlor ringed round with brightly packaged gifts, and the sound of lantern-carrying carol singers amid the gently falling snowflakes. Introduction Domestic Essay! But snow? What snow? How often did colonial Virginians get snow at Christmas in Williamsburg? Thomas Nast's twinkling nineteenth-century Santa is the one familiar now.

The older St. Soccer! Nicholas was rather grim. Click image to enlarge. If modern experience is the judge, the answer is: Not often. Though in 1775 it fell right on cue. On Friday, December 22, diarist John Harrower, writing from Belvidera Plantation near Fredericksburg, reported a great fall of domestic violence essay snow. But for him, Christmas Day passed unnoticed. In the dissertations, previous year it snowed on the thirteenth, but Harrower's Christmas entry told only that he had no saddle on introduction domestic violence essay, which to ride to church.

Another diarist, Philip Vickers Fithian, handed out sixpences to the servants that cost him three shillings and a penny ha'penny, modest largesse then described as a Christmas box. But that was about the extent of Fithian's giving or receiving. He found Christmas dinner no otherwise than common, albeit elegantly laid out. The Christmas Day entry of essay a much earlier diarist, William Byrd of Westover, recalled that in 1740 it was too cold for him to go to church, though he did have roast turkey on the table. Turkeys and hams were traditional colonial fare, as they were in England. Even in the midst of a hot and sickly summer, a Yorktown resident thought to ship two Christmas turkeys to London, saying, Mrs Mary Ambler will send hams to eat with them. But that was about as Christmassy as colonial Virginians became. It was no different in introduction domestic, London for William Byrd in american family, 1718, whose diary contributed only that he ate some roast beef for dinner in what we would consider a late lunch. No churchgoing, no gifts given or received. Introduction Domestic! The following Christmas he was at sea on his way back to dissertation Virginia and eating plum pudding and boiled mutton, followed by roasted chestnuts and a bowl of punch with the captain. Byrd also conducted a service for the crew and wrote his own prayer.

Some Christmas customs descend from introduction essay, Saturnalia festivals, Roman celebrations in late December. Click image to enlarge. In short, an eighteenth-century Christmas, be it afloat, in Virginia, or in the Royal Court in event management, London, was primarily a religious festival—as it was meant to be. Nevertheless, being nice to the neighbors was a traditional facet of Christmas benevolence in high places. In 1772 the Virginia Gazette reported that at Windsor Lodge the Duke of Cumberland kept open table for the Country People, for three Days, covered with Surloins of roast Beef, Plum Puddings, and minced Pies, the rich and ancient Food of Englishmen. The report said that this was in the old English solid way, a criticism still heard in this country about English cooking. In 1774 Christmas fell conveniently on a Sunday, and amid much regal pomp George III and Queen Charlotte received the sacrament in the Chapel-Royal from the hands of the introduction domestic essay, Lord Bishop of London, assisted by essay the Lord Bishop of Chichester and the Clerk of the King's Closet.

In the following year the royal family went through the same ritual and made the usual offering. Violence Essay! The reporting newspaper noted, however, that the vs enemies essay, day has been kept with more strictness, by domestic violence essay all ranks of people in this metropolis, than for some years past. One immediately wonders what level of laxity had been perceived in vs enemies, previous years. It was, however, far more likely that antisocial behavior blossomed in the day after Christmas, that being the occasion for masters to reward servants and apprentices with ceramic money boxes containing their annual bonuses, which quickly went down their throats in the nearest taverns. 'Twas ever thus. As early as 1387 Geoffrey Chaucer wrote about the apprentice, his box, and his reputation for wild and riotous behavior. Although it is introduction violence doubtful that any happy apprentice gave a thought to friends vs enemies essay the origins of introduction essay Boxing Day, the church was all too aware that the day of giving and friends vs enemies essay receiving gifts could be traced to the pagan Roman Saturnalia, an domestic essay, event unfit for pious eyes or ears.

They saw it that way in Puritan Massachusetts. A law enacted in 1659 read: Whosoever shall be found observing any such day as Christmas, or the education, like, either by forebearing of labor, feasting in any other way, shall be fined 5 shillings, and domestic forbade the Festival of Christmas and kindred ones, superstitiously kept. The law was only in effect for twenty-two years, but Christmas was not made a legal holiday in Massachusetts until the mid-nineteenth century. In England during the Cromwellian interregnum, attending a Christmas service could get one into deep trouble, as it did for management dissertation, diarist John Evelyn. On Christmas Day, 1657, he and violence his wife were arrested while receiving the sacrament, musket-pointing Puritan soldiers threatening them as if they would have shot us at the altar. Turkey was a traditional English main course for eighteenth-century Christmases, along with Surloins of difference between and football essay roast Beef and hams, though colonists supped on the bird in violence essay, summer, too. Essay! Click image to enlarge. Although there is evidence that the stroke of a Puritanical pen outlawed many an introduction domestic essay, old English custom thought to vs enemies have had pagan origins, in the tradition-shrouded recesses of the countryside such edicts were contemptuously ignored. Albeit in distorted forms, therefore, some traditions survived to introduction be absorbed into american family essay the Christmas we still enjoy. Take, for domestic essay, example, the Yule log, whose ceremonial presentation is an established Colonial Williamsburg event.

In the medieval centuries, when candles were expensive and hearths wide, the notion that the birth of the Christ child became the us history dissertations, light of the world was reflected in the Christmas Eve burning of introduction a large, knotted, and slow-burning log or wooden block. Thus, in 1677, Poor Robin's Almanack included the american culture essay, December lines, Now blocks to cleave this time requires, / 'Gainst Christmas for to make good fires. Domestic Violence Essay! Twenty-nine years earlier, Puritan cleric Thomas Warmstry said that the blazes are foolish and vaine, not countenanced by the church. More to the point, oversized blazing logs were liable to catch cottage chimneys on difference soccer and football essay, fire. The lighting of candles on Christmas Eve was another, somewhat safer means of welcoming the birth of Christ. In the sixteenth century, and probably earlier, single, very large candles called specifically Christmas candles were burned in churches and in homes, and it is this tradition of welcoming the infant Jesus with candles that has become part of the Colonial Williamsburg prelude to violence essay the sacred day. Decorating one's home with ivy and other greenery was another tradition whose roots were dug deep in pagan Europe and dissertation were yet another feature of the Roman saturnalia that stretched from December 17 to introduction violence essay 24.

Created as a celebration for Saturnus, the god of agriculture, it evolved into an all-you-can-think-of festival of unbridled joy. The thirteenth-century historian Mathew Paris said it was characterized by processions, singing, lighting candles, adorning the house with laurel and green trees, giving presents; the men dressed as women or masqueraded in us history, the hides of animals. The fir we cut to introduction stand in the living-room corner may stem from the same classical source, though most of the myths surrounding it are Germanic—as College of William and Mary professor Charles Frederick Ernest Minnegerode well knew. He joined the faculty in 1842 to teach Latin and Greek and brought his native weinachtsbaum tradition with him. If you stumbled through that awkward word, just read it as Christmas tree. Education Essay! He set it up in the Courthouse Green home of domestic violence essay his lawyer friend Beverley Tucker. It was not until Christmas Eve, 1915, however, that the City of Williamsburg chose Palace Green to between soccer and football erect its first public illuminated tree.

The tradition continues, though it has shifted to Market Square and is lit at the time of the holiday-launching Grand Illumination. Kevin Ernst as Philip Vickers Fithian dispenses holiday sixpences to introduction Jared Armstead, left, and Bliss Armstead as servants. It was already a custom he felt obliged to follow. Humanity! Click image to enlarge. The illuminated Christmas tree was not a long-standing tradition in England.

Just as Professor Minnegerode brought a touch of his old country to Virginia, so another German took it to Britain. He was Albert Saxe-Coburg Gotha, who married Queen Victoria in 1840 and two years later was granted the rank of consort and enjoyed the distinction of introducing his weinachtsbaum to the English court. The year was 1842. It is domestic doubtful that many among the friends vs enemies essay, crowd following the Fife and Drum Corps down Duke of Gloucester Street give much thought to Professor Minnegerode's contribution to Williamsburg's Christmas or, indeed, to its German origins. Among the introduction domestic violence, best known of the legends is that of a knight who on friends, Christmas Eve was riding through a forest when he saw a strange light glimmering between the trees. Reaching it, he found a single fir tree bedecked in burning candles, some upright and others inverted, and topped by a glowing star. Returning home, his mother told him that he had been privileged to see the Tree of Humanity. The candles, she said, were people, the good ones pointing up and violence the bad down.

The glowing star was the Infant Jesus watching over all humanity. Today, of course, few of us risk using anything but electric candles, but I recall a Christmas at Carter's Grove when a ceiling-height tree in the hall was so bedecked with flaming candles that the heat threatened to set the house on fire. In a more restrained manner, fire has always been at the heart of Christmas. In pre-Christian Germany in houses where smoke escaped through a hole in the roof rather than up a chimney, the winter solstice was dedicated to humanity education essay Hertha, the goddess of domesticity. The room was decked with evergreens and introduction essay a great fire was laid on a large, flat altar stone set in management, the center. In the violence essay, midst of feasting, the essay, goddess would descend through the introduction violence, smoke to difference essay bestow good luck on the host and his guests. Thus, according to some mythologists, the Hertha stone became our hearthstones, and the legend explains why, rather than entering in a reasonable and introduction domestic civilized way, Santa Claus comes down the chimney. His North Pole address seems to be relatively new as no Saturnalian or ancient German knew that it existed. Event Dissertation! But Santa's alter ego, a grim-visaged Saint Nicholas, came out of the German forests riding a white horse carrying a basket of domestic essay gifts for good children and a fistful of birch rods with which to beat the bad. The saint's demon attendant, Pelznickle, who did the humanity essay, punishing and who today has been transformed into introduction violence a cute polar elf, provided an additional touch of menace. As for Santa as we know him, he came with Dutch colonists to New Amsterdam, where they built a church to Santa Nikalaus.

It was American author Washington Irving who in his 1809 tongue-in-cheek A History of New York by Diedrich Knickerbocker first described Santa Claus as small, rotund, and soaring through the air on a reindeer-drawn sleigh. Between Essay! Decades later, Thomas Nast, cartoonist for Harper's Illustrated Weekly, first drew him as we now know him. Nast also gave us the Democrats' donkey, and the GOP elephant. English writer John Evelyn and his wife, portrayed by Penn Russell and Lori Loughrey, found themselves in trouble with Cromwellian authorities, in the person of Willie Balderson, for receiving Christmas sacrament from their priest, here Robert Doares. Click image to enlarge. And what about carols? Christmas without carolers would be like—well, like holly without ivy. The word is said to derive from the Latin cantare, to domestic sing, and vs enemies essay rola, an expression of violence essay joy, and its earliest surviving text dates from the thirteenth century. But caroling being a monastic activity, it fell into disfavor in us history dissertations, the reign of Henry VIII, later to be revived in more secular forms only to be condemned by the Puritans.

By the introduction violence, time the British got over american culture, that hurdle, old-style carols were considered antiquated. Consequently, it was not until the domestic, nineteenth century that most of the carols we now sing were written. Silent Night was first published in 1840, Hark the Herald Angels Sing in 1856, O Come, All Ye Faithful was not translated into essay English until 1841, and O Little Town of Bethlehem was written for a Philadelphia Sunday School in domestic, 1868. In truth, most of the education essay, panoply of Christmas is the product of pagan tradition, of Victorian sentimentality, and of modern marketing that keeps millions of the world's elves in the manufacturing business. Even the mandatory Christmas cards to and from people you scarcely remember and probably wouldn't like if you saw them now have roots as shallow as the sentiments expressed. Introduction Domestic Essay! The earliest known card was created and mailed in 1845 by Victorian painter William Charles Dobson. A year later, another painter, John Calcott Horsley, was asked to provide a lithographed card to be sent out by the too-busy Sir Henry Cole, keeper of the records at the British Treasury Office, and thanks to him we have ever since been wishing one and all a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! For my part I leave you with some much older Christmas wishes in verses that predate Thomas Nast and even Charles Dickens, and which eloquently portray a yearning for event, imagined simpler days and happier hearts:

Too busy or too indolent to write personal greetings, Sir Henry Cole stands accused of being the sender of the second mass-produced Christmas and New Year's card in 1846. Introduction Essay! He at least wrote in the recipient's name and signed his own on the line. Click image to enlarge. Loud songs to the praise. Of good old English pleasures: To the Christmas cheer, And the event management, foaming beer, And the buttery's solid treasures;— And the rich spiced wine,

And the boar's head grimly staring; To the introduction domestic, frumenty, And the hot mince pie, Which all folks were for sharing;— In their green array, Spread over the walls and american dishes; To the swinging sup. Of the wassail cup,

With its toasted healths and wishes;— Of the hearty kiss, Where the introduction essay, mistletoe was swinging; When the berry white, Was claimed by management dissertation right, On the pale green branch clinging;—

From a guiltless shame, And the introduction domestic, lips, so bold in stealing, Had never broke. The vows they spoke, Of truth and manly feeling;— By the gossip old, O'er the humanity essay, embers dimly glowing, While the pattering sleet. On the casements beat, And the blast was hoarsely blowing;— To the tuneful wait.

Or the glad, sweet voices blending, When the carol rose, At the midnight's close, To the sleeper's ear ascending;— To all pleasant ways, When the good folks knew their station;

When God was fear'd, And the king revered, By the hearts of a grateful nation;— Was sacred still, As a law, by his children heeded; And none could brook. The mild sweet look, When a mother gently pleaded;—

Of the light and vain. With a smile was never greeted; And each smooth pretense, By plain good sense, With its true desert was treated. First published at Christmastide in 1832, the wistful verses clearly reflected dismay at lost contentment, the introduction domestic essay, eroding of family values, and the decline of morality and civility. Now, 173 Christmases later, what else is new?

This article was originally published in the Christmas 2005 edition of the “Colonial Williamsburg” journal. Williamsburg-based Ivor Noël Hume is a frequent contributor to friends the journal.