Ib english world literature essay criteria
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never written an SAT Essay or didn't get the score you wanted on world essay your last test, you can benefit from knowing more: both about the environment, Essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. World Literature? Here are 15 tips to master the SAT essay . If you can reliably follow all these points, you'll be able to get at least a 6/6/6 on the SAT essay - guaranteed. The SAT Essay is a very short assignment. You only comparative, get 50 minutes to read a 650-750 word passage, analyze the devices the author uses to structure her/his argument, and write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. Ib English World Literature Essay Criteria? Writing an SAT essay requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class in school. The goal of letter entry this strategy is to cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 50 minutes you've got. In this article, we give you 15 key tips for the SAT essay. The first five tips in this article relate to what the College Board tells us about what's a good essay.
The next five are truths that the College Board doesn't want you to know (or doesn’t make explicit). And the last five tips for SAT essay writing show you how to build an criteria SAT essay, step by step. What the hr cover entry, College Board Does Tell You: 5 Tips. The College Board explains the main components of the successful SAT Essay in its scoring criteria. Ib English Essay Criteria? Here they are condensed: The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a precise central claim.” What this means is that your essay needs to hr cover letter entry level, make a clear argument that the reader can easily identify. All you have to do to create your precise central claim is to identify the main idea of the passage and list the methods the author uses to support it.
Fortunately, the SAT provides you with the passage’s main idea, so you don’t have to go hunting for essay, it yourself. Algorithms Phd Thesis? I've bolded the claim in world literature, this (fake) sample prompt so you can see this for yourself: Write an essay in environment, which you explain how Sam Lindsay builds an argument to ib english literature criteria, persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters . In your essay, analyze how Lindsay uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of her argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Lindsay’s claims, but rather explain how Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience. Size? Now, here's an example of a thesis statement for an essay responding to this prompt: In the article “Monsters Monsters Everywhere,” Sam Lindsay uses personal anecdotes, vivid language, and literature essay, appeals to emotion to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters. It's fine to copy the exact words describing the author’s central claim from the prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on-topic. #2: Include Both an Introduction and a Conclusion. Answer Essay Multiple Question? The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.” Including an introduction paragraph in your essay is ib english criteria, absolutely essential to getting a Writing score above a 4/8. The introduction paragraph introduces the reader to what you’ll be talking about and allows you to phd thesis, set up the structure for the rest of the essay. Plus, an introduction can be a pretty good indicator of the quality for the rest of the essay – a poorly constructed introduction is often a warning that the essay that follows will be equally discombobulated.
It's best to have both an introduction and a conclusion, but if you’re running short on time and can only have one, definitely pick the introduction. A good introduction includes your thesis statement. For the criteria, SAT essay, as I discussed in the previous point, your thesis (or your precise central claim) should be a statement about what devices the author uses to build her/his argument. Introductions can be tricky to write, because whatever you write in that paragraph can then make you feel like you’re locked into essay, writing just about ib english world essay criteria, that. Comparative? If you’re struggling, leave yourself 10 blank lines at the beginning of the essay and jump into writing your body paragraphs. Just make sure you remember to go back and write in your introduction before time’s up! #3: Use Effective Language and ib english world, Word Choice. There are a couple of parts of the Writing score section on the SAT essay rubric that pertain directly to style. First, the SAT essay rubric states: The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. For most of us, this is an area that takes a long time to develop, so unless your language skills are really rough or you're prepping a year ahead of time (or both), you'll probably get more out of essay on visual focusing on the other components of the essay. Literature? The SAT essay rubric also states: “The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.
The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.” This basically boils down to: don't be repetitive and don't make grammar mistakes. In addition, you should avoid using first person statements like I or My in answer question, the essay, along with any other informality. You're writing the equivalent of a school paper, not an opinion piece. “I think that Sam’s super persuasive in this article cause she’s just so passionate. It made me feel kinda bad that I don’t really monster it up in my everyday life.” “Lindsay’s passionate defense of how drawing monsters 'allows us to laugh at our personal foibles' causes her audience to put themselves in her shoes and empathize with her position.” Finally, try to ib english world literature, use different words to describe the same idea - don't use shows 15 times. Take the chance to show off your vocabulary ( if, and only if , the vocabulary is appropriate and makes sense) . This component is the biggest reason why revising your SAT Essay is essential - it's fast and easy to change repeated words to other ones after you're finished, but it can slow you down during writing to worry about your word choice. If you're aiming for a top score, using advanced vocabulary appropriately is vital. #4: Only Use Information From the Passage.
All the relevant information is in the passage, so avoid getting drawn into formal letter, the topic and using your outside knowledge – you want to be sure to show that you’ve read the passage. In real life, there are many ways to support a thesis, depending on the topic. But on the SAT, there's one kind of correct support: specific details drawn from the passage you’re asked to world literature, analyze . We'll show you more below. #5: Focus Your Essay on Relevant Details. You don’t have to mention every single detail that makes the argument effective. In fact, your essay will be more coherent and on saving, more likely to score higher in Analysis if you focus your discussion on just a few points . It's more important to show that you're able to pick out the ib english world literature essay criteria, most important parts of the argument and answer choice essay multiple, explain their function that it is to be able to identify every single persuasive device the ib english world literature, author used.
Think about it as if you were asked to essay, write a 50-minute essay describing the ib english literature criteria, human face and what each part does. A clear essay would just focus on major features - eyes, nose, and letter size, mouth. A less effective essay might also try to discuss cheekbones, eyebrows, eyelashes, skin pores, chin clefts, and dimples as well. While all of these things are part of the face, it would be hard to essay criteria, get into detail about each of the parts in on saving, just 50 minutes. And this is the eye, and this is the other eye, and ib english literature essay, this is phd thesis, the. other eye. and the other eye. and world literature essay criteria, the other. wait. what's going on here?
What the College Board Doesn’t Tell You: 5 Secrets. Even though the SAT essay has clearly stated, publicly-available guidelines, there are a few secrets to answer choice essay multiple, writing the essay that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. #1: Read the Prompt Before the Passage. Why? Because the prompt includes the description of the author’s claim. Knowing what the author’s claim is going into the article can help keep you focused on the argument, rather than getting caught up in essay, reading the letter, passage (especially if the topic is one you're interested in). #2: Your Facts Must Be Accurate…But Your Interpretation Doesn’t Have to Be. A big part of the Analysis score for the SAT essay is not just identifying the ib english literature essay criteria, devices the author uses to letter size, build her argument, but explaining the effect that the use of these devices has on the reader . You don’t have to be completely, 100% accurate about the effect the passage has on the reader, because there is no one right answer.
As long as you are convincing in your explanation and ib english world essay, cite specific examples, you’ll be good. Here's an example of an interpretation about what effect a persuasive device has on phd thesis the reader (backed by evidence from the passage): Lindsay appeals to the emotions of world literature essay her readers by describing the forlorn, many-eyed creatures that stare reproachfully at her from formal size, old school notebook margins. The sympathy the readers feel for these forgotten doodles is expertly transferred to Lindsay herself when she draws the connection between the drawn monsters and her own life: “Often, I feel like one of these monsters – hidden away in my studio, brushes yearning to create what no one else cares to see.” Now, you don't necessarily know for sure if sympathy for the doodles is what the author was going for in her passage. The SAT essay graders probably don't know either (unless one of them wrote the passage). But as long as you can make a solid case for your interpretation, using facts and quotes from the literature, passage to back it up , you'll be good. #3: You Should Write More Than One Page. This has always been true for the SAT essay, but for the first time ever, the College Board actually came out in The Official SAT Study Guide and explicitly said that length really does matter . Hr Cover Entry Level? Here's the description of a 1-paragraph, 120-word-long student response that received a Writing score of 2/8 (bolding mine). “Due to the brief nature of the response , there is not enough evidence of ib english writing ability to merit a score higher than one.
Overall, this response demonstrates inadequate writing .” (source: The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , p. 206) You’ll have one page for letter entry, (ungraded) scrap paper that you can use to plan out your essay, and ib english world essay criteria, four pages of writing paper for the essay – plan on writing at least two pages for your essay . #4: Be Objective When Reading the Passage. Essay? Being able to stay detached while reading the ib english essay criteria, passage you'll be writing the answer essay, essay about can be tricky. World Literature Essay? This task might be especially difficult for students who were used to the old SAT essay (which pretty much made it mandatory for you to choose one side or the other). You’ll have to practice reading persuasive essays and essay, gaining objectivity (so that you are able to write about how the argument is ib english world essay criteria, constructed, not whether it’s good or bad). A good way to essay communication, practice this is to read news articles on topics you care deeply about by people who hold the opposite view that you do . For instance, as a composer and violist/violinist, I might read articles about how children should not be encouraged to play musical instruments, since it holds no practical value later on in life (a view I disagree with vehemently). I would then work on my objectivity by ib english essay jotting down the central ideas, most important details, and how these details relate to the central ideas of the article . Being able to understand the central ideas in hr cover entry, the passage and details without being sidetracked by rage (or other emotions) is key to essay, writing an effective SAT essay. Don't let the monster of algorithms phd thesis rage distract you from your purpose. #5: Memorize and Identify Specific Persuasive Techniques. Once you’re able to read articles objectively (as discussed in ib english world literature, point 4 above), the next step is to be able to break down the argument in the articles . Hr Cover Letter Entry? To do this successfully, you'll need to be aware of some of the techniques that are frequently used to literature essay, build arguments. The SAT essay prompt does mention a few of essay these techniques (bolding mine): As you read the passage below, consider how Lindsay uses. evidence, such as facts or examples , to support claims. reasoning to literature, develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion , to add power to the ideas expressed. It’s certainly possible to wing it and go into the test without knowing specific names of phd thesis particular persuasive devices and just organically build up your essay from features you notice in the article. However, it's way easier to ib english essay criteria, go into the essay knowing certain techniques that you can then scan the passage for algorithms phd thesis, . For instance, after noting the central ideas and world literature criteria, important details in the article about how more works of art should feature monsters, I would then work on analyzing the hr cover letter entry, way the author built her argument.
Does she use statistics in the article? Personal anecdotes? Appeal to emotion? I discuss the world criteria, top persuasive devices you should know in more detail in algorithms phd thesis, the article 6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt. How to world literature essay, Get All the Necessary Components in 50 Minutes: 5 Step-By-Step Strategies. When you write an SAT essay, you only have 50 minutes to read, analyze, and write an essay, which means that you need a game plan going in. Here's a short step-by-step guide on how to write an effective SAT essay. Answer Multiple Question? Don’t just summarize the passage in your essay, or identify persuasive devices used by the author - instead, be sure to actually analyze the way the literature essay, author of the passage builds her argument. As The Official SAT Study Guide states, [Y]our discussion should focus on what the author does, why he or she does it, and on saving, what effect this is likely to have on ib english world literature readers. College Board makes a point of specifying this very point in its grading rubric as well - an essay that scores a 2 (out of 4) or below in Analysis merely asserts, rather than explains [the persuasive devices'] importance.
If you want to hr cover level, get at least a 3/4 (or a 6/8) in Analysis, you need to ib english world literature, heed this warning and stay on task . Essay Communication? #2: Support Your Points With Concrete Evidence From the ib english literature essay, Passage. The best way to get a high Reading score for your essay is to quote from the passage appropriately to support your points . This shows not only algorithms, that you’ve read the passage (without your having to summarize the ib english criteria, passage at all), but also that you understand what the author is saying and the way the author constructed her argument. As an alternative to essay literary, using direct quotations from the passage, it’s also okay to paraphrase some of literature essay criteria what you discuss. If you are explaining the author's argument in your own words, however, you need to be extra careful to make sure that the facts you're stating are accurate - in contrast to scoring on the old SAT essay, scoring on formal essay the new SAT essay takes into world essay, account factual inaccuracies and penalizes you for them. Comparative? The SAT essay rubric states: “The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.” The main point to take away from this is that you should follow the standard structure for an SAT essay (introduction-body-body-conclusion) . Using a basic 4-5 paragraph essay structure will both keep you organized AND make it easier for the essay graders to follow your reasoning - a win-win situation!
Furthermore, you should connect each paragraph to criteria, each other through effective transitions. We'll give you ways to improve your performance in this area in the articles linked at the end of this article. #4: Make Time to Read, Analyze, Plan, Write, and Revise. Make sure you allocate appropriate amounts of time for each of the comparative essay, steps you’ll need to take to write the essay – 50 minutes may seem like a long time, but it goes by awfully quick with all the things you need to do. Reading the passage, analyzing the argument, planning your essay, writing your essay, and revising are all important components for ib english world essay, writing an 8/8/8 essay. For a breakdown of how much time to formal essay size, spend on each of these steps, be sure to check out our article on how to essay criteria, write an SAT essay, step-by-step. The more you practice the analysis and the writing, the better you’ll get at the task of writing an SAT essay (as you work up to it a little at a time). It's especially important to practice the essay on visual communication, analysis and ib english world essay, writing components of the essay if you are a slow reader (since reading speed can be difficult to change). Being able to analyze and phd thesis, write quickly can help balance out the ib english criteria, extra time you take to read and comprehend the material (plus, the essay, time you put into working on analysis and writing will yield greater rewards than time spent trying to essay, increase your reading speed). But don't forget : while it’s okay to break up the practice at first, you also really do need to get practice buckling down and essay literary, doing the whole task in one sitting . This is essay criteria, just the beginning of improving your SAT essay score. Next, you actually need to put this into essay communication, practice with a real SAT essay. Want to learn more about the changes to the SAT essay?
We have a comprehensive guide to what changed (and what didn't) here. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. Ib English Literature? We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Literary? Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Ib English Essay? Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. Phd Thesis? We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next.
Check out essay our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in letter level, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and ib english literature essay criteria, GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Algorithms? Follow us on ib english world essay criteria all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.
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3rd person pov essay In the past, you might have had problems getting that polished, professional feel to ib english your essays, but you couldn’t quite figure out why. Are your ideas too underdeveloped? Is your thesis statement not good enough? Do you not have enough support for your arguments? Sometimes the phd thesis problem with your essay is simply the point of view you choose to write in. Using third-person writing can make a world of difference in giving your essay the right tone. If you’re not sure what the different points of view are, I’ll give you a run-down and literature essay some examples to help you see more clearly. And for an added bonus, I’ll give you a couple clips from the king of narration himself, Morgan Freeman. When you write in first person, you use I and me . Think of yourself as the “first person”–any pronoun that indicates something you do or think is going to essay on visual communication be first person. You see this a lot when you’re reading books from the main character’s perspective.
Typically, however, first-person writing is not very effective in writing essays. (We’ll get to why that is in a second.) Example: I believe that third-person writing is the ib english criteria best point of view when writing an essay. First-person writing or narration also uses us and essay on saving we , as you’ll see in this example: Second-person point of view uses the pronoun you . Second-person writing is the equivalent to a choose-your-own-adventure novel or a self-help book. It speaks directly to the audience. However, the conversational tone of writing in ib english world, second-person is not usually ideal for academic writing. It is important to note that when you aren’t writing strictly in essay multiple question, third person, the ib english literature essay point of view can shift from sentence to essay on saving sentence. In the next example, you’ll notice that both first-person and second-person points of view are present. The lyrics Freeman reads shift between using “you/your” and first-person singular pronouns throughout the clip. Third-person writing uses the pronouns they, him, her, and world essay it , as well as proper nouns. This is the type of hr cover letter, writing you would see in a novel with an outside narrator. Example: Teachers and students agree that third-person writing makes essays sound better. Here’s one last video example, this one using third-person perspective, from the man with the ib english essay criteria golden voice: Why Third-Person Writing is hr cover letter level Important.
Third-Person Writing Makes Your Essay Sound More Assertive. If you write your essay in first person, you risk the chance of statements like “I think” or “I believe.” These kinds of statements sound more passive than just stating your facts. Literature! Notice the difference between the comparative essay literary following sentences: This is why I believe jazz is the first form of truly American music. This is essay criteria why jazz is the first form of truly American music. The second sentence–the one that uses third-person–sets a more definite tone. You are presenting the sentence as a statement of on saving environment, fact instead of world essay, a personal belief. Third-Person Writing Makes Your Support Sound More Credible.
On a related note, first-person writing makes your support sound like it’s coming from literary, a non-credible source. Presenting facts or opinions with “I think” or “I believe” in front doesn’t give any validity to ib english world literature the statement. Third-person writing encourages you to use other sources to hr cover letter entry validate your claims. The following two sentences will illustrate this further: I believe that children should consume less sugar because it leads to higher risk of obesity. According to the Obesity Action Coalition, children who consume a lot of sugar have an increased risk of ib english world, obesity. The second sentence pulls an authoritative source to support the algorithms claim instead of you, the writer. This makes the claim more credible to the reader. Third-Person Writing Sounds Less Conversational and More Professional. As I mentioned before, writing in the first or second person leads to a more conversational tone.
While this may be good for ib english world criteria, some forms of writing (this blog post, for example), you want your academic writing to take on a more formal tone. Consider the essay on visual following examples: When writing a novel, you should think about what kind of tone you want to portray before choosing which point of view you want to use. Literature Essay! When writing a novel, authors should think about the environment kind of tone they want to portray before choosing which point of view they want to use. The first sentence creates a more intimate and conversational tone with the reader, but the second sentence tells the reader what kind of ib english literature criteria, person (authors) would benefit from on saving, reading the sentence. It is more specific and, therefore, creates a more formal tone. Exceptions to the Third-Person Writing Rule. I won’t ever tell you that it’s always a good idea to write one specific way. Third-person writing is usually a good idea in academic writing, but there are cases where first-person writing is a better call.
When You’re Writing A Personal Narrative. Personal narrative essays are designed to world essay tell the reader something that has happened in your life, so first-person writing would be the essay on saving preferred choice here. Whether it be something that embarrassed you, angered you, or made you proud or happy, narrative essays are all about real-world life experiences. When You’re Talking About Your Own Opinions. Ib English Literature! Like narrative essays, using your own opinions in essays may sometimes require the use of the first person, especially if you are drawing on personal experiences. Usually, this will happen in persuasive essays. Essay Letter Size! It is important to note that you should still try to use third-person writing for your persuasive essays because, as I mentioned earlier, it will give a more formal tone and more credibility to world your argument.
However, if some personal experience is especially relevant, it would be okay to use the first person (unless your teacher says otherwise, of formal, course). When You’re Doing Other Informal Types of Writing. Essays are not the only types of writing assignments you’re likely to receive. Short stories and poetry pop up in classes from literature, time to time, and these can be written any number of ways. Short stories can take the first- or third-person perspective–they rarely use second person. Poetry can use any of the three points of view. Hr Cover Level! When you are concentrating strictly on academic essays, third-person writing is (usually) crucial.
And it’s not hard to ib english world literature criteria do. Just look at any references to yourself or the reader and essay multiple question change around the sentence to ib english world eliminate the I, me, you, we, and essay on visual communication us pronouns. Doing so will make your writing stronger, clearer, and more professional. If you still can’t quite get the hang of third-person writing, there’s no need to stress out over it. Just send your essay to one of the ib english literature essay criteria Kibin editors to help you out. Now… go try your hand at hr cover entry level, third-person writing! Psst. 98% of ib english world literature criteria, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Communication! About the ib english essay Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education.
You can find her on Google+. The essay I recently turned in was returned because it was not written in third person. Phd Thesis! I am not sure how to write in third person. Any guidance will be appreciated. You#8217;ll want to rewrite any sentences containing the word #8220;I#8221;, me, or my. For example, #8220;I think dogs are cute.#8221; becomes #8220;Dogs are cute.#8221; or #8220;In my opinion, the Warriors should have won.#8221; becomes #8220;The Warriors should have won.#8221; If you need more help, you could submit your essay to the Kibin editors who could help change your paper to third person so that you can see exactly how that works for next time.
You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading (If you do decide to try it, make sure to state that you need help changing to 3rd person in ib english, your instructions.) You can still use your personal learnings about independence and responsibility and transform it into third person. For example in first-person I might write: #8220;I have learned a great deal about personal independence and responsibility since starting university. First, I found out how important it is for me to manage my budget so that I don#8217;t run out of money for food and laundry before the end of the month. I now know that it costs about algorithms $400 to eat and $30 to do laundry for the month and I set this aside on the first.#8221; Now, I will transform those same thoughts to a third person formal essay: #8220;Students learn a lot about personal independence and responsibility when starting university. One critical step is understanding how to manage a personal budget in order to ensure that essentials such as food and laundry are covered throughout the ib english essay criteria month. Jane Doe, a fake financial expert at Fidelity Advisors, says that students should plan to essay communication set aside about $400 for food every month and should track their expenses using a budgeting app or spreadsheet in order to not go over criteria budget.#8221; Do you see the difference? Hi, I#8217;m writing a narrative essay about phd thesis a dystopian society that I created. Literature! It involves a plot and essay communication a planned story, but I#8217;m not sure on how to ib english essay criteria approach it. Suggestions would be appreciated.
That sounds like a fun project! Since you have it planned out, here are a few suggestions. Will you be writing this essay in third person or first? Third person is environment better if you want to have more flexibility of ib english literature essay criteria, perspective, which could be especially helpful if you have a lot of different characters. First person is better if you#8217;re really trying to dig into the emotions and motives of formal letter, a single protagonist. You might also want to sketch out the rules of your society.
Even going through the exercise of writing out the rules before you dig into the narrative can help you stay true to ib english world literature a consistent setting. Also if you are doing something fairly character heavy, a similar sketch for each character might help you in hr cover entry level, a similar way.
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essay on behaviour Read the following essay from the subject Human Behaviour. Click on the blue highlighted numbers to see comments. Words or phrases highlighted in pink are wrong or in some way problematic. Most of ib english literature essay criteria, these have comments attached, but in a few places we leave it to you to think about what is wrong, or how the writing might be improved. 1 Cancer is still seen by many as an incurable disease that slowly takes over healthy human tissue, and ultimately causes death. Essay. 2 Through advances in medical science, different physical procedures have been developed to treat cancer for example, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. In recent years however, there has been a growing perception by world literature essay cancer specialists and essay communication patients that the onset and treatment of cancer may be affected by psychological factors.
A new field of research called psycho-oncology has emerged to investigate how the mind can slow down, or even reverse, the progress of cancer. World Literature Essay Criteria. The results from such studies however, have not always been conclusive, and in the case of retrospective studies, have often proved contradictory. 3 While it is important that medical science properly investigate the merit of mind-cancer theories, the benefits of alternative therapies and viewpoints should not be overlooked in phd thesis, the debate over ib english literature, cancer research. 4 The essay briefly surveys the origins of mind-cancer research and the emergence of the field of psycho-oncology, before addressing contemporary research in the area, in particular, the answer choice multiple question, problem of validating results. It concludes by examining the merits of alternative therapies with regard to patient psychology. 5 Before examining the origins of mind-cancer research, the physiology of cancer will be briefly discussed. Ib English. Cancer is choice essay question, a general term used to describe a physiological disorder in which cells in the body begin to reproduce as abnormal cells, forming a mass called a tumour. World Criteria. There are different types of choice essay, cancers and tumours, and the body utilises the immune system to destroy the cancerous cells. If the ib english, tumour is malignant, the immune system stops the cancer cells from moving to other areas of the essay literary, body. The immune system halts the spread of the cancer cells by the use of cytotoxic T-cells, also known as 6 natural killer (NK) cells.
These cells attack the cancerous cells and destroy them. This is why much cancer research over the years has concentrated on the immune system because in effect, this system provides the body#039;s own natural cancer treatment. In several studies completed over the last two decades, 7 researchers have found that psychological factors such as stress and bereavement can suppress NK cell activity in literature essay, the body, and the activity of all T-cells in general 8 (Bartrop, 1977; 9 Sali, 1992, cited by hr cover Kune, 1992). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed as a contributing factor in many physiological diseases including allergies, infections, digestive disorders, asthma, heart disease, and cancer 10 (Edelman Kidman, 1997). The idea however, that psychological factors could have an influence on ib english world literature criteria, cancer was first raised as early as the second century. The Greek physician, 11 Galen, noted that depressed women were more likely to develop cancer than happy women (cited by Sdorow, 1995). Algorithms. Other eminent physicians and surgeons also noted that the personalities of people who had developed cancer were markedly different to ib english criteria people who had not developed cancer (cited by Kune, 1992); 12 i.e, they concluded that cancer was more likely to develop in people who possessed a #039;melancholy#039; disposition (cited by essay size Horne, 1996).
13 This raised the question of why such psychological factors might influence the behaviour of cancer. Studies in ib english literature essay, the field of psycho-oncology, which combines oncology with psychiatry, therefore tried to on saving environment show how the mind affected physiological functions. Dedicated experimentation in the field first began with laboratory mice. 14 Sklar and ib english literature essay Anisman (1979) implanted cancerous cells into mice, and literary then subjected them to a series of escapable and inescapable electric shocks. They reasoned that the mice subjected to the inescapable shocks would be placed under more stress than the mice allowed to escape the shocks. They further found that the mice in ib english world literature, the former category developed exaggerated tumour sizes and did not survive as long as did the mice in the latter category. Nevertheless, the results were regarded as inconclusive since different tumour systems are differentially influenced by stress (chemically induced tumours are inhibited by increased stress levels), and the experiment involved mice and essay on saving not humans.
15 Research was then directed to cancer patients. Ib English World Literature. Many studies concentrated on women suffering from breast cancer, and consisted of interviewing them after a significant event involving their cancer (such as diagnosis, or an operation). Essay. The patients were then followed up after a number of years. However, the results often proved contradictory, as has occurred in essay, several retrospective studies. In one well-known case, 16 Ramirez et al. (1989) found that there was a prognostic association between severe life stressors and the recurrence of breast cancer. Barraclough et al. (1992) 17 on the other hand, 18 found that psychosocial adversity such as depression, or a severe life event, was not conducive to a relapse of cancer and essay literary this conclusions has since been supported. 19 There is good evidence for any relation between stressful life events and breast cancer (McGee 1999, p.1015).
Certain studies found that patients could be classified into ib english world essay criteria different psychological groups, and that a pattern emerged in the life span of the patients in each of the groups. In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 20 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into one of four groups , 21 the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of on visual communication, Hopelessness groups. Ib English Literature Essay Criteria. The Denial group consisted of literary, those patients who rejected any evidence of their diagnosis, and 22 didn#039;t consider having cancer as serious. The Fighting Spirit group consisted of patients who possessed a highly optimistic attitude, and sought to learn more information about their cancer and to do everything they could to conquer the disease. The Stoic Acceptance group comprised patients who ignored their cancer and any symptoms as much as they could, continuing with their lives as normal. The patients in the Feelings of Hopelessness group considered themselves gravely ill, and ib english essay were totally preoccupied in a negative way with their illness. At the completion of the study, researchers found that the patients classified in essay on saving, the first two groups were more likely to achieve a favourable outcome than the patients classified in the latter two groups (Greer et al. 1979). This conclusion was similar to Galen#039;s hypothesis, which claimed that women who had cancer and ib english world essay died from it were more likely to have different personalities than those women who did not develop the disease or were cured of it. Other studies reinvestigated the role of stress in cancer. Medical research had established that stress could cause immunosuppression, and that in times of stress, people could become sick more readily.
Goodkin et al. Choice Essay Question. (1984) postulated that an invasive cervical carcinoma could develop as a result of a mediating mechanism such as the immune system becoming adversely affected by literature essay criteria stress. As mentioned previously, exposure to stressful life experiences can also alter T-cell activity in the immune system. Schleifer et al. (1985) demonstrated that in essay literary, most people T-cell activity returned to normal after a time, but for others, it remained lower than prior to ib english world essay criteria the stressor event leaving them more susceptible to illness. However, like many other findings, it remains to be determined whether these changes in immune function are specifically related to cancer. 23 Can the essay, mind really play a role in cancer onset and ib english world essay criteria cure? While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive, and in some cases, contradictory. It is also possible that researchers have concluded what they wanted to believe. . . . Literary. In those studies which have directly linked stress to cancer, stress may only be an indirect cause. People in general, when confronted with something that causes stress, tend to isolate themselves and engage in #039;emotion-focused coping behaviour,#039; to prevent being overwhelmed by ib english world literature their negative emotions (Atkinson et al. 1996). Typical examples are behavioural strategies including cigarette smoking and drug and alcohol consumption. Such behaviour can cause numerous health problems with smoking being especially linked to the development of lung cancer.
In turn, the cancer can spread to phd thesis other parts of the body. These coping factors may in world literature essay, fact, represent the real reason why stress has been linked to essay on visual cancer. World Literature Essay. Issues such as these are among the questions that mind-cancer research needs to resolve. The quality of studies conducted has also prevented any definite conclusions being reached about the validity of theories that view the mind as influencing cancer. Many of these studies for example, have been criticised for poor methodology and design faults (Edelman and Kidman, 1997). 24 Small sample sizes, the use of unvalidated instruments, no control groups, no vital information taken into formal essay account and no randomising of treatment groups may have led to errors in the calculation of results, and ib english literature criteria therefore, to essay questionable conclusions. Many studies have not been replicated by essay other researchers to determine the accuracy of their results. . Formal Essay Size. . . Or, they may have been based upon what was in effect, the measurement of feelings.
Since feelings cannot be determined quantitatively, it is world essay criteria, hard to assess the exact amount of stress or depression that a person has experienced. . . . In addition, the equipment used in some studies to hr cover letter entry level measure psychological variables may have varied between studies. World. All these factors can contribute to inconclusive outcomes. Although verifying mind-cancer studies is problematic, medical personnel need to consider the choice essay multiple, psychology of their patients. For this reason, the benefits offered by a positive mindset or alternative therapies should not be too readily dismissed. Ib English World Criteria. It may well be useful for some cancer patients to algorithms believe that the mind can be used as a tool to treat, or even, prevent the onset of cancer. Similarly, it may also benefit some cancer patients to attempt alternative treatments such as meditation and positive thinking. No matter how strange a cancer treatment may appear, it should not be immediately discredited. One woman with breast cancer was able to keep her malignant tumour localised for a period of seven years, before undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy to finally destroy the cancer. Over a period of seven years, she underwent vibrational healing and oxygen therapy, took high doses of Vitamin C and Vitamin B17 (Laetrile), but most importantly, adopted a positive attitude toward life and living (Ward 1996). . World Essay. . . Such a patient may well be an example of the phenomenon Sarafino (1990) notes of choice question, patients who appear to #039;will away#039; cancer.
25 The extent to which the mind can affect cancer still remains unresolved. Specific questions cannot be answered with any certainty due to the ambiguities, inconsistencies and direct contradictions of some studies. Nevertheless, an ib english literature essay criteria, examination of the literature that discusses these issues reveals broad findings that are worth emphasising: Stress can negatively affect the immune system. Although the evidence is communication, ambiguous, stress can also affect the onset and world literature progression of cancer.
An individual#039;s psychological profile can affect the progression of letter entry, cancer in the body. Such findings should not be ignored, but rather used to the patient#039;s advantage. With the advent of newer medical technology, more research and greater knowledge about how the mind works, the answers to ib english literature essay criteria questions in the field of letter level, psycho-oncology will hopefully be revealed. Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J., and S. Nolen-Hoeksema . Hilgard#039;s Introduction to Psychology. (12th ed.). USA: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1996.
Barraclough, J., Pinder, P., Cruddas, M., Osmond, C., Taylor I., and M. Perry. Life events and breast cancer prognosis. British Medical Journal, 304, 1078-1081, 1992. Bartrop, R.W., Luckhurst, E., Lazarus. L., Kiloh, L.G., and R. Penny.
Depressed Lymphocyte Function After Bereavement. World Criteria. The Lancet, i, 834-836, 1977. Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman. Comparative Literary. Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - 27 A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. Goodkin, K., Antoni, M.H., and P.H. Literature Essay Criteria. Blaney.
Stress and essay environment hopelessness in the promotion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30, 67-76, 1986. Greer, S., Morris, T., and world K.W. Pettingale. Psychological response to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. The Lancet, ii, 785-787, 1979. Home, R. Essay On Visual. Cancer Proof your Body. Adelaide: Griffin Paperbacks, 1996. Kune, G.A., and S. Bannerman. Essay Criteria. The 1st Slezak Cancer Symposium - The Psyche and comparative literary Cancer. Ib English. University of comparative essay, Melbourne, 1992.
McGee, R. Does stress cause cancer? There#039;s no good evidence of a relation between stressful events and world essay criteria cancer. British Medical Journal, 319, 1015-1019, 1999. Ramirez, A.J., Craig, T.K.J., Watson, J.P., Fentiman, I.S., North, W.R.S., and R.D. Reubens.
Stress and relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 298, 291-293, 1989. Sarafino, E.P. Health Psychology-Biosocial Interactions. Canada: 28 1990. Schleifer, S.J., Keller, S.E., and M. Stein. Essay On Saving. Central Nervous System Mechanisms and Immunity: Implications for Tumour Response.
In S.M. Levy, Behaviour and Cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1985. 29. Sdorow, L.M. Psychology, (3rd ed.). 30 Brown and world literature essay Benchmark , 1995. Sklar, L.S., and H. Anisman.
Stress and coping factors influence tumour growth. Science, 205, 513-515, 1979. Ward, D. Hr Cover Letter Entry. One in 10 - Women living with Breast Cancer. Sydney: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1996. The first thing to do in ib english world essay, a typical introduction is to introduce the topic , and provide a little relevant background information to orient the algorithms phd thesis, reader. World Essay. The first statement here identifies the essay on saving, broad topic as cancer, with a brief description of what it is. The second stage of a typical introduction limits the scope of the discussion. The next 4 sentences focus on the history of the treatment of cancer, and specifically the role of the mind in controlling the disease. This next stage points out the importance or relevance of the topic. We don#039;t yet know, however, exactly how the writer is going to tackle the subject.
In the final stage of the introduction, the writer gives a brief outline of the structure of the essay, and what the writer intends to ib english achieve. Note, however, that this plan avoids using #039;I#039; statements (In this essay I will . ); to do so would overemphasise what is purely organisational information. Instead it does the same thing in a less personal way: This essay . surveys . It concludes by examining . . In general,#039;I#039; is choice essay multiple question, rarely used in scientific writing, where the #039;facts of world criteria, research#039; are required to speak for themselves. Notice how the topic sentence in this paragraph maintains the overall theme - the effects of the mind on essay literary, cancer - while at the same time moving the discussion forward. If you wish to use an acronym like NK = natural killer in your essay, introduce it the first time by using the full term and ib english literature essay adding the acronym immediately after it in brackets. Use the essay communication, active voice and human agent(s) where possible (i.e. Researchers have found. instead of impersonal constructions of the type It has been found. Impersonal constructions do not clearly indicate authorship or responsibility. This first use of a reference focuses on introducing relevant information rather than specific researcher achievements/events/opinions. This is a typical practice in the early stages of an essay. See Citing previous research on the difference between information-prominent and author-prominent citations.
(Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992) is a reference within a reference . In general, you should avoid reporting writers at #039;third-hand#039;; instead go to the original source if possible. If that is not possible, you can use this method to cite authors referred to in another source. When using the Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, a reference at the end of ib english essay criteria, a sentence is always placed in brackets before the full stop, not after it: This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to letter entry level be viewed . and cancer (Edelman, 1997). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and ib english world essay cancer. (Edelman, 1997) Galen is a source cited by on saving another author (Sdorow, 1995), as are other eminent physicians and surgeons (cited by Kune, 1992). In formal writing it is world essay criteria, preferable to avoid using abbreviations - use #039;that is#039; rather than i.e. and #039;for example#039; rather than e.g. The pronoun this is often overused by writers. In this sentence, you may feel it is not clear what #039;this#039; refers to. The following sentence is more specific, and you might consider dropping this first sentence altogether. Author-prominent citations (see Citing previous research) are appropriate at this point as the essay on saving, writer#039;s focus has now moved to the work of individual researchers.
Note that if you have cited a particular reference once already in a paragraph, it is not necessary to ib english essay cite that work again in the same paragraph unless a second reference has also been cited, and you need to clarify any possible ambiguity. In this paragraph only letter size one reference has been cited (Sklar and world essay Anisman 1979), and the reader will naturally assume that any information in the rest of the paragraph comes from the essay on visual, same source. The topic sentence must state the intention behind the paragraph clearly and specifically. In this case the point is the turn from research on animals to research on world, human patients. Adding a couple more words could clarify this; for example: At that point, therefore, research was directed to cancer in human patients. et al. is the algorithms, Latin short form for #039;and others#039; or #039;other writers#039; and is used when more than two writers are referred to. Strictly speaking, it should only be used the second time you refer to the same source - in other words, give the literature essay, full citation the first time the work is cited. Here, therefore, the citation should be to Ramirez, Craig, Watson, Fentiman, North, and Reubens (1989) . (Of course, the authors#039; initials are not included in the citation - except when two of the authors have the algorithms phd thesis, same surname.) Note, too, that et al. is plural in reference; so make sure the verb agrees with its plural subject. Transition markers such as #039;on the world literature essay criteria, other hand#039; are used to algorithms phd thesis organise your argument and to emphasise particular points - e.g. cause ( because , since, etc.), effect ( as a result , therefore , etc.) contrast ( however , on the other hand , etc.), concession ( although , etc.) and example ( for instance , etc.) (see also Linking.
Use them strategically and carefully. It might be better to use #039;claimed#039; here in place of #039;found#039;. Vary your reporting verbs (i.e. states , claims , suggests , aintains , demonstrates , etc.), but make sure the appropriate verb is used. Ib English Criteria. #039;Say#039; and #039;tell#039; are not used when reporting written sources. Use a direct quote only when the wording is exceptional. Otherwise, use a paraphrase instead. Hr Cover Entry. A direct quote was not necessary in this case. Direct quotations are generally not used in academic writing; they are a feature of journalistic style. For a direct quote, use quotation marks around the literature essay, exact words of the original. Letter Size. Use three dots to indicate any omission of word(s), e.g. (between . and cancer). Include the page number in the citation, after the year.
A quote longer than three lines should be set out as an indented block, single-spaced, without quotation marks. Numbers are written as words (one, two . World Literature Essay. ) up to ten, and phd thesis thereafter usually as figures. So the writer here is ib english world criteria, correct to write 69 patients but four groups. It would be better to use a colon rather than a comma here to introduce the list that follows like this: In one study, Greer et al. Formal Size. (1979) classified 69 female patients suffering from world essay, breast cancer into one of four groups: the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of Hopelessness groups. Do not use contractions in formal writing - use full forms (i.e. #039;did not#039; Topic sentences in the form of questions are not appropriate in formal scientific writing.
They look lazy or journalistic. Essay On Saving Environment. Make a clear statement to introduce the topic of the paragraph. World Essay Criteria. In this case the algorithms, second sentence in ib english world literature criteria, this paragraph would make a better topic sentence: While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive. Keep items in a list parallel in grammatical form.
In this case, make them all noun phrases like small sample sizes or the use of unvalidated instruments. Here, rather than using no . it would be better to write: the absence of control groups and the failure to take vital information into account and randomise treatment groups. The conclusion that follows here does what is recommended for concluding an essay: it firstly sums up the argument with appropriate reference to the main points discussed, and then attempts to indicate further implications or future directions. However, the final statement is rather glib that is, it looks good, but doesn#039;t say very much. This weakens the overall impact. It might be better to essay size offer a more cautious, reasoned statement at the end: With the advent of better medical technology and continuing research, answers to some of the questions in the field of mind-cancer research may become clarified. In the meantime, the ib english literature, professional desire for verifiable results should always be balanced against the patient#039;s well-being.
Notice the use of cautious language here. On Saving. Academics are generally careful not to make claims that could easily be proved wrong, and use qualifiers, modal verbs and hedging expressions (some, may, possibly, etc.) to do this. Remember, too, that the conclusion should never introduce new information. Make sure you are consistent in the setting out of your bibliography and that you include all relevant information. Ib English World Literature Criteria. Once you adopt a particular way of setting out the information, don#039;t chop and change between items. Note that article titles are typically formatted in lower case apart from the initial capital and the capital after the colon: Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman. Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. This is to distinguish them from book and journal titles, especially where italics are not used to essay environment identify these, as they are in this case.
The name of the publisher must be provided with the City of publication. See the entry for Home, R. as an literature criteria, example. Page numbers must be provided for essay environment single chapters in a book, as well as for any journal articles used. City of publication must be provided with the name of the ib english world literature criteria, publisher. On Visual Communication. See the entry for literature criteria Home, R. as an example. Problems? Questions?
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