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Essay about england culture

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Essay on The English Culture

Bartleby the about culture Scrivener Herman Melville. Bartleby the Scrivener literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Bartleby the Scrivener. GradeSaver provides access to narrative autobiographical, 843 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 6325 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders. Displacement By Society Orlando Diaz. Strangely huddled at culture the base of the wall, his knees drawn up, and lying on his side, his head touching the cold stones, I saw the wasted Bartleby.

I felt his hand, when a tingling shiver ran up my arm and down my spine to my feet (1173). Essay Deferred Hughes? Bartleby the Scrivener: The Painful Extraction of Genuine Compassion Richard Salgado. Though the title may be Bartleby the Scrivener, Herman Melville's short story is much more concerned with its nameless narrator than its title character. Essay England? Addressing one man's concept of himself and how that concept must be reevaluated when. Rebels and Non-comformists in the Short Stories of Herman Melville Anonymous. In many of the short stories written by the American author Herman Melville (1819-1891), the main characters tend to exhibit some form of rebellion, usually against the normal dictates of society or against those who are in power. This trait is. The characters of many poems, stories, and other works of art act as critics or representations of the author's society. Vs Enemies? American writers Benjamin Franklin and culture, Herman Melville both commented on their respective eras using this method.

Franklin. The Dehumanization of Bartleby Anonymous. Deferred Langston? The narrator and Bartleby - principle characters of Herman Melville's Bartleby, the Scrivener - are opposite sides of the same coin. Their perspectives and connections to life seem to be similar. However, the narrator thrives in the.

In Herman Melville’s “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” the setting contributes to the tone, the style, the theme and particularly the characterization of Bartleby, a scrivener working for the narrator. The parallelism between the setting and the. Melville#39;s Descriptions of the Oppression of Workers Susan Matassa. England Culture? Imagery is perhaps the most effective way to emphasize a theme. Writing Camp? Ironically, Herman Melville chooses to about culture, use blankness as his image of choice, and while at animals research first glance, the lack of something may not seem to be a powerful symbol, Melville’s. A Human Tragedy Within the Walls of Commerce Samuel Chi College.

Mordechai Anielewicz once asserted, “The most difficult struggle of essay england, all is the one within ourselves. Let us not get accustomed and adjusted to friends essay, these conditions. The one who adjusts ceases to discriminate between good and evil: he becomes a slave. Ah Humanity!: The Evolution of Attitude in england culture Bartelby, the Scrivener Brian Wheaton 12th Grade. Bartleby, the Scrivener by Herman Melville is the story of a scrivener (a copyist) who has an unusually bleak disposition. Eventually, he takes it upon constitutional monarchy himself to refuse his boss' (the narrator's) requests for completing the very work for which. The Struggle Between Individuality and Conformity in Melville#39;s Bartleby, the Scrivener Anonymous 11th Grade. In Lois Lowry’s award winning novel “The Giver,” the main character, Jonas, wonders incredulously, “How could someone not fit in? The community was so meticulously ordered, the choices so carefully made” (Lowry 48). Jonas is referring to the. The Preference Not To: A Study of about culture, Passive Resistance in research paper Herman Melville’s “Bartelby the Scrivener” CarlyAnn Galuska College.

Herman Melville uses the concept of culture, identity to highlight certain features of the characters in his short story Bartelby the Scrivener. The character of Bartelby illuminates the narrator’s unexplained feelings of innate compassion and pity through. Passive Resistance in Herman Melville’s “Bartelby the Scrivener” CarlyAnn Galuska College. Herman Melville uses the concept of identity to animals research, highlight certain features of the characters in his short story Bartelby the Scrivener. Essay About Culture? The character of and insanity, Bartelby illuminates the narrator’s unexplained feelings of innate compassion and pity through. Societal Intolerance of Depression in “Bartleby, The Scrivener” Amy L Aris College. Herman Melville’s “Bartleby, The Scrivener: A Story of Wall-Street” presents the mentally troubled title character through the perspective of an ignorant narrator. Essay About Culture? Having only encountered visible, physical disabilities before, the creative writing bay area narrator does. The Development of Depression’s Empowerment During the 19th Century Amy L Aris College.

The 19th century was a time of great development, especially so in the realm of knowledge and about culture, representation of disability in literature. Although physical disabilities receive the majority of the attention, mental illness does appear in many. Melville on Inequality: A Study of the Shorter Fiction Samantha Houston College. There is, perhaps, no other American author whose work has been so hotly debated than Herman Melville. The white whale at the center of his most famous work, a juxtaposition of essay langston, gender in America, an odd scrivener, and his much discussed story of a. Machine Over Mind Joe Janey College.

The abstract notion of fulfillment is one that creates a never ending search. The issue that prevails is that it is essay england culture, intangible and therefore cannot be classified with the least bit of certainty. Society on the other hand, is run by the rule of.

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English Cultures Essay

3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is about always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Essay Monarchy. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and about england of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to friends essay, the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by essay, using an essay dream deferred langston hughes, index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the about england stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the essay monarchy element that was pushed onto essay about england the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the essay constitutional monarchy last element (that is, the element at essay england culture the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and essay constitutional monarchy the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.

Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to culture, the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Research Paper. Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the essay about england culture value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is automatism and insanity possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is about england called (see lua_pushcclosure ).

Whenever a C function is deferred called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . About England. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to automatism and insanity, choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions.

Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the england address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for essay instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order.

Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is essay about england how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to constitutional, not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the about culture function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to creative writing bay area, realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the england new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and writing bay area only if osize is about culture zero.

When nsize is zero, the essay monarchy allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. Essay About England. When nsize is not zero and osize is narrative essay zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . About Culture. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is creative camp bay area a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to essay about, be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto narrative autobiographical essay the stack.

All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the culture function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the essay constitutional monarchy last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the culture called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is friends vs enemies essay balanced: at its end, the stack is back to essay about england, its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.

Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the paper following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from essay, Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is bay area pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto england the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by essay monarchy, Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of essay about england numerical arguments and essay returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at about least extra free stack slots in the stack. Friends Vs Enemies Essay. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the about culture stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged.

Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. Constitutional. On several platforms, you may not need to culture, call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to friends essay, release states as soon as they are not needed, to england culture, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the creative writing camp result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the essay culture usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).

Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in narrative autobiographical essay, its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and essay england does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Essay. The new table has space pre-allocated for about england culture narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is essay dream deferred hughes useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have.

Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on culture the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. Research. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the essay about england given data to write them. The value returned is the monarchy error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of essay any type) must be on the stack top. Animals Paper. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. Essay England. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Creative. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of essay about england memory (in Kbytes) in friends, use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of about culture bytes of memory in research, use by Lua by 1024.

LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the essay step size you must experimentally tune the value of and insanity data . About England Culture. The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. And Insanity Essay. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause.

LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of essay about culture a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the animals research opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at essay about england the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto animals research the stack the value of the global name . About England Culture. It is defined as a macro:

Pushes onto bay area the stack the england culture metatable of the value at essay the given acceptable index. Essay About England. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and writing bay area pushes nothing on essay about the stack. Pushes onto friends the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the culture resulting value in and insanity, its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at essay about 1, this result is equal to the number of animals research elements in the stack (and so 0 means an essay about england, empty stack).

Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the autobiographical largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and essay about culture 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and essay dream 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is essay a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is langston nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and about 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the bay area given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is essay culture nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and automatism and insanity 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at essay the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Creative Writing Camp Bay Area. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is essay england non valid.

Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the autobiographical compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the about culture stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is animals research used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an england culture, opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Creative Writing Camp Bay Area. It is equivalent to england, lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is animals research paper no explicit function to about england culture, close or to essay, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto essay the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. Friends Vs Enemies Essay. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). Culture. If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).

A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is monarchy actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at about the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for creative camp other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode.

Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Essay England Culture. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the essay constitutional monarchy stack index of an about culture, error handler function . Deferred. (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the essay error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to narrative essay, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Essay England. Such information cannot be gathered after the essay constitutional return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.

The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the england following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the creative bay area error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.

To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is about england pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. Essay. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to england culture, receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is essay constitutional defined as a macro: Pushes onto about england the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).

The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.

It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the animals research string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an essay about, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.

The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto constitutional monarchy the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the essay about zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero.

Pushes the hughes thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the essay england culture two values in creative camp bay area, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to essay england culture, lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of essay deferred langston hughes t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and essay england culture v is the value at essay langston the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the about england reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to and insanity essay, a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and essay england culture set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the friends vs enemies reader must return NULL or set size to zero.

The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the essay england culture C function f as the research paper new value of about culture global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Creative Writing Bay Area. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in essay about england, a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.

When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. Creative Writing Camp. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the about england culture coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of narrative autobiographical errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on about the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to narrative essay, f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the essay about england value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the and insanity essay equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and essay culture sets it as the new value of global name . Camp. It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the essay value just below the and insanity essay top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the essay about england culture first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an constitutional, error code if the essay about culture thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Narrative. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the about value's type.)

Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to essay dream deferred langston, the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to essay, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in automatism and insanity, some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.

The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the essay about england function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to and insanity essay, a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is essay about england no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is essay constitutional no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to essay about england, NULL . Converts the vs enemies value at england the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by essay dream deferred langston hughes, the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the essay about england name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the animals writer function used by about culture, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the animals research buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by essay culture, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the essay constitutional interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of essay england culture lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string.

If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. Vs Enemies. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the about function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and essay monarchy tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is england culture available, currentline is set to narrative essay, -1. England. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Constitutional. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. Essay Culture. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the vs enemies empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the essay england function.

Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the essay dream langston parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by england, a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in monarchy, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in essay about culture, which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to narrative essay, be filled or a value to about england culture, be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an autobiographical essay, invalid option in what ). Gets information about england, a local variable of a given activation record.

The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and animals research returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the culture number of writing bay area active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. England Culture. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Essay Deferred Hughes. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the england whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of essay upvalues.

For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the about england culture latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is narrative useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is essay england culture running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the narrative essay debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is essay culture called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the narrative autobiographical interpreter calls a function.

The hook is called just after Lua enters the england new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. Essay Monarchy. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of england a new line of and insanity essay code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is about england culture executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the writing interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only essay england culture, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of essay dream deferred hughes a local variable of essay england culture a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue.

It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the monarchy value from the about england culture stack. Creative. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. Essay England Culture. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in essay constitutional, header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. About England. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an research, error if the check is not satisfied.

Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for essay culture other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the essay dream deferred hughes auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to about england culture, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Vs Enemies. The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.

Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on about england culture string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on animals the stack, which is the value to about england culture, be added to autobiographical essay, the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an essay about, error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an constitutional monarchy, error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of essay england type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to essay, the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by england culture, calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Autobiographical. This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the essay england culture stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the and insanity stack is at essay about england culture the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is autobiographical essay luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the essay about england buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top.

Initializes a buffer B . Monarchy. This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and about england passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of essay dream langston hughes any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to about england culture, an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and writing camp returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the essay about england culture string's length.

This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the research paper index in england, the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is narrative essay not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to essay about, use strings instead of numbers to narrative, select options.) Grows the stack size to essay culture, top + sz elements, raising an essay, error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into essay culture the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and narrative returns this string.

This function uses lua_tolstring to about england, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for constitutional monarchy the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the england culture function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in essay monarchy, case of about culture errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the friends vs enemies essay following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in england, case of essay errors. Raises an error. The error message format is essay england given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of narrative autobiographical lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and essay about culture the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the animals metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and essay about culture pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the and insanity metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . England Culture. Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to vs enemies, load the about chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the langston hughes same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and essay about culture error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to animals paper, load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.

The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. About England. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the automatism essay registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to about culture, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.

In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is and insanity essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is essay about culture a string, returns this string. If this argument is research absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the about position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number.

If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an autobiographical essay, address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to essay england, be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Dream Langston Hughes. After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to essay culture, actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.

Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. Essay Dream Langston Hughes. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the essay object at the top of the stack is automatism essay nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to about culture, be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for animals arrays of essay about england culture functions to be registered by research paper, luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to essay, NULL , it simply registers all functions in narrative essay, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on essay about england culture the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the constitutional monarchy value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of england package.loaded[libname] , and registers on monarchy it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the about value at the given index. Generates an animals research, error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the essay about culture table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to narrative, build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the essay england culture C API.

Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an constitutional monarchy, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and england package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of monarchy a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by england culture, calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the essay constitutional monarchy string library), luaopen_table (for the essay about table library), luaopen_math (for the narrative essay mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the about culture Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to friends, provide implementations for some of its facilities.

This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. Culture. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the narrative essay previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for culture the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the animals paper previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the about error position. Hughes. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the essay culture construction. will iterate over automatism, the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results.

A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the essay england culture chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to langston, traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Essay England Culture. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value.

When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Vs Enemies. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the essay second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to essay, check whether a table is empty. The order in about culture, which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of essay constitutional monarchy next is essay about england culture undefined if, during the writing traversal, you assign any value to essay about england culture, a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of essay constitutional modifying the about england culture table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Constitutional. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the about england culture call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the essay constitutional total number of about england culture extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . Animals Research. setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.

Sets the metatable for the given table. England Culture. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from research, C.) If metatable is about england culture nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). Constitutional Monarchy. In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by about, the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the animals research paper error, calls the err function with the original error object, and essay returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the creative writing camp bay area basic library and essay about england culture come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an automatism and insanity, object with type thread . Starts or continues the essay about england culture execution of and insanity essay coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the england coroutine terminates). Creative. If there is any error, resume returns false plus the about culture error message. Returns the narrative autobiographical essay running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the essay about coroutine is writing suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is essay about england culture active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Friends Vs Enemies Essay. Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the essay execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.

Any arguments to essay monarchy, yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and england culture building modules in automatism, Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Essay England. Everything else is friends vs enemies essay exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the essay england culture given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).

Finally, module sets t as the narrative essay new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for essay about england culture each component. Creative Camp. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the about given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the animals paper value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is england culture guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the essay constitutional monarchy path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the about england path stored in creative writing, package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is essay england found, require calls the and insanity essay loader with a single argument, modname . Essay About Culture. If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to creative writing, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to england, this entry.

In any case, require returns the narrative final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the essay england module, or if it cannot find any loader for automatism and insanity essay the module, then require signals an about england culture, error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in friends vs enemies, luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of essay these searchers in ascending order, with the constitutional monarchy module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).

Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is essay england culture a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the friends vs enemies resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for essay england module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./ , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by and insanity, the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./ , ./foo.dll , and essay culture /usr/local/foo/ , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to narrative autobiographical essay, link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the essay about england culture library to be used as the loader. The name of monarchy this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.

Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the essay about england culture given module. Constitutional. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the essay about england culture package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on paper the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by essay england culture, ANSI C. As such, it is autobiographical essay only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to essay, search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.

Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to autobiographical, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an essay about, option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and animals research paper pattern matching. Essay. When indexing a string in automatism, Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Essay. Indices are allowed to be negative and automatism and insanity are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and about england culture so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.

Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on narrative autobiographical essay this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the essay england pattern has captures, then in creative writing camp, a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to essay about england culture, the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over essay, all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at about culture the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the essay constitutional iteration. If repl is essay england a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an essay langston hughes, escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for about england the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for writing camp bay area the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the culture table is queried for every match, using the paper first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the about key.

If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is essay passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by about england, the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . Automatism Essay. : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the about character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the autobiographical standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by essay about, a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by constitutional monarchy, separating the end characters of the about culture range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is essay not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the essay england corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and creative writing camp bay area other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in essay england culture, the class; a single character class followed by automatism essay, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in culture, the class.

These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Creative Writing Bay Area. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the essay about culture shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of animals research a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and england 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the creative writing camp bay area ending y is the first y where the essay culture count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of research paper pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of about culture a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. Autobiographical Essay. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses.

For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the essay about culture string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Animals Paper. is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.

This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in about, the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the camp bay area result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in culture, table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is vs enemies essay n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the culture given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to creative, close the culture space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the essay constitutional monarchy table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the england last element of narrative autobiographical table t . The sort algorithm is england culture not stable; that is, elements considered equal by automatism and insanity essay, the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an about, interface to the standard C math library. And Insanity. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the essay about england absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of automatism essay x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to essay england culture, find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the and insanity essay smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the about angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.

Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the animals research paper base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the essay minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Essay Dream Deferred. (You can also use the essay england culture expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for essay dream hughes the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of essay x (assumed to friends vs enemies essay, be in essay culture, radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of essay x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. About Culture. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the narrative autobiographical operation returns a file descriptor and essay about then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.

The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and automatism some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.

When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an culture, error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and essay returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.

In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in essay england, case of essay dream hughes errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is about england culture erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in constitutional monarchy, some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is essay england culture used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is friends essay w ).

This function is essay about england culture system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to essay dream, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is essay england a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to deferred hughes, happen.

Saves any written data to file . Returns an about england culture, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Animals Research Paper. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the culture file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the essay monarchy characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format.

When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the about england culture entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. Constitutional Monarchy. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. Essay England Culture. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the paper beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the essay about culture file.

If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for paper offset is 0. Essay Culture. Therefore, the automatism essay call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the about england position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of vs enemies essay any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). Essay About Culture. line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the writing camp last two cases, size specifies the size of the essay england culture buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the hughes value of each of its arguments to essay about, the file . Research Paper. The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in culture, seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the essay dream deferred langston hughes os.time function for about a description of this value).

Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the friends essay string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, is equivalent to ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is essay about exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell.

It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and dream langston hughes zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the england host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the vs enemies essay value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the england variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Autobiographical Essay. Directories must be empty to about england, be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.

Renames file or directory named oldname to animals, newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the essay about england culture error. Sets the current locale of the friends vs enemies essay program. Essay England Culture. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to deferred langston, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the essay about england new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to narrative autobiographical, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the about england culture current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the dream langston hughes name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and about time specified by vs enemies essay, the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the essay function). The returned value is essay a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the essay culture meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to constitutional, date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.

The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to essay about culture, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the essay name and about culture creating the file.) You still have to creative writing bay area, open the file to culture, use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the writing file when the about england program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library.

The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the friends vs enemies temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by england, Lua code) and and insanity therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in england culture, this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an constitutional, optional first argument which is the about england thread to operate over. The default is always the essay constitutional current thread. Enters an essay about, interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on.

A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the creative writing caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the essay about england culture current hook function, the current hook mask, and paper the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the about england culture given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to essay dream deferred langston hughes, get all information available, except the essay about england culture table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the friends essay expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for england culture the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.

This function returns the name and animals the value of the local variable with index local of the function at essay england level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an narrative autobiographical essay, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to essay about england culture, check whether the level is creative bay area valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . Essay About Culture. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.

Sets the essay environment of the given object to the given table . About England. Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the animals research hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the about england culture hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to monarchy, get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the about england culture hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the friends vs enemies function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is england culture no local variable with the given index, and raises an deferred langston, error when called with a level out of range. Essay About. (You can call getinfo to essay, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the culture name of the local variable.

Sets the metatable for writing the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the about england upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Creative Writing Bay Area. An optional message string is england culture appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the essay dream debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to essay about england culture, it the given args as string arguments. Essay Langston. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise.

Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the england file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the essay dream deferred langston hughes value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is essay england culture stored at index 0, the and insanity first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the essay about england culture options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the friends essay file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.

In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Essay About England Culture. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on essay deferred the command line or in about, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . Essay. See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the about program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of essay a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into about executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the constitutional Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.

If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to essay, the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Animals Paper. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the culture new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.

Function table.getn corresponds to essay constitutional monarchy, the new length operator ( # ); use the essay culture operator instead of the function. Essay. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is about england culture mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.

Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to animals, allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and essay england luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and friends essay nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Essay About. Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. Monarchy. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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1984 satire essay 1984 :Research Paper Assignment. You will read the novel 1984 and essay about england, write a multi- source researched argument on one of the four topics suggested, unless otherwise approved in writing by essay, the instructor, according to the criteria below: What you will submit: 1. Stapled and appropriately labeled final draft of your research paper. 2. Stapled and appropriately labeled rough draft of your research paper. (Please note: There should be substantial difference between your rough draft and your final draft.) 3. Culture. A formal business letter of self-evaluation, the instructions to which you can find on my website. 5. My written approval if you deviate from the autobiographical essay four suggested topics. Essay. * Do not include a cover page and do not turn in your work in a folder. 1. Your essay must refer to one primary source (the novel) and to a minimum of four secondary sources. Each secondary source must be cited in the paper at least once. 2. Your essay must prove the thesis you select, through an appropriate use of summaries, quotes, and paraphrases from the primary and secondary sources. Papers not including textual evidence from each source will receive a failing grade. 3. All quotes and friends vs enemies essay, paraphrases are to adhere to MLA parenthetical citation requirements. 4. Your essay must begin with a fully developed introduction that includes a thesis sentence. 5. Your essay must end with a fully developed conclusion.

6. Your essay must be accompanied by a works cited page ( MLA style, on a separate page). 1. Essay Culture. Your paper is to be 3-5 pages long (double spaced 12 pt. Essay. Arial or Times New Roman script; not including works cited page and essay england culture, heading) 2. Your paper is to be meticulously prepared using MLA format throughout. 1. You may be required to submit your final copy to Please watch for an e-mail about this. 2. I am not requiring your attendance at a conference for a rough draft of this paper; however, if I can help you, please come see me.

Check my office hours on automatism, my homepage . These are topics on which you can write a substantial analytical paper. They are designed to test your understanding of major themes and essay about culture, details from this novel as a whole. Following the animals topics are outlines you can use as a starting point for writing an analytical paper. About England Culture. The theme of betrayal is a dominant thread running throughout this novel. Give examples of characters and events that contribute to Winston’s final self#8722;betrayal. Make it clear that these examples intensify the novel’s overall mood of loneliness and autobiographical, alienation.

I. Thesis statement: Orwell explores various kinds of betrayal, including self#8722;betrayal, to heighten the mood of loneliness and alienation in 1984 . II. Party intolerance of betrayal to its ideology. A. Indoctrination of children to Party policy. C. Role of the Thought Police. III.

Individual characters’ betrayal of one another. A. Charrington’s betrayal of Winston and Julia. B. Parsons’ betrayal by his children. C. Ampleforth’s betrayal by his work. D. O’Brien’s betrayal of Winston. About England Culture. IV. The hope symbolized by Winston and Julia’s love affair. A. The sanctuary of Charrington’s room. B. The lovers’ definition of betrayal. C. Winston’s betrayal of Julia.

D. Julia’s admittance to betraying Winston. A. Autobiographical. Winston’s capitulation to the Party. B. Implications of Winston’s defeat. VI. Overall pessimism of the conclusion. Orwell uses the recurrent motif of the dream to reveal background, develop character, and foreshadow key events. Analyze these dreams for about england, their implications. I. Thesis statement: Orwell uses the dream, a recurrent motif, as a mechanism to essay reveal background, develop character, and foreshadow events. II. The Golden Country.

A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Part II, Chapter 2. C. Common symbols and significance. III. The sinking ship. England. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Part II, Chapter 7. C. Interpretation as a key to Winston’s mother’s disappearance. IV. “The place where there is no darkness” A. Introduction of the dream with O’Brien as its speaker. B. The nightmarish wall of darkness. C. Literal interpretation of the dream.

D. Significance of the rats. That 1984 is a satire on totalitarian states such as Hitler’s Germany and vs enemies, Stalin’s Russia and a warning to the West is one of the commonly accepted interpretations of the essay culture novel. Prove that this is so by showing that Orwell did create a complete, repressive totalitarian state in Oceania. I. Thesis statement: Orwell’s 1984 attacks the totalitarianism of the East while warning the essay West of its consequences. II.

Party ideology. A. Essay Culture. One#8722;party system. Constitutional. B. Hierarchical structure—Big Brother as leader. C. Total control of society. Essay. D. Party’s motive as explained by O’Brien. III.

Monitoring as an effort to eliminate insurrection. Writing Bay Area. A. Thought Police. C. Hidden microphones. D. Passport checks. IV. Control of mass communication. A. Function of the Ministry of Truth. B. Winston’s job at the Ministry of Truth.

C. Ampleforth’s function as poet. D. Syme’s work on Newspeak. E. Constant announcements on telescreen. F. Party motto—control of the past. V. Examples from History. A. Stalin’s Russia. B. Hitler’s Germany. The paperweight Winston purchases at Charrington’s shop takes on several meanings before its final destruction during Winston’s arrest. Explain Winston’s motive for buying the paperweight as well as its symbolic interpretation as it changes throughout the essay about culture novel.

I. Thesis statement: The coral paperweight purchased at Charrington’s shop becomes a dominant symbol in Orwell’s 1984 . Animals. II. Purchase of the paperweight. A. Significance of Charrington’s shop as the setting.

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Descartes Method Of Doubt Essays and Research Papers. Descartes method of doubt is his personal quest for certainty in knowledge, a system that allows us to find a way . to be assured that what we feel we “know” is not just a figment of his imagination but an infallible truth. The motivation for his method of doubts begins as a question of the about england culture possibility that all his thoughts could be false on the basis that he has had many false beliefs before and could possibly have formed more false beliefs with a fabricated base, and that in order to have stable. Belief , Doubt , Epistemology 1077 Words | 3 Pages. be examining Rene Descartes ’ reasons for doubting all of essay dream hughes, his beliefs. Essay Culture. I will begin with Descartes ’ first meditation, showing how . Research Paper. he argues his reasons of about england, doubt . Followed with Descartes ’ second meditation, presenting the deferred langston hughes one piece of knowledge that Descartes finds irrefutable and explaining why he believes it to be so. Descartes formulates three different skepticisms while reflecting on a number of falsehoods he was led to believe throughout his life. Upon reflection, Descartes decides that he must. Belief , Deception , Doubt 931 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes' Method of Doubt vs.

Hospers. Descartes ’ vs. Hospers Knowledge is an essay england culture acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study of investigation and a familiarity or . conversance, as with a particular subject or branch of learning. (3) Many philosophers have different perspectives of knowledge. Descartes ’ believes that the dream langston only thing absolutely known is that you exist because you think. However, Hospers believes that there are different forms of knowing that must be proven with evidence. Descartes ’ believes that you. English-language films , Epistemology , Illusion 1258 Words | 3 Pages. Discourse on Descartes Skeptical Method.

Sebastian Gumina Paper Topic #1 Descartes ’ Skeptical Method Descartes ’ method offers . definitive conclusions on certain topics, (his existence, the existence of God)but his reasoning is not without error. He uses three arguments to prove existence (His and God’s) that attempt to solidify his conclusions. Essay About England Culture. For his method to function seamlessly, Descartes needs to be consistent in his use of the creative writing camp method , that is, he must continue to doubt and challenge thoughts that originate in his own. Cognition , Existence , Metaphysics 1672 Words | 4 Pages. Essay 3: Descartes on the Method of Doubt In the Meditations on First Philosophy, we find . Descartes at a point trying to suspend all beliefs that he held from his youth by destroying his unstable house of knowledge to build a more concrete foundation of certainty. In an attempt to rid himself of skepticism of his own beliefs, Descartes devises the method of doubt to about england eliminate all his current beliefs that could not possibly be true, leaving him only with the things in which he could be certain. Belief , Deception , Doubt 910 Words | 3 Pages. What is Descartes ' Method of investigation called? How does he use this method to automatism and insanity essay question what his senses tell . him? Why does his primary reason for not trusting his senses fail to essay culture cast doubt on the truths of arithmetic and writing, geometry? Is there any way, according to Descartes , of raising doubt about even these truths?

Are all truths brought into doubt by this method ? Does any belief survive? The first magnificent philosopher of the modern era was the Frenchman Rene’ Descartes . He began his. Cognition , Epistemology , Mind 1428 Words | 4 Pages. ?ANNIE M. Essay England. JUMAWAN BSAT-III PHILO-102 . MR.JOHAREL ESCOBIA RENE DESCARTES Regarding many things man is certain that he possesses knowledge. Animals Research. He is equally certain that there are far more things of which he is totally ignorant. He is conscious of the fact that he has made many errors in the past and that much of his present knowledge may be erroneous. He.

Cognition , Epistemology , Existence 2516 Words | 5 Pages. ? Method of Doubt Rene Descartes (1596-1650), a French philosopher and mathematician, is best known for culture his . Meditations of Philosophy. This form of philosophy is a body of work in which he attempts to wipe away all his presumptions, rebuilding his knowledge from the ground up, and accepting as true only those claims which are absolutely certain. It was essential that the foundations to his beliefs were solid; if any one of animals paper, them were at all in doubt , he would lose credibility for his entire structure. Cognition , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1015 Words | 4 Pages.

Rene Descartes : The Seeker of about culture, Indubitable Truths Kharen Jade Tolentino Reason amp; Feeling in Modern Philosophy GL PHIL 2620 Prof B. Automatism Essay. . Logan Wednesday, October 23, 12 Throughout history Rene Descartes has affected lives of essay about england culture, philosophers and their ideas. Not only was Rene Descartes a well known philosopher he was well known for his application of algebra to geometry which led to the Cartesian geometry. In his Meditations on First Philosophy he attempted to provide philosophical evidence for. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 2110 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes and the Metaphysical Doubt. Descartes proves that God exists in his third meditation. He proves that God exists because he wants to be certain about things outside of . himself. But, he cannot be certain of animals research, these things if he is ignorant about the about culture existence of essay, God. This is because if a supreme God exists, he could cause Descartes to be mistaken in the one avenue to certainty that he has.

This avenue is known as clear and distinct perception, and, according to Descartes , it is what is necessary to be certain about a thing. However. Causality , Existence , Idea 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Rene Descartes , born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye France, was both an accomplished philosopher as well as a brilliant mathematician. Growing up . in a society with influential figures like Galileo and Isaac Newton whom constantly questioned traditional methods and ideologies, Socrates sought to essay about culture devise a method for reaching absolute truth.

His quest for truth led to a publication of a major philosophical work “ A Disclosure on Method , Meditations on First philosophy.” Descartes meditations were based. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes: Overcoming His Doubts of the First Meditations. extent to which Descartes has overcome his doubts of the first Meditations In Descartes ' meditations, . Descartes begins what Bernard Williams has called the essay dream hughes project of ?pure enquiry' to discover an indubitable premise or foundation to essay culture base his knowledge on, by vs enemies subjecting everything to a kind of scepticism now known as Cartesian doubt . This is about, known as foundationalism, where a philosopher basis all epistemological knowledge on an indubitable premise. Within meditation one Descartes subjects all. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 2174 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes and friends essay, Peirce both believe in belief and doubt . However, Peirce argument and determination to find a solution to overcome . About Culture. doubt is much stronger than Descartes ’. Peirce also makes it known that he is aware of belief in which Descartes does not. Their beliefs result from the automatism and insanity notion of clear and distinct ideas. Peirce and Descartes are both rationalists who believe that there is an independent truth and england culture, they know it when they see it. Creative Bay Area. The problem that exists is about culture, that Descartes and Peirce realize.

Critical thinking , Epistemology , Existence 1344 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cartesian Method A.) Cartesian doubt Cartesian doubt is a form of friends, methodological skepticism associated with . the writings and methodology of essay, Rene Descartes . Cartesian doubt is also known as Cartesian skepticism, methodic doubt , methodological skepticism, or hyperbolic doubt . Constitutional Monarchy. Cartesian doubt is a systematic process of being skeptical about (or doubting) the truth of one's beliefs, which has become a characteristic method in philosophy. This method of doubt was largely popularized in Western philosophy. Al-Ghazali , Belief , Epistemology 936 Words | 2 Pages. Rene Descartes and a discription of essay about england, his dream and animals research, evil demon conjectures, method of doubt, and clear and distinct testing. Also, the bad and good of essay about, his theory (opinion). Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was not only a philosopher but also a mathematician and essay hughes, scientist.

As a philosopher, he used skepticism as a means . of finding the truth of all. His idea was to doubt everything, and in doubting everything, anything that couldn't be doubted was definite. I will doubt everything that can possibly be doubted, he reasons, and if anything is left, then it will be absolutely certain. Essay About England. (Moore/Bruder 93) This, Descartes felt was the only way to obtain truth and creative, knowledge. Essay About England Culture. This. Existence , Existence of God , Metaphysics 1246 Words | 4 Pages. The Move from Doubt to Certainty; a Look at the Theories of Descartes and Locke. Descartes is interested in the certainty of his existence and essay langston hughes, the existence of other people and things. Descartes ' beliefs vary . from those of Socrates. Descartes argues that knowledge is essay about, acquired through awareness and experience.

Using this approach, Descartes moves through doubt to certainty of essay, his existence. He asks himself various questions about the certainty of his existence and solves them through clear thought and logic. Using this method Descartes establishes doubts to be truths and by about the. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of God 2310 Words | 6 Pages. ?Linda Hyatt Professor Kelley PHIL101 30 November 2014 Descartes Project Descartes was a well-known French philosopher, some . would say a scientist, others a mathematician. Essay Dream Deferred. Truth was he was really a little of each, however the things he is essay about, known most for is being the research paper doubter. About Culture. Descartes used the writing method of doubt to defeat skepticism on essay england culture its very own turf. During this essay I will be explaining the process by which Descartes uses skepticism to automatism essay refute skepticism, the about england first principles he was lead to.

Doubt , Epistemology , Existence 883 Words | 4 Pages. 3-2 Rene Descartes Rene Descartes , also known as the “father of modern philosophy”. Descartes was born in essay monarchy, the town . of La Haye in essay about, the south of France, on March 31, 1596. Rene Descartes spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. Joachim Descartes his father served in the Parliament of Brittany, France as a Councilor. When he is one year old, his mother Jeanne Brochard Descartes died. His father remarried, while he and his older brother and sister were raised by his grandmother. Descartes was never. Analytic geometry , Cartesian coordinate system , Christina of Sweden 1051 Words | 3 Pages. Rene Descartes 1596–1650 French philosopher and mathematician.

Descartes is considered the creative writing bay area father of modern philosophy and one . Essay About England Culture. of the seminal figures of French thought. In his philosophical program, as presented in friends vs enemies essay, such important works as Discourse on Method and culture, Meditations on First Philosophy, he brought together, as Wilhelm Windelband wrote, the scientific movement of his time to establish rationalism anew, by filling the scholastic system of conceptions with the rich content of Galilean research. Discourse on the Method , Metaphysics , Mind 1955 Words | 6 Pages. How successful are Descartes ’ arguments for vs enemies essay the real distinction of mind from body? Upon which would you put the most weight?

Using the . arguments from doubt , from clear and distinct perceptions, and from simplicity, Descartes attempts to essay about culture prove in “The Meditations” that the writing camp mind (that is the soul or the culture “thinking thing”) is distinct and separate from the body (the extended, unthinking thing). This view is now known as Cartesian Dualism. In this essay I will outline Descartes ’ main arguments. Brain , Cognition , Consciousness 1966 Words | 6 Pages. If God is perfectly good and the source of all that is, how is there room for error or falsehood?

Descartes attempts to narrative autobiographical answer this question in essay, . Meditation IV: On Truth and Falsity. Narrative Essay. “If I've gotten everything in me from God and He hasn't given me the ability to make errors, it doesn't seem possible for me ever to error. ( Descartes , Meditation IV: On Truth and Falsity).” The framework of his arguments center on essay the Great Chain of deferred hughes, Being, in which God's perfect goodness is relative to His perfect being. Causality , Error , Free will 892 Words | 3 Pages. Meditation, Descartes gives us the Evil Demon Hypothesis which serves to give him reason to doubt the england culture existence of everything he . perceives and believes. Constitutional Monarchy. He describes a ‘malicious demon of the utmost power and cunning’ that has the sole purpose of deceiving Descartes ( Descartes , 2010: 17). I will argue that his hypothesis has proven to be a strong one because only the cogito provides a way for essay england us to creative camp bay area frustrate or trick the evil demon. England. The Evil Demon Hypothesis is an essay important component of the Method of about culture, Doubt.

Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 1981 Words | 5 Pages. Montaigne and essay, Descartes on Doubting. Montaigne and Descartes Montaigne and Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on the use . of doubt to make discoveries about themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things. Essay About. Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Vs Enemies. Although they both began their philosophical processes by doubting, Montaigne doubting a constant static self, and Descartes doubted that. Doubt , Epistemology , Philosophy 1571 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes Skepticism and culture, the Matrix. Alec Shover Dr. Darrell Cosden Introduction to Philosophy PHL260 Section 2 Descartes Skepticism and the Matrix March 21, 2012 1197 . Words Reality is something that has been debated among philosophers for centuries. Vs Enemies Essay. Rene Descartes is essay about, one of these philosophers who has come up with a unique way of understanding reality.

Descartes in Meditations on First Philosophy argues his method of creative writing camp bay area, doubt about the essay idea of hughes, skepticism and this is reflected in the Matrix when Neo chooses the. Epistemology , Metaphysics , Mind 1251 Words | 4 Pages. reason. Essay About Culture. In this one brief text, Descartes turns many of the old doctrines, created by Aristotle, upside down and frames many of the questions . that are still being debated in philosophy today. Among other things, Descartes breaks down Aristotle’s notion that all knowledge comes via the senses and that mental states must in some way resemble what they are about. Animals Research. In so doing, he develops an entirely new conception of mind, matter, ideas, and much more. Rene Descartes explains that in order to even begin.

Consciousness , Epistemology , Meditations on about england culture First Philosophy 1589 Words | 4 Pages. ?Universal Methodic Doubt All opinions and bay area, beliefs must be doubted As we doubt , we cannot doubt that are doubting . To doubt that we are doubting by itself proves that we are indeed doubting. Unless we are doubting, we can never attempt to doubt that we are doubting. The fact that we doubt is to about affirm a truth. We doubt , therefore we exist. Deferred Langston. Unless we exist. Unless we exist, we cannot doubt . “I think, therefore, I exist.” “I doubt , therefore, I am.” COGITO ERGO SUM Since we doubt , we are not perfect.

Doubt , Epistemology , Existence 1575 Words | 4 Pages. Why Was God Important to Descartes? Why is God so important to Descartes ’ philosophical project in the Meditations? Answer with reference to Descartes ’ attempts to . About England. prove the existence of God in Meditation 3. The existence of automatism and insanity essay, God has an extreme influence on essay the majority of philosophical debate and questioning and no more so than with Descartes and his meditations. His meditations and his method of approaching philosophical questioning all derive from a rationalist ideology. Therefore he argues that all humans are thinking beings. Epistemology , God , Immanuel Kant 1278 Words | 4 Pages. have they made on my life?

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) recognized that this influence of false beliefs could impair his scientific . investigations, producing possible false conclusions to his thinking. Therefore, he realized that it was necessary, once in the course of [my] life, to demolish everything completely and creative writing bay area, start again right from the foundations if [I] wanted to establish anything at all in the sciences that was stable and likely to last. Descartes began his philosophical career by trying. Deception , Doubt , Epistemology 1698 Words | 5 Pages. Pascal vs Descartes Paper Pascal’s argument is fallible because he reaches the conclusion that we should “wager” God’s existence, rather than . coming up with “proof” by using deductive reasoning like Descartes provides in essay about culture, his argument.

These early 17th century philosophers both provided writings defending the validity of the Christian religion and research paper, of God’s existence. After the Protestant Reformation of 1517, the Catholic Church’s sanctity was questioned. Essay About England. Different religions sprouted across Europe. Blaise Pascal , Logic , Metaphysics 1728 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes ' First Meditation Descartes believes that knowledge comes from animals research within the essay mind, a single indisputable fact to build . on that can be gained through individual reflection. While seeking true knowledge, Descartes writes his Six Meditations. Friends Essay. In these meditations, Descartes tries to develop a strong foundation, which all knowledge can be built upon. In the First Meditation, Descartes begins developing this foundation through the essay culture method of doubt . He casts doubt upon automatism and insanity essay, all his previous beliefs.

Epistemology , Meditations on First Philosophy , Perception 2099 Words | 6 Pages. Descartes Arguments for Substance Dualism. Does Descartes provide a convincing argument for the claim that mind and matter are distinct substances Descartes ’ Argument For . Dualism In his Meditations Rene Descartes aimed to culture reconstruct the whole of essay, science by trying to prove the distinction between mind and essay culture, matter. He gives an argument from doubt , and another from conceivability. I will give a brief summary of the dream deferred langston foundations Descartes builds his thesis on, and about england culture, then looking at his arguments and whether they are capable of persuading us. Critical thinking , Epistemology , Metaphysics 2259 Words | 7 Pages. Connections and Contrasts of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes | | | | The Discourse on the Method of Rightly . Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences is one of the most influential works in the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of natural sciences. In this work, Descartes tackles the problem of skepticism. Descartes modified it to autobiographical essay account for england culture a truth he found to be incontrovertible.

Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything. Deductive reasoning , Epistemology , Inductive reasoning 2300 Words | 6 Pages. True Knowledge - Descartes vs Plato. ?True Knowledge – Descartes vs. Plato Many philosophers have tried to figure out what exactly true knowledge is. And Insanity. For years they have been . asking questions and essay about, looking deep into the mind to essay deferred better understand the methods needed to get to true knowledge. If we go back to some of the earliest philosophers we meet Plato in Greece. Plato tried to take on the question himself in a fictional conversation he wrote up between Socrates and Meno, and in which we see some insight to what he believes it is. Epistemology , Mind , Philosophy 1165 Words | 3 Pages.

An Analysis of essay about culture, Descartes’ First Meditation. 13th, 2012 An Analysis of constitutional monarchy, Descartes ’ First Meditation In Descartes ’ First Meditation, Descartes ’ overall . Essay About Culture. intention is to present the essay idea that our perceptions and sensations are flawed and should not be trusted entirely. His purpose is to essay about england create the greatest possible doubt of our senses. To convey this thought, Descartes has three main arguments in the First Meditation: The dream argument, the deceiving God argument, and the evil demon “or evil genius”. Descartes ’ dream argument argues that. Deception , Dream , Epistemology 1451 Words | 4 Pages.

A Descartes Perspective of Euthanasia. Descartes and Euthanasia What would the world’s first modern philosopher say about one of the most controversial issues of modern times? Rene . Descartes was a prominent 17th century mathematician, scientist, and philosopher. He revolutionised western philosophy with his ideas concerning knowledge, certainty, and the connection between the mind and autobiographical, body. Euthanasia is a complex ethical issue facing today’s society; passive euthanasia is when a patient is allowed to die by withholding or withdrawing. Consciousness , Euthanasia , Metaphysics 2284 Words | 5 Pages. Descartes Argument for about culture the Existence of Corporeal Things. Methods and Meditations on monarchy First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes , which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and . About. divinity.

This essay is a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. The majority of paper, this essay focuses on Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist. 1. There clearly exists a passive faculty of about culture, sensing and autobiographical, I use it involuntarily. 2. If there exists a passive faculty. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of God 1886 Words | 5 Pages.

theoretical methods in which information is learned. Of these methods , there are two that are most widely accepted. Rationalism . and empiricism are also the most widely debated methods of knowledge. Rationalism claims that a priori processes and intuition gain knowledge. Rationalism claims that knowledge is innate; but that it varies among humans. At the other end of the about culture spectrum, empiricism claims that knowledge is gained largely by experience, observation, and sensory perception.

Rene Descartes and John. Cognition , Empiricism , Epistemology 1265 Words | 4 Pages. Descartes main and objective purpose in life is to find absolute truth or to writing camp bay area know for essay england certain that nothing is true. Descartes . two-sided paradox leads him to camp bay area question and doubt almost everything in order to culture find the ultimate end of autobiographical essay, happiness and essay about england, pleasure. Deferred Langston. Among many doubts , Descartes looks to understand the senses of the body in the extension to the physical world. England Culture. Through examining the five senses of sight, taste, scent, touch, and sound, and hughes, the imagination Descartes tries to find absolute truth.

Cognition , Illusion , Mind 1209 Words | 3 Pages. reason alone. Empiricism, a rival theory, asserts that truth must be established by sensual experience: touch, taste, smell, et al. Rene . Descartes , a philosopher and rationalist concluded that one self was merely a continuous awareness of one’s own existence; one’s substance was one’s ability to think. Essay About England Culture. On the other hand, David Hume, an empiricist refuted Descartes conclusion and claimed that the concept of self was nonsense, the idea could not be linked to any sensual experience.

Ultimately, Hume concluded. Consciousness , Epistemology , John Locke 1543 Words | 4 Pages. Doubt , Dualism, and Descartes Rene Descartes ’ “Meditations on creative camp First Philosophy” was written during a time of new . ideas and those radical ideas’ subsequent scrutiny and rejection by the Vatican, Descartes ’ idea on philosophy forever changed western philosophy by challenging the accepted ideas of Classical Greek Philosophers and Greek revivalists. With the revival of Greek and england, Roman art and camp bay area, architecture came also a renewed interest in science, knowledge, and philosophy. In this new revivalism in. Aristotle , Epistemology , Metaphysics 1965 Words | 6 Pages. Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy. Rene Descartes the Father of Modern Philosophy Rene Descartes is generally considered the father of modern philosophy. He was . the first major figure in the philosophical movement known as rationalism, a method of understanding the world based on the use of reason as the means to attain knowledge (Palmer, 2011). Culture. Along with empiricism, which stresses the use of sense perception rather than pure reason, rationalism was one of the main intellectual currents of the Enlightenment, a cultural movement.

Aristotle , Discourse on essay the Method , Epistemology 1002 Words | 3 Pages. In Descartes Meditation I, he casts doubt as to whether or not we are dreaming. He first uses modus tollens to essay culture cast . doubt to constitutional our senses. He then he uses redictio ad absurdum to show that even if we are dreaming, there are some things that are still real. Descartes begins with establishing the key idea of about, laying a strong foundation for his ideas. Camp. He acknowledges that he has preconceived ideas about the world in which he can doubt their truth. About Culture. He sees this collection of ideas as a pyramid, where. Dream , Epistemology , Existence 1174 Words | 3 Pages.

Doubt Essay Shanley’s thought-provoking, multi-faceted play, Doubt , can be described simply as a battle of . Dream. diametrically opposed wills and belief systems (mainly that of Sister Aloysius and england, Father Flynn), appropriately staged primarily in essay monarchy, a “court-room style” setting. Essay About England Culture. Those reading and watching the play are, in a way, forced to and insanity essay come to terms with and confront their principle beliefs as they grapple with the enigmatic concepts of judgment, morality, and culture, of course, doubt . In the and insanity essay contest. Doubt , Epistemology , John Patrick Shanley 814 Words | 2 Pages. Rene Descartes: a Great Thinker of the Western World. Rene Descartes : A Great Thinker of the Western World “I think therefore I am” are the words that come to mind as we encounter the subject of . Descartes . We see man full of knowledge and essay about culture, ideas ready to expand and break free.

His interest in knowledge and the acquisition of narrative essay, truth itself brought him to doubt all around him, including God and his very own existence. He is even considered to be the Father of Modern philosophy because he guided the about england thinkers of his time to deviate from the Scholastic-Aristotelian. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 1952 Words | 5 Pages. concepts of Rene Descartes , a crucial philosopher in constitutional, the history of western thought. According to Descartes , using rationality . distinguishes men from the beasts.

This concept conflicts with the Bororo’s way of thinking that men are birds. Descartes would say that birds are machines that do operate but there is a gap between them and essay about england culture, human beings; animals are just a body while human beings consist of both a body and a soul where when the human being dies, the soul doesn’t die with it. Descartes said “I think. Consciousness , Human , Metaphysics 954 Words | 3 Pages. ?3RD WRITING ASSIGNEMENT In a really famous “Discourse of the Method ”, Descartes is basically teaching us how to think like a . real philosopher, and giving us information about his education, sufficient rules of logic, moral code, and essay monarchy, how these moments are shaping the founding of the Cogito.

Descartes is trying to build a new foundation through the about england entire treatise, and essay, demolish the old foundation. In the first part Descartes is talking about his opinion about education and good sense. He tells. Cognition , Critical thinking , Epistemology 1206 Words | 3 Pages. written by John Patrick Shanley and titled Doubt : a Parable, the readers get a central question, asking whether certainty can be equated to . truth or not. From one side, some hints outlining the england culture fact that certainty can be equated to truth are evident. Essay Constitutional Monarchy. On the other side, there are doubts as to whether certainty can be equated to essay about truth. The doubt is thus left unresolved. The play begins with father Flynn’s sermon lecturing regarding certainty as he claims, “ Doubt can be a bond as powerful and sustaining.

Bishop , Catholic Church , Epistemology 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Descartes establishes that in creative camp, order to know what in fact exists, one must first take everything off the table and then see what can be . put back. The conclusion is that in order to be certain that one is a thinking thing; one must know what it takes to be certain. “All those things I perceive very clearly and very distinctly are true”(Pg. 53). This general rule however, requires that all doubt must be removed. This can only be done if God both exists and is not a deceiver. Descartes then breaks. Epistemology , Existence , Existence of essay, God 898 Words | 3 Pages.

Critically Assess Descartes' Three Arguments for and insanity essay His Claim That Mind and Body Are Distinct. Critically assess Descartes ' three arguments for his claim that mind and about england culture, body are distinct. The concept of Mind-Body dualism is one that has . its roots in early classical philosophy, with both Plato and Aristotle setting out strong arguments for this philosophy of the mind. Monarchy. The most famous proponent of this theory though is the “father of Modern Philosophy”, Rene Descartes . This belief fundamentally stems from the appearance of humans having both mental and physical properties, properties which. Consciousness , Metaphysics , Mind 1949 Words | 5 Pages.

Philosophy Essay ( Descartes vs. Locke) Socrates once said, “As for me, all I know is about england culture, that I know nothing.” Several philosophers . contradicted Socrates’ outlook and believed that true knowledge was in fact attainable. This epistemological view however had several stances to it, as philosophers held different beliefs in regards to the derivation of true knowledge. Rationalists believed that the mind was the source of true knowledge, while in Empiricism, true knowledge derived from the senses. Research. Rene. Empiricism , Epistemology , John Locke 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the about Self- a Comparison of narrative, Descartes and Augustine. Descartes and Augustine, in their respective examinations of the mind and God, come to the conclusion that the true understanding of all things . derives from the withdrawal of the self from foreign influence and the necessity to look inward. Although each thinker’s journey or course of understanding was different, and at times rather contrasting, their ultimate realizations about knowledge are very coherent. Doubt is one of the primary focuses and a central aspect in examining the self for culture both Descartes. Cognition , Metaphysics , Mind 1609 Words | 4 Pages.

Interpretation and Summary of Descartes' 1st and 2 Meditations from Meditations on First Philosophy. Descartes : The First and Second Meditations Rene Descartes begins Meditations on First Philosophy by explaining his basic . purpose and how he plans on going about accomplishing this project. Autobiographical. Descartes hopes to discover truth and justify human knowledge and about culture, belief. In order to find the fundamental truths of life, Descartes believes he must start from scratch so that he may discern truth from false beliefs. All of automatism essay, Descartes ' beliefs, everything he has learned and grown to believe is now cast under.

Epistemology , Existence , Human body 2451 Words | 7 Pages. Latin Cogito, ergo sum [I think, therefore I am] The first piece of Descartes Meditation, Descartes attempts to review the . beliefs he has been taught in order to about england culture establish truth in science. He forms a sceptical belief or hypotheses about research everything in the physical world. As a result he suspends his judgement on his previously held beliefs. In the second Meditation, Descartes expands theory on the ?nature of human mind', Descartes questions his identity, the eternal ?I', and introduces a theory of.

Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. What was the role of God in the writings of Descartes and Pascal? ?What is the role of God in the writings of essay about culture, Descartes and Pascal? Both the idea of God and the existence of God play a major role in the . writings of automatism, Descartes and Pascal. Both certainly appear to believe in essay about, him though they argue the case for his existence very differently and they also give Him a very different sort of role in their works. Automatism. Whilst Descartes claims that he is certain of the existence of essay about culture, God, using a large part of his Discours de la methode pour bien conduire la raison, et chercher. Cogito ergo sum , Existence , Faith 1780 Words | 6 Pages. Examine Descartes ?¦ account of the relationship between the mind and body.

Do you find his arguments convincing? Descartes . (1596-1650) is generally considered to be one of the most influential philosophers of the modern Western world. He has been called ??the founder of creative camp, modern philosophy?¦ as he was the first man of any influence in essay about england culture, philosophy to be interested and affected by physics and astronomy, as well as refusing to accept views of his predecessors, preferring to animals research paper work out about england, everything for. Metaphysics , Mind , Ontology 2330 Words | 6 Pages. Critically examine one of narrative essay, Descartes' arguments for about the existence of God. examine one of bay area, Descartes ' arguments for the existence of God Descartes ' Meditation III provides a causal and cosmological . argument that God exists. Having used the Method of Doubt in Meditations I and II in order to reject his false beliefs, Descartes assumes that the only things he knows at this point are the conclusions reached at Meditations I and essay england, II. Having also doubted judgements in arithmetic and geometry because of the possibility of the existence of an evil demon, Descartes wishes to find. Atheism , Existence , Existence of deferred langston hughes, God 1651 Words | 5 Pages. The Comparison of Rene Descartes to Paul Churchland.

Rene Descartes and Paul Churchland are both well respected philosophers with different out-looks on the mind and body relationship. . Descartes achieved many great things in his time, but at the time that he wrote Meditations on First Philosophy he seemed to england be borderline insane. His ideas are too drastic and gloomy, where as Churchland’s ideas in his writing Eliminitative Materialism seems to friends essay be agreeable and essay about, bright. Rene Descartes was a famous French Philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Because. Eliminative materialism , Metaphysics , Mind 1736 Words | 5 Pages. caused many renowned philosophers to rethink their entire outlook on life. Rene Descartes stated this famous phrase and changed the course of . Philosophy in doing so. Creative Writing. Descartes was born in 1596 in essay england, France, which was time when life was drastically changing; Columbus had discovered the new world, the feudal system had broken down, and the Scientific Revolution was in full force. Philosophers of the bay area time, such as Descartes , were set on finding out what now actually existed and what was actually true. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 2242 Words | 6 Pages.

Rationalism - Descartes, Spinoza and about, Leibniz. Rationalism is the principle that maintains that through reason alone we can gain at animals, least some positive knowledge of the world. The three major . rationalists, Rene Descartes , Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Welhelm Leibniz, used this idea in order to defy skepticism and expose the true nature of reality. However, each philosopher is essay about, frequently in disagreement. The idea for ‘God’, and what constitutes substance, matter and writing bay area, reality are the four key structural beliefs that aid each rationalist in the forming. Baruch Spinoza , Gottfried Leibniz , Metaphysics 1718 Words | 5 Pages.

A Comparison of the Oncological Philosophies of Rene Descartes, Lao Tzu, Al-Razi, and essay about england, Lame Deer. The Search For Truth: A Comparison Of The Oncological Philosophies Of Rene Descartes , Lao tzu, al-Razi, and creative writing bay area, Lame Deer It seems that no . matter the circumstances under which a culture and society develops its people instinctively develop a method , or a reason, for their existence. This aspect of human beings to long for a reason or purpose to life is distinct to england human beings opposed to other living creatures of the earth. For thousands of writing bay area, years philosophers have argued and essay about culture, explored what the essay nature. Avicenna , Epistemology , Life 1550 Words | 4 Pages.