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ASU Dissertations and Theses: Doctoral Dissertations. At ASU, doctoral level programs require a dissertation. On Essay. Dissertation is the preferred term at the doctoral level as thesis is nyu personal essay generally used to describe the document produced in Undergraduate Honors and Masters programs. The availability, location, and tutorial on essay format of dissertations depends on the time period in which the student completed the npg essay contest, doctoral degree: Dissertations: Fall 2011 to the present. The Graduate College requires doctoral students to submit an electronic copy of their dissertations to ProQuest; ProQuest waits for approval from the Graduate College before the dissertations are released into the ProQuest databases. ProQuest sends a digital copy of the tutorial, bibliographic information and full text of these documents to the ASU Library for inclusion in several different databases. Note: Not all dissertations are available soon after graduation. Humanity Essay. The ASU Graduate College currently allows students to request an embargo of tutorial up to 2 years before their dissertation is made public; students may choose this option to protect their intellectual property rights or to preserve commercial publication opportunities among other issues.

The full text of an embargoed dissertation will not be available for viewing in the following databases until the embargo period has ended. Has the full text of the dissertations, except for cases where the dissertation is within a requested embargo period; the full text is in PDF and letter spanish is available for all to view, print and/or download. Contains the full text, except for cases where the dissertation is within a requested embargo period; full text is in PDF. Contains a bibliographic record for the dissertations and on essay each record has a link to the full text in the ASU Digital Repository. The Graduate College required doctoral students to submit two printed copies of their dissertation to the ASU Library, one printed copy to their academic unit and an electronic copy to ProQuest. Term. The dissertations from this time period are available as follows: Only the limited number of 2010/2011 dissertations selected for the electronic submission trial are available in full text (PDF); full text for 1999-2009 is on essay not available. Contain the full text for almost all dissertations during this time; full text is in PDF. Contains a bibliographic record for the dissertations and humanity essay each record has the location for the print copies.

The catalog record does not contain information about full text availability. The first copy, aka the archival copy, is kept in storage and the user must contact the Luhr#39;s Reading Room (480-965-4932 or in on essay advance to set an appointment to view a dissertation. The copy may only be viewed in the Luhrs Reading Room and npg essay contest is not available for checkout or interlibrary loan. The second copy, aka the circulating copy, is kept in Hayden Library and may be checked out or loaned to other libraries. Note: not every dissertation has a second copy and some of these copies may be shelved in tutorial libraries other than Hayden; see the catalog record for availability. ASU dissertations are given the call number: LD179.15 [year] d [cuttered by author] The Graduate College required doctoral students to letter submit two printed copies of their dissertation to the ASU Library, one printed copy to tutorial their academic unit and humanity education essay an electronic copy to UMI (predecessor to ProQuest). On Essay. The dissertations from this time period are available as follows: Contain the full text for most, but not all titles; full text is in letter spanish lecturer PDF. Contains bibliographic records for the dissertations and each record has the on essay, location for the print copies. The catalog record does not have information about cover, full text availability. The first copy, aka the archival copy, is kept in storage and the user must contact the Luhr#39;s Reading Room (480-965-4932 or in advance to set an appointment to view a dissertation.

The copy may only be viewed in tutorial the Luhrs Reading Room and is not available for checkout or interlibrary loan. The second copy, aka the forests, circulating copy, is kept in the High Density Collection and must be retrieved in advance of a visit. These copies may be checked out or used for interlibrary loan. Some dissertations during this time do not have a second copy. ASU dissertations are given call number: LD179.15 [year] d [cuttered by on essay author] The dissertations from this time period are available as follows: Contain mostly just bibliographic records however there are a few full text dissertations during this time period. Contains a bibliographic record for the dissertations and each record has the location for the print copies.

The catalog record does not have information about full text availability. Letter. The first copy, aka the archival copy, is tutorial kept in storage and the user must contact the education, Luhr#39;s Reading Room (480-965-4932 or in advance to set an tutorial on essay, appointment to view a dissertation. The copy may only be viewed in the Luhrs Reading Room and is not available for checkout or interlibrary loan. Lecturer. The second copy, aka the circulating copy, is kept in on essay the High Density Collection and must be retrieved in advance of a visit. Car Detailing Business. These second copies may be checked out or used for interlibrary loan. Some dissertations during this time do not have a second copy. ASU dissertations are given call number: LD179.15 [year] d [cuttered by author]

The dissertations from this time period are only available in print: Contains a bibliographic record for the dissertations and each record has the location for the print copies. The first copy, aka the archival copy, is kept in tutorial storage and the user must contact the Luhr's Reading Room (480-965-4932 or in advance to set an appointment to view a disssertation. The copy may only be viewed in the Luhrs Reading Room and cannot be checked out nor loaned to another library. View the policies and contest procedures for submitting your dissertation/thesis at the Graduate College#39;s site forCompleting Your Degree; in particular, look under Graduation Procedures, Step 5: Submit Dissertation/Thesis to UMI/ProQuest. ?Information about the electronic dissertations and theses in the ASU Digital Repository, including open access issues, embargoes and copyright is available at ASU Digital Repository: Electronic Theses and Dissertations.

To determine if a specific ASU dissertation or thesis is available in the ASU Digital Repository, the Proquest Dissertation/Thesis database, or available in print in the ASU Library, contact.

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Section 5. Collecting and Analyzing Data. The Tool Box needs your help. to remain available. Your contribution can help change lives. Sixteen training modules. for teaching core skills. The Tool Box needs your help.

to remain available. Your contribution can help change lives. Sixteen training modules. for teaching core skills. What do we mean by collecting data? What do we mean by tutorial analyzing data? Why should you collect and analyze data for car detailing plan, your evaluation? When and by whom should data be collected and analyzed? How do you collect and tutorial analyze data? In previous sections of this chapter, we’ve discussed studying the issue, deciding on letter lecturer, a research design, and creating an observational system for gathering information for your evaluation.

Now it’s time to collect your data and analyze it – figuring out on essay, what it means – so that you can use it to draw some conclusions about your work. In this section, we’ll examine how to npg essay contest do just that. What do we mean by on essay collecting data? Essentially, collecting data means putting your design for collecting information into operation. You’ve decided how you’re going to get information – whether by direct observation, interviews, surveys, experiments and education testing, or other methods – and now you and/or other observers have to implement your plan. Tutorial On Essay? There’s a bit more to cover spanish collecting data, however. If you are conducting observations, for example, you’ll have to define what you’re observing and arrange to make observations at the right times, so you actually observe what you need to. You’ll have to record the observations in appropriate ways and tutorial organize them so they’re optimally useful. Recording and nyu personal essay organizing data may take different forms, depending on the kind of information you’re collecting. Tutorial On Essay? The way you collect your data should relate to how you’re planning to humanity essay analyze and on essay use it. Regardless of what method you decide to use, recording should be done concurrent with data collection if possible, or soon afterwards, so that nothing gets lost and memory doesn’t fade.

Some of the things you might do with the business information you collect include: Gathering together information from all sources and on essay observations Making photocopies of all recording forms, records, audio or video recordings, and humanity any other collected materials, to on essay guard against loss, accidental erasure, or other problems Entering narratives, numbers, and other information into a computer program, where they can be arranged and/or worked on in various ways Performing any mathematical or similar operations needed to education get quantitative information ready for analysis. Tutorial? These might, for car detailing business, instance, include entering numerical observations into a chart, table, or spreadsheet, or figuring the on essay mean (average), median (midpoint), and/or mode (most frequently occurring) of a set of numbers. Transcribing (making an exact, word-for-word text version of) the contents of audio or video recordings Coding data (translating data, particularly qualitative data that isn’t expressed in numbers, into a form that allows it to be processed by a specific software program or subjected to statistical analysis) Organizing data in ways that make them easier to work with. Contest? How you do this will depend on your research design and your evaluation questions.

You might group observations by the dependent variable (indicator of success) they relate to, by individuals or groups of participants, by time, by activity, etc. You might also want to group observations in several different ways, so that you can study interactions among different variables. There are two kinds of variables in research. An independent variable (the intervention) is a condition implemented by the researcher or community to tutorial see if it will create change and improvement. This could be a program, method, system, or other action. A dependent variable is nyu personal statements essay, what may change as a result of the independent variable or intervention. A dependent variable could be a behavior, outcome, or other condition. A smoking cessation program, for tutorial, example, is an independent variable that may change group members’ smoking behavior, the primary dependent variable. What do we mean by analyzing data? Analyzing information involves examining it in ways that reveal the relationships, patterns, trends, etc. that can be found within it.

That may mean subjecting it to statistical operations that can tell you not only what kinds of contest relationships seem to exist among variables, but also to what level you can trust the answers you’re getting. It may mean comparing your information to that from other groups (a control or comparison group, statewide figures, etc.), to help draw some conclusions from the data. The point, in terms of your evaluation, is to get an accurate assessment in order to tutorial better understand your work and its effects on those you’re concerned with, or in order to nyu personal better understand the overall situation. There are two kinds of data you’re apt to be working with, although not all evaluations will necessarily include both. Quantitative data refer to the information that is tutorial on essay, collected as, or can be translated into, numbers, which can then be displayed and analyzed mathematically. Qualitative data are collected as descriptions, anecdotes, opinions, quotes, interpretations, etc., and are generally either not able to be reduced to nyu personal statements numbers, or are considered more valuable or informative if left as narratives. As you might expect, quantitative and qualitative information needs to be analyzed differently. Quantitative data are typically collected directly as numbers. Some examples include:

The frequency (rate, duration) of on essay specific behaviors or conditions Test scores (e.g., scores/levels of plan knowledge, skill, etc.) Survey results (e.g., reported behavior, or outcomes to environmental conditions; ratings of satisfaction, stress, etc.) Numbers or percentages of tutorial on essay people with certain characteristics in term a population (diagnosed with diabetes, unemployed, Spanish-speaking, under age 14, grade of school completed, etc.) Data can also be collected in forms other than numbers, and turned into quantitative data for analysis. Researchers can count the number of times an event is documented in interviews or records, for instance, or assign numbers to on essay the levels of humanity education essay intensity of an observed event or behavior. For instance, community initiatives often want to document the on essay amount and intensity of environmental changes they bring about term paper – the on essay new programs and policies that result from their efforts. Whether or not this kind of translation is necessary or useful depends on term paper, the nature of what you’re observing and on the kinds of questions your evaluation is meant to answer. Quantitative data is usually subjected to tutorial on essay statistical procedures such as calculating the cover mean or average number of times an event or behavior occurs (per day, month, year). These operations, because numbers are “hard” data and on essay not interpretation, can give definitive, or nearly definitive, answers to different questions. Various kinds of quantitative analysis can indicate changes in a dependent variable related to – frequency, duration, timing (when particular things happen), intensity, level, etc.

They can allow you to paper compare those changes to one another, to changes in another variable, or to tutorial changes in another population. Term Paper? They might be able to tutorial on essay tell you, at nyu personal essay a particular degree of tutorial on essay reliability, whether those changes are likely to have been caused by your intervention or program, or by npg essay another factor, known or unknown. And they can identify relationships among different variables, which may or may not mean that one causes another. Unlike numbers or “hard data,” qualitative information tends to be “soft,” meaning it can’t always be reduced to something definite. That is in some ways a weakness, but it’s also a strength. A number may tell you how well a student did on on essay, a test; the look on car detailing business plan, her face after seeing her grade, however, may tell you even more about the effect of that result on tutorial on essay, her. Phishings Term Paper? That look can’t be translated to a number, nor can a teacher’s knowledge of tutorial that student’s history, progress, and experience, all of essay which go into tutorial on essay the teacher’s interpretation of that look. And that interpretation may be far more valuable in helping that student succeed than knowing her grade or numerical score on the test. Qualitative data can sometimes be changed into numbers, usually by counting the number of times specific things occur in the course of observations or interviews, or by education essay assigning numbers or ratings to dimensions (e.g., importance, satisfaction, ease of use).

The challenges of translating qualitative into quantitative data have to do with the human factor. Even if most people agree on what 1 (lowest) or 5 (highest) means in regard to rating “satisfaction” with a program, ratings of 2, 3, and 4 may be very different for different people. Furthermore, the numbers say nothing about why people reported the way they did. One may dislike the program because of the content, the facilitator, the time of tutorial on essay day, etc. The same may be true when you’re counting instances of the mention of an event, such as the onset of a new policy or program in npg essay contest a community based on interviews or archival records. Where one person might see a change in program he considers important another may omit it due to perceived unimportance. Qualitative data can sometimes tell you things that quantitative data can’t. It may reveal why certain methods are working or not working, whether part of what you’re doing conflicts with participants’ culture, what participants see as important, etc. It may also show you patterns – in behavior, physical or social environment, or other factors – that the numbers in your quantitative data don’t, and occasionally even identify variables that researchers weren’t aware of. It is on essay, often helpful to collect both quantitative and qualitative information.

Quantitative analysis is considered to be objective – without any human bias attached to it – because it depends on the comparison of numbers according to business plan mathematical computations. Tutorial On Essay? Analysis of qualitative data is generally accomplished by methods more subjective – dependent on people’s opinions, knowledge, assumptions, and term inferences (and therefore biases) – than that of quantitative data. The identification of patterns, the interpretation of people’s statements or other communication, the spotting of trends – all of on essay these can be influenced by cover letter spanish lecturer the way the researcher sees the world. Be aware, however, that quantitative analysis is tutorial on essay, influenced by a number of subjective factors as well. What the plan researcher chooses to measure, the accuracy of the tutorial on essay observations, and the way the research is structured to ask only particular questions can all influence the results, as can the researcher’s understanding and interpretation of the subsequent analyses. Why should you collect and analyze data for your evaluation? Part of the answer here is that not every organization – particularly small community-based or non-governmental ones – will necessarily have extensive resources to essay conduct a formal evaluation. They may have to be content with less formal evaluations, which can still be extremely helpful in tutorial on essay providing direction for a program or intervention. An informal evaluation will involve some data gathering and analysis. This data collection and sensemaking is critical to an initiative and its future success, and has a number of letter advantages. The data can show whether there was any significant change in the dependent variable(s) you hoped to influence . Collecting and analyzing data helps you see whether your intervention brought about the tutorial on essay desired results.

The term “significance” has a specific meaning when you’re discussing statistics. Business? The level of significance of tutorial a statistical result is the level of confidence you can have in the answer you get. Generally, researchers don’t consider a result significant unless it shows at least a 95% certainty that it’s correct (called the .05 level of significance, since there’s a 5% chance that it’s wrong). Contest? The level of significance is built into the statistical formulas: once you get a mathematical result, a table (or the software you’re using) will tell you the level of tutorial on essay significance. Thus, if data analysis finds that the independent variable (the intervention) influenced the dependent variable at the .05 level of significance, it means there’s a 95% probability or likelihood that your program or intervention had the desired effect. The .05 level is generally considered a reasonable result, and the .01 level (99% probability) is lecturer, considered about tutorial as close to npg essay certainty as you are likely to tutorial on essay get. A 95% level of certainty doesn’t mean that the program works on npg essay contest, 95% of on essay participants, or that it will work 95% of the time. It means that there’s only a 5% possibility that it isn’t actually what’s influencing the dependent variable(s) and causing the changes that it seems to essay be associated with. They can uncover factors that may be associated with changes in the dependent variable(s).

Data analyses may help discover unexpected influences; for instance, that the effort was twice as large for those participants who also were a part of a support group. This can be used to identify key aspects of implementation. They can show connections between or among various factors that may have an effect on the results of your evaluation . Some types of statistical procedures look for connections (“correlations” is the research term) among variables. Certain dependent variables may change when others do. These changes may be similar – i.e., both variables increase or decrease (e.g., as children’s proficiency at reading increases, the amount of reading they do also increases). Or the opposite may be observed – i.e. the two variables change in on essay opposite directions (as the amount of exercise they engage in increases, peoples’ weight decreases). Correlations don’t mean that one variable causes another, or that they both have the same cause, but they can provide valuable information about associations to expect in an evaluation. They can help shed light on the reasons that your work was effective or, perhaps, less effective than you’d hoped . By combining quantitative and statements qualitative analysis, you can often determine not only what worked or didn’t, but why. The effect of cultural issues, how well methods are used, the appropriateness of your approach for the population – these as well as other factors that influence success can be highlighted by careful data collection and analysis.

This knowledge gives you a basis for adapting and changing what you do to on essay make it more likely you’ll achieve the desired outcomes in the future. Spanish? They can provide you with credible evidence to on essay show stakeholders that your program is successful, or that you’ve uncovered, and are addressing limitations . Stakeholders, such as funders and community boards, want to know their investments are well spent. Showing evidence of intermediate outcomes (e.g. new programs and policies) and business longer-term outcomes (e.g., improvements in education or health indicators) is becoming increasingly important to tutorial receiving – and nyu personal retaining – funding. Their use shows that you’re serious about tutorial on essay evaluation and about improving your work. Being a good trustee or steward of community investment includes regular review of data regarding progress and improvement. They can show the field what you’re learning, and thus pave the way for others to implement successful methods and preservation approaches . Tutorial? In that way, you’ll be helping to improve community efforts and, ultimately, quality of forests life for people who benefit. When and by whom should data be collected and analyzed? As far as data collection goes, the “when” part of tutorial on essay this question is relatively simple: data collection should start no later than when you begin your work – or before you begin in letter spanish lecturer order to establish a baseline or starting point – and continue throughout.

Ideally, you should collect data for a period of on essay time before you start your program or intervention in order to determine if there are any trends in the data before the onset of the intervention. Contest? Additionally, in order to tutorial on essay gauge your program’s longer-term effects, you should collect follow-up data for a period of time following the conclusion of the program. The timing of cover letter lecturer analysis can be looked at tutorial in at least two ways: One is that it’s best to npg essay contest analyze your information when you’ve collected all of it, so you can look at tutorial it as a whole. The other is that if you analyze it as you go along, you’ll be able to adjust your thinking about what information you actually need, and to adjust your program to car detailing plan respond to tutorial on essay the information you’re getting. Which of these approaches you take depends on your research purposes. Cover Letter Spanish Lecturer? If you’re more concerned with a summative evaluation – finding out whether your approach was effective, you might be more inclined toward the first. If you’re oriented toward improvement – a formative evaluation – we recommend gathering information along the way. Tutorial On Essay? Both approaches are legitimate, but ongoing data collection and review can particularly lead to improvements in your work. The “who” question can be more complex.

If you’re reasonably familiar with statistics and statistical procedures, and you have the resources in forests essay time, money, and personnel, it’s likely that you’ll do a somewhat formal study, using standard statistical tests. (There’s a great deal of software – both for sale and free or open-source – available to help you.) If that’s not the case, you have some choices: You can hire or find a volunteer outside evaluator, such as from a nearby college or university, to take care of on essay data collection and/or analysis for you. You can conduct a less formal evaluation. Your results may not be as sophisticated as if you subjected them to rigorous statistical procedures, but they can still tell you a lot about your program. Just the numbers – the number of dropouts (and when most dropped out), for instance, or the cover spanish lecturer characteristics of the people you serve – can give you important and usable information. You can try to learn enough about statistics and statistical software to conduct a formal evaluation yourself. (Take a course, for example.) You can collect the data and then send it off to someone – a university program, a friendly statistician or researcher, or someone you hire – to process it for you.

You can collect and rely largely on qualitative data. Whether this is an option depends to a large extent on what your program is about. You wouldn’t want to tutorial conduct a formal evaluation of phishings term paper effectiveness of a new medication using only qualitative data, but you might be able to draw some reasonable conclusions about use or compliance patterns from tutorial on essay qualitative information. If possible, use a randomized or closely matched control group for comparison. Essay? If your control is properly structured, you can draw some fairly reliable conclusions simply by comparing its results to those of your intervention group. Again, these results won’t be as reliable as if the comparison were made using statistical procedures, but they can point you in the right direction. Tutorial On Essay? It’s fairly easy to tell whether or not there’s a major difference between the numbers for the two or more groups. If 95% of the car detailing business students in on essay your class passed the test, and essay only 60% of those in a similar but uninstructed control group did, you can be pretty sure that your class made a difference in some way, although you may not be able to tell exactly what it was that mattered. By the tutorial on essay same token, if 72% of lecturer your students passed and 70% of the tutorial control group did as well, it seems pretty clear that your instruction had essentially no effect, if the groups were starting from approximately the contest same place. Who should actually collect and analyze data also depends on the form of your evaluation.

If you’re doing a participatory evaluation, much of the tutorial on essay data collection - and analyzing - will be done by community members or program participants themselves. If you’re conducting an evaluation in which the observation is specialized, the data collectors may be staff members, professionals, highly trained volunteers, or others with specific skills or training (graduate students, for statements, example). Analysis also could be accomplished by a participatory process. Even where complicated statistical procedures are necessary, participants and/or community members might be involved in sorting out what those results actually mean once the math is done and the results are in. Another way analysis can be accomplished is by professionals or other trained individuals, depending upon the nature of the data to be analyzed, the methods of analysis, and the level of sophistication aimed at in the conclusions. How do you collect and on essay analyze data? Whether your evaluation includes formal or informal research procedures, you’ll still have to collect and analyze data, and there are some basic steps you can take to do so. Implement your measurement system. We've previously discussed designing an observational system to gather information.

Now it’s time to put that system in place. Clearly define and describe what measurements or observations are needed . The definition and cover letter spanish lecturer description should be clear enough to enable observers to agree on what they’re observing and on essay reliably record data in the same way. Select and train observers . Particularly if this is essay, part of tutorial a participatory process, observers need training to know what to record; to cover spanish recognize key behaviors, events, and conditions; and to tutorial on essay reach an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability (agreement among observers). Conduct observations at the appropriate times for the appropriate period of time . This may include reviewing archival material; conducting interviews, surveys, or focus groups; engaging in direct observation; etc. Record data in the agreed-upon ways . These may include pencil and paper, computer (using a laptop or handheld device in the field, entering numbers into a program, etc.), audio or video, journals, etc. Organize the data you’ve collected.

How you do this depends on what you’re planning to do with it, and on what you’re interested in. Enter any necessary data into humanity education the computer . This may mean simply typing comments, descriptions, etc., into a word processing program, or entering various kinds of tutorial information (possibly including audio and cover letter spanish lecturer video) into a database, spreadsheet, a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) program, or some other type of software or file. Transcribe any audio- or videotapes . This makes them easier to work with and copy, and tutorial on essay allows the opportunity to clarify any hard-to-understand passages of lecturer speech. Score any tests and record the scores appropriately. Sort your information in ways appropriate to your interest . Tutorial On Essay? This may include sorting by humanity education category of observation, by event, by tutorial on essay place, by individual, by group, by the time of observation, or by a combination or some other standard. When possible, necessary, and appropriate, transform qualitative into phishings term quantitative data . On Essay? This might involve, for preservation, example, counting the number of times specific issues were mentioned in interviews, or how often certain behaviors were observed. Conduct data graphing, visual inspection, statistical analysis, or other operations on the data as appropriate. We’ve referred several times to statistical procedures that you can apply to quantitative data.

If you have the tutorial on essay right numbers, you can find out a great deal about whether your program is causing or contributing to change and improvement, what that change is, whether there are any expected or unexpected connections among variables, how your group compares to nyu personal statements another you’re measuring, etc. There are other excellent possibilities for analysis besides statistical procedures, however. A few include: Simple counting, graphing and visual inspection of frequency or rates of behavior, events, etc., over time . Using visual inspection of patterns over time to identify discontinuities (marked increases, decreases) in the measures over time (sessions, weeks, months). Calculating the mean (average), median (midpoint), and/or mode (most frequent) of a series of measurements or observations . What was the average blood pressure, for instance, of people who exercised 30 minutes a day at least five days a week, as opposed to that of people who exercised two days a week or less? Using qualitative interviews, conversations, and participant observation to observe (and track changes in) the people or situation . Journals can be particularly revealing in this area because they record people’s experiences and reflections over time. Finding patterns in qualitative data . If many people refer to similar problems or barriers, these may be important in tutorial on essay understanding the issue, determining what works or doesn’t work and why, or more. Comparing actual results to previously determined goals or benchmarks . One measure of success might be meeting a goal for planning or program implementation, for example. Take note of plan any significant or interesting results. Depending on tutorial on essay, the nature of your research, results may be statistically significant (the 95% or better certainty that we discussed earlier), or simply important or unusual.

They may or may not be socially significant (i.e., large enough to solve the problem). There are a number of different kinds of results you might be looking for. Differences within people or groups . If you have repeated measurements for individuals/groups over time, we can see if there are marked increases/decreases in the (frequency, rate) of behavior (events, etc.) following introduction of the program or intervention. Car Detailing Business Plan? When the effects are seen when and only when the intervention is introduced – and if the intervention is staggered (delayed) across people or groups – this increases our confidence that the intervention, and not something else, is on essay, producing the observed effects. Differences between or among two or more groups . If you have one or more randomized control groups in a formal study (groups that are drawn at random from the same population as the group in your program, but are not getting the same program or intervention, or are getting none at all), then the statistical significance of differences between or among the groups should tell you whether your program has any more influence on the dependent variable(s) than what’s experienced by the other groups. Results that show statistically significant changes . With or without a control or comparison group, many statistical procedures can tell you whether changes in dependent variables are truly significant (or not likely due to chance). These results may say nothing about the phishings term paper causes of the change (or they may, depending on how you’ve structured your evaluation), but they do tell you what’s happening, and give you a place to start. On Essay? Correlations . Correlation means that there are connections between or among two or more variables. Contest? Correlations can sometimes point to important relationships you might not have predicted. Sometimes they can shed light on the issue itself, and sometimes on the effects of a group’s cultural practices. In some cases, they can highlight potential causes of an issue or condition, and thus pave the way for tutorial, future interventions.

Correlation between variables doesn’t tell you that one necessarily causes the other, but simply that changes in letter spanish one have a relationship to changes in the other. Among American teenagers, for instance, there is tutorial on essay, probably a fairly high correlation between an increase in body size and an understanding of algebra. This is not because one causes the other, but rather the humanity education result of the fact that American schools tend to begin teaching algebra in the seventh, eighth, or ninth grades, a time when many 12-, 13-, and on essay 14-year-olds are naturally experiencing a growth spurt. On the other hand, correlations can reveal important connections. A very high correlation between, for instance, the npg essay use of a particular medication and the onset of depression might lead to the withdrawal of that medication, or at on essay least a study of its side effects, and increased awareness and caution among doctors who prescribe it. A very high correlation between gang membership and having a parent with a substance abuse problem may not reveal a direct cause-and-effect relationship, but may tell you something important about who is more at risk for substance abuse. Patterns . In both quantitative and qualitative information, patterns often emerge: certain health conditions seem to nyu personal essay cluster in particular geographical areas; people from tutorial on essay a particular group behave in similar ways; etc. These patterns may not be specifically what you were looking for forests, or expected to find, but they may either be important in themselves or shed light on the areas you’re interested in. In some cases, you may need to subject them to tutorial on essay statistical procedures (regression analysis, for example) to see if, in fact, they’re random, or if they constitute actual patterns. Humanity Education? Obvious important findings . Whether as a result of statistical analysis, or of examination of your data and application of logic, some findings may stand out. If 70% of tutorial on essay a group of overweight participants in a healthy eating and physical activity program lowered their weight and blood pressure significantly, compared to only 20% of a similar group not in the program, you can probably assume that program may have been effective.

If there’s no change whatsoever in education outcomes after two years of your education program, then you’re either running an ineffective program, or you’re simply not reaching those who are most likely to have poorer outcomes (which can also be interpreted to mean you’re running an ineffective program.) Not all important findings will necessarily tell you whether your program worked, or what is the most effective method. It might be obvious from your data collection, for instance, that, while violence or roadway injuries may not be seen as a problem citywide, they are much higher in essay one or more particular areas, or that the on essay rates of statements essay diabetes are markedly higher for particular groups or those living in areas with greater disparities of tutorial income. If you have the resources, it’s wise to npg essay contest look at the results of your research in a number of different ways, both to find out how to improve your program, and to learn what else you might do to affect the issue. Once you’ve organized your results and on essay run them through whatever statistical or other analysis you’ve planned for, it’s time to cover spanish figure out what they mean for your evaluation. Probably the most common question that evaluation research is tutorial on essay, directed toward is whether the program being evaluated works or makes a difference. In research terms, that often translates to “What were the effects of the independent variable (the program, intervention, etc.) on npg essay, the dependent variable(s) (the behavior, conditions, or other factors it was meant to change)?” There are a number of possible answers to this question: Your program had exactly the tutorial effects on the dependent variable(s) you expected and car detailing plan hoped it would . Statistics or other analysis showed clear positive effects at a high level of significance for the people in your program and tutorial – if you used a multiple-group design – none, or far fewer, of the preservation same effects for a similar control group and/or for a group that received a different intervention with the same purpose. Tutorial? Your early childhood education program, for cover letter lecturer, instance, greatly increased development outcomes for children in the community, and tutorial on essay also contributed to an increase in contest the percentage of on essay children succeeding in school. Your program had no effect . Your program produced no significant results on term paper, the dependent variable, whether alone or compared to other groups. This would mean no change as a result of your program or intervention.

Your program had a negative effect . For instance, intimate partner violence increased (or at least appeared to) as a result of your intervention. (It is relatively common for reported events, such as violence or injury, to on essay increase when the intervention results in improved surveillance and ease of reporting). Your program had the effects you hoped for phishings paper, and other effects as well . These effects might be positive . Your youth violence prevention program, for instance, might have resulted in on essay greatly reduced violence among teens, and might also have resulted in npg essay significantly improved academic performance for the kids involved. These effects might be neutral . The same youth violence prevention program might somehow result in youth watching TV more often after school. These effects might be negative . (These effects are usually called unintended consequences.) Youth violence might decrease significantly, but the incidence of teen pregnancies or alcohol consumption among youth in the program might increase significantly at the same time. These effects might be multiple , or mixed .For instance, a program to reduce HIV/AIDS might lower rates of unprotected sex but might also increase conflict and instances of partner violence. Tutorial On Essay? Your program had no effect or a negative effect and other effects as well. Phishings Term Paper? As with programs with positive effects, these might be positive, neutral, or negative; single or multiple; or consistent or mixed.

If your analysis gives you a clear indication that what you’re doing is accomplishing your purposes, interpretation is relatively simple: You should keep doing it, while trying out tutorial on essay, ways to make it even more effective, or while aiming at npg essay contest other related issues as well. As we discuss elsewhere in the Community Tool Box, good programs are dynamic -- constantly striving to improve, rather than assuming that what they’re doing is as good as it can be. If your analysis shows that your program is ineffective or negative, however – or, for that matter, if a positive analysis leaves you wondering how to on essay make your successful efforts still more successful – interpretation becomes more complex. Are you using an absolutely wrong approach? Are you using an approach that could be effective, but is poorly implement?

Is there a particular contributing factor you’re failing to take into account? Are there barriers to essay success – of culture, experience, personal characteristics, systematic discrimination – present in the population from on essay which participants are drawn? Are there particular components or elements you can change to humanity education essay make your program more effective, or should you start again from scratch? What should you address to make a good program better? Careful and insightful interpretation of tutorial on essay your data may allow you to answer questions like these. You may be able to use correlations, for instance, to car detailing generate hypotheses about your results. If positive or negative changes in particular variables are consistently associated with positive or negative changes in tutorial other variables, the two may be connected. Car Detailing Business? (The word “may” is tutorial on essay, important here.

The two may be connected, but they may not, or both may be related to a third variable that you’re not aware of or that you consider trivial.) Such a connection can point the way toward a factor (e.g., access to support) that is causing the changes in both variables, and that must be addressed to make your program successful. Phishings Term Paper? Correlations may also indicate patterns in your data, or may lead to an unexpected way of looking at the issue you’re addressing. You can often use qualitative data to understand the on essay meaning of an intervention, and essay people’s reactions to the results.The observation that participants are continually suffering from a variety of health problems may be traced, through qualitative data, to nutrition problems (due either to poverty or ignorance) or to lack of access to health services, or to cultural restrictions (some Muslim women may be unwilling – or unable because of family prohibition – to on essay accept care and treatment from preservation male doctors, for example). Once you have organized your data, both statistical results and on essay anything that can’t be analyzed statistically need to be analyzed logically. This may not give you convincing information but it will almost undoubtedly give you some ideas to follow up on, and some indications of connections and avenues you might not yet have considered. It will also show you some additional results – people reacting differently than before to the program, for example. The numbers can tell you whether there is change, but they can’t always tell you what causes it or why (although they sometimes can), or why some people benefit while others don’t.

Those are often matters for logical analysis, or critical thinking. You have to become a cultural detective to npg essay understand your initiative, and, in some ways, every evaluation is an anthropological study. The heart of evaluation research is gathering information about the tutorial program or intervention you’re evaluating and humanity education essay analyzing it to tutorial on essay determine what it tells you about the effectiveness of what you’re doing, as well as about essay how you can maintain and improve that effectiveness. Collecting quantitative data – information expressed in numbers – and subjecting it to a visual inspection or formal statistical analysis can tell you whether your work is having the tutorial on essay desired effect, and may be able to preservation essay tell you why or why not as well. Tutorial On Essay? It can also highlight connections (correlations) among variables, and essay call attention to factors you may not have considered. Collecting and analyzing qualitative data – interviews, descriptions of environmental factors, or events, and tutorial circumstances – can provide insight into how participants experience the issue you’re addressing, what barriers and forests advantages they experience, and what you might change or add to improve what you do. Once you’ve gained the knowledge that your information provides, it’s time to start the process again. Use what you’ve learned to continue to evaluate what you do by collecting and tutorial analyzing data, and continually improve your program.

My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant (MEERA) provides extensive information on how to Analyze Data . Within their guide, they answer various questions such as: What type of essay analysis do I need?, How do I analyze qualitative/quantitative data?, and What software can I use to analyze qualitative/quantitative data? The Pell Institute offers user-friendly information on how to Analyze Qualitative Data as a part of tutorial on essay their Evaluation Toolkit. The site provides a simple explanation of qualitative data with a step-by-step process to collecting and analyzing data. Through the Evaluation Toolkit, the Pell Institute has compiled a user-friendly guide to easily and efficiently Analyze Quantitative Data . In addition to explaining the basis of quantitative analysis, the site also provides information on cover spanish, data tabulation, descriptives, disaggregating data, and tutorial moderate and advanced analytical methods. CDC’s Analyzing Quantitative Data for Evaluation provides steps to planning and conducting quantitative analysis, as well as the contest advantages and disadvantages of using quantitative methods. Charts and Graphs to tutorial on essay Communicate Research Findings , from the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center (MSKTC), will provide guidance on which chart types are best suited for which types of data and for which purposes, shows examples of forests essay preferred practices and practical tips for tutorial, each chart type, and provides cautions and examples of misuse and poor use of each chart type and how to make corrections. Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data , 2 nd edition, provided by the National Library of Medicine, provides information on collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data. This booklet contains examples of commonly used methods, as well as a toolkit on using mixed methods in evaluation. Compiled for business plan, the Adolescent and tutorial School Health sector of the CDC, Data Collection and npg essay Analysis Methods is an tutorial extensive list of articles pertaining to the collection of various forms of data including questionnaires, focus groups, observation, document analysis, and interviews. Free Statistics is business, a guide to free and open source software for statistical analysis that includes a comparison, explaining what operations each program can perform. Provided by the U.S.

Department of Health and tutorial on essay Human Services, this HRSA Toolkit offers advice on spanish, successfully collecting and analyzing data. On Essay? An extensive list of both for collecting and analyzing data and on spanish, computerized disease registries is available. This Human Development Index Map is a valuable tool from Measure of America: A Project of the Social Science Research Council . It combines indicators in three fundamental areas - health, knowledge, and standard of tutorial on essay living - into a single number that falls on a scale from 0 to 10, and is presented on an easy-to-navigate interactive map of the statements essay United States. Research Methods Knowledge Base is on essay, a comprehensive web-based textbook that provides useful, comprehensive, relatively simple explanations of how statistics work and nyu personal essay how and when specific statistical operations are used and help to tutorial on essay interpret data. Bazeley, P. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: Practical strategies.

New York, NY: SAGE. Brown, M. Hale, K. (2014). Plan? Applied research methods in tutorial on essay public nonprofit organizations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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1906 British General Election Essay. The Liberals lapped on the conservatives weaknesses, and used that to their strengths. The leadership of Campbell-Bannerman proved as a success by tutorial on essay throwing out accusations towards the Tories, like their methods of barbarism and ‘Chinese slavery.’ They also had young, dynamic MP’s and the gaining of Winston Churchill. The liberals opposed the education, tariff reform and supported free trade like many working class voters. The Tories had won 334 seats in the 1900 election but that went down to tutorial 157 seats in the 1906 election, which is a loss of 177 seats. But on the other hand in phishings term paper, the 1900 election the Liberals had 187 seats but by 1906 election they had gone up to 401 seats, which is a gain of tutorial 214 seats! The Conservative party introduced two new acts just before this General Election which decreased their popularity. The Education Act of 1902 was an forests essay, attempt by the ‘Tories’ to improve national efficiency: Britain must improve the health and well-being of the nation if it was to on essay remain a leading world power. The act abolished school boards, which meant that taxpayers funded primary school education.

Although this was a successful policy, (attendance increased from 94,000 in 1905 to 200,000 by nyu personal statements 1914) it angered non-conformists who were outraged that their taxes were being used to fund church schools. In fact, the Act was branded #8216;Rome on Rates#8217;, as the Catholic Church was benefiting from taxes being paid by tutorial anti-Catholic citizens: Balfour soon had to nyu personal statements control a revolt as 7000 people refused to pay their taxes. This rebellion shows just how unpopular this act was and tutorial, reduced the amount of support for the Conservatives. The Conservative party also had a ‘Laissez Faire’ attitude, which means ‘you are on your own’ with your health and humanity education, wealth. Booth and Roundtrees studies showed that 1/3 of the tutorial, population were in Poverty and in the Boer War soldiers were declared to unhealthy to fight. Npg Essay! The Non-Conformists were also outraged by the Licensing Act of 1904, which aimed to tutorial on essay reduce the number of pubs in areas where they were not needed. Essay! However, the government paid compensation to tutorial on essay the brewers whose pubs were closed down which angered voters as the brewers were receiving unnecessary government funds. This act, #8216;The Brewers Bill#8217; was another attempt by the Conservatives to introduce reform, which ended in their popularity decreasing in the 1906 election. These acts were important, not only because they weakened Conservative support but also because they gave the car detailing, Liberal party new policies to tutorial on essay increase popularity: they promised to reverse the Education and Licensing Acts, which made them more attractive to Non-Conformists.

The reforms gave the Liberal party strength: whereas in 1900, they had been split over lecturer the issue of home rule and had suffered from tutorial on essay #8216;faddism#8217;. The first major event that had an impact on the general election of 1906 was the Boer War. There are a number of reasons why the Boer War occurred, the first being Joseph Chamberlains appointment as colonial secretary whose job it was to strengthen the empire. South Africa was important in these plans as it had the most valuable land on cover lecturer the continent not only because of its trading location but also because of the recently discovered Witwatersrand goldfield#8217;s growing wealth. Agreements in 1881 and 1884 gave the Boer states independence but they faced interference from tutorial on essay imperialist Britain which escalated hostilities.

These and nyu personal statements essay, other factors eventually led to war with the tutorial on essay, Boer states. Views were split on the subject but as the war went on the Conservatives were being increasingly blamed for their military inexperience. The war also allowed the essay, Liberals to start a revival as it took views off the internal cracks in tutorial, the party and gave it a united front as most Liberals disagreed with the war. The Boer war also created other issues for the Conservatives. There were 50,00 Chinese workers in South Africa (or also as it is known as ‘Chinese Slavery’) and despite the Conservative government having little to do with it the Liberals could portray them as exploiters of workers due to statements the long hours, poor pay and lack of rights they had. This harmed the Conservatives reputation with middle class voters because of the humanitarian issues (methods of barbarism) but more importantly badly damaged their reputation with working class voters because not only tutorial did it close off potential job opportunities in South Africa but also made many worried that they may implement the practice in Britain.

Another major event that had an impact on the election was the nyu personal essay, retirement of Lord Salisbury who had been influential in the revival of the Conservatives and the alliance with the Unionists. Salisbury#8217;s successor, Balfour can be seen as another reason for tutorial on essay, the revival of the Liberal Party. As soon as Balfour was appointed the nyu personal, Unionist alliance began to break. Balfour is partly to tutorial on essay blame for Chamberlains attempt to implement the tariff reform in 1903. Although Balfour had little to do with it he failed to stop Chamberlain putting the reform forward which led to many people questioning his authority. Preservation! This controversial policy split the unionist alliance so much so that many voters turned to the Liberals. The split was in three ways. ‘Whole Hoggers’ who supported the tariff reform fully. Tutorial! There were ‘Free fooders’ whom were mostly Liberal Unionists where they supported free trade and forests, absolutely hated the idea.

Then finally there were the ‘Balfourites’ who tried to create peace throughout the party. The reform stated that all non-British (and British Empire as well just pay lower taxes) colonies should have to pay tariffs on imports into Britain. But free trade was indented into British society and nearly all voters were against the idea as no one wanted to tutorial pay more for the same products. Npg Essay Contest! Another damaging misestimate by Balfour was the decision not to take any action on the Taff Vale incident. The railway workers on the Taff Vale railway went on strike in 1900. The management replaced them with National free labour association workers and then took the union to tutorial court for damages.

The judge ruled in favour of the company which angered thousands of trade union members who wanted change but by 1905 the Conservatives had not taken any action whereas the Liberals and Labour were supporting change. Balfour#8217;s successive miscalculations with this series of events led many to change their allegiances and preservation forests, angered many, none more than the working class who were becoming increasingly important. However it was not just Conservative weaknesses that caused the Liberals to win a victory in the 1906 general election, but also Liberals renewed strength. Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Herbert Asquith and William Gladstone are all acknowledged as great leaders and also with more dynamic MP’s, ( David Lloyd George, Herbert Samuel, Winston Churchill) while the tutorial on essay, Conservatives kept making mistakes the Liberals were gaining support, creating policies the public supported and preservation forests, forming alliances such as the Lib-Lab Pact. (The Liberal Party agreed to on essay withdraw parliamentary candidates in some constituencies where the Labour was also standing in order to make sure the anti-Tory vote was not split.) And with the contest, mess of the conservatives the on essay, Liberals promised to introduce social reforms. Overall, I think the statement is valid, as the Tories had their chance to show the public what they had to offer, but they failed and they wanted to have something new and fresh. The Liberals took the Conservatives weaknesses to their advantage and won! With their fresh new MP’s it looked like the government, the future looked bright for the people in poverty.

University/College: University of car detailing business plan Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 October 2016. On Essay! Let us write you a custom essay sample on 1906 British General Election. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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code essay hammurabi FRONTLINE reports from Iraq on the miscalculations and tutorial, mistakes behind the brutal rise of ISIS. ISIS#039; growing foothold in Afghanistan is captured on film. Get Our Newsletter. In the 14th Century BC, the Hittite Code also prescribed the death penalty. The 7th Century BC Draconian Code of education essay, Athens made death the penalty for every crime committed. In the 5th Century BC, the Roman Law of the Twelve Tablets codified the death penalty.

Again, the death penalty was different for nobility, freemen and slaves and was punishment for crimes such as the publication of libels and insulting songs, the cutting or grazing of tutorial on essay, crops planted by a farmer, the burning [of] a house or a stack of corn near a house, cheating by a patron of his client, perjury, making disturbances at night in the city, willful murder of a freeman or a parent, or theft by a slave. Death was often cruel and included crucifixion, drowning at sea, burial alive, beating to death, and impalement (often used by Nero). The Romans had a curious punishment for parricides (murder of a parent): the condemned was submersed in water in a sack, which also contained a dog, a rooster, a viper and an ape. [1] The most notorious death execution in BC was about 399 BC when the Greek philosopher Socrates was required to drink poison for heresy and corruption of youth. [2] Mosaic Law codified many capital crimes. In fact, there is evidence that Jews used many different techniques including stoning, hanging, beheading, crucifixion (copied from the Romans), throwing the criminal from a rock, and plan, sawing asunder. The most infamous execution of tutorial, history occurred approximately 29 AD with the crucifixion of npg essay contest, Jesus Christ outside Jerusalem. Tutorial? About 300 years later, the Emperor Constantine, after converting to Christianity, abolished crucifixion and other cruel death penalties in the Roman Empire. Essay? In 438, the Code of Theodosius made more than 80 crimes punishable by tutorial, death. [3] Britain influenced the colonies more than any other country and has a long history of punishment by death.

About 450 BC, the death penalty was often enforced by letter spanish, throwing the condemned into a quagmire. By the 10th Century, hanging from gallows was the most frequent execution method. On Essay? William the Conqueror opposed taking life except in war, and ordered no person to be hanged or executed for any offense. However, he allowed criminals to be mutilated for their crimes. During the middle ages, capital punishment was accompanied by torture. Most barons had a drowning pit as well as gallows and npg essay, they were used for major as well as minor crimes.

For example, in tutorial on essay, 1279, two hundred and eighty nine Jews were hanged for clipping coin. Under Edward I, two gatekeepers were killed because the city gate had not been closed in time to letter spanish lecturer prevent the escape of an accused murderer. Burning was the punishment for on essay, women's high treason and men were hanged, drawn and quartered. Beheading was generally accepted for humanity education, the upper classes. Tutorial? One could be burned for marrying a Jew.

Pressing became the penalty for humanity, those who would not confess to their crimes. The executioner placed heavy weights on tutorial, the victim's chest. On the first day he gave the victim a small quantity of bread, on the second day a small drink of bad water, and so on until he confessed or died. Under the reign of Henry VIII, the numbers of phishings term, those put to death are estimated as high as 72,000. Boiling to death was another penalty approved in 1531, and tutorial on essay, there are records to show some people boiled for up to two hours before death took them. When a woman was burned, the executioner tied a rope around her neck when she was tied to the stake. When the flames reached her she could be strangled from outside the ring of fire. Statements Essay? However, this often failed and many were literally burnt alive. [4] In Britain, the number of capital offenses continually increased until the 1700's when two hundred and twenty-two crimes were punishable by death. These included stealing from a house in the amount of forty shillings, stealing from a shop the value of five shillings, robbing a rabbit warren, cutting down a tree, and counterfeiting tax stamps. However, juries tended not to convict when the on essay penalty was great and the crime was not.

Reforms began to take place. In 1823, five laws passed, exempting about nyu personal statements essay, a hundred crimes from the death [penalty]. Between 1832 and 1837, many capital offenses were swept away. In 1840, there was a failed attempt to abolish all capital punishment. Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more and more capital punishments were abolished, not only in Britain, but also all across Europe, until today only tutorial on essay a few European countries retain the death penalty. Contest? [5]

The first recorded execution in the English American colonies was in 1608 when officials executed George Kendall of Virginia for supposedly plotting to betray the British to the Spanish. In 1612, Virginia's governor, Sir Thomas Dale, implemented the Divine, Moral, and tutorial, Martial Laws that made death the forests essay penalty for tutorial, even minor offenses such as stealing grapes, killing chickens, killing dogs or horses without permission, or trading with Indians. Seven years later these laws were softened because Virginia feared that no one would settle there. [6] In 1622, the first legal execution of a criminal, Daniel Frank, occurred in contest, Virginia for the crime of theft. [7] Some colonies were very strict in tutorial on essay, their use of the death penalty, while others were less so. In Massachusetts Bay Colony the first execution was in 1630, but the earliest capital statutes do not occur until later.

Under the Capital Laws of New-England that went into effect between 1636-1647 the death penalty was meted out for pre-meditated murder, sodomy, witchcraft, adultery, idolatry, blasphemy, assault in anger, rape, statutory rape, manstealing, perjury in a capital trial, rebellion, manslaughter, poisoning and nyu personal essay, bestiality. Early laws were accompanied by a scripture from the Old Testament. By 1780, the Commonwealth of tutorial on essay, Massachusetts only recognized seven capital crimes: murder, sodomy, burglary, buggery, arson, rape, and treason. [8] The New York colony instituted the so-called Duke's Laws of 1665. Contest? This directed the tutorial on essay death penalty for denial of the preservation essay true God, pre-meditated murder, killing someone who had no weapon of defense, killing by lying in on essay, wait or by npg essay contest, poisoning, sodomy, buggery, kidnapping, perjury in a capital trial, traitorous denial of the king's rights or raising arms to resist his authority, conspiracy to invade towns or forts in the colony and tutorial, striking one's mother or father (upon complaint of statements, both). The two colonies that were more lenient concerning capital punishment were South Jersey and Pennsylvania.

In South Jersey there was no death penalty for any crime and there were only two crimes, murder and treason, punishable by death. [9] However under the direction of the Crown, harsher penal codes were execution there until 1691 [sic]. In Pennsylvania, William Penn's Great Act (1682) made passed in the colonies [sic]. By 1776, most of the on essay colonies had roughly comparable death statutes which covered arson, piracy, treason, murder, sodomy, burglary, robbery, rape, horse-stealing, slave rebellion, and often counterfeiting. Hanging was the usual sentence.

Rhode Island was probably the cover letter only colony which decreased the number of capital crimes in the late 1700's. Some states were more severe. For example, by 1837, North Carolina required death for the crimes of murder, rape, statutory rape, slave-stealing, stealing bank notes, highway robbery, burglary, arson, castration, buggery, sodomy, bestiality, dueling where death occurs, hiding a slave with intent to free him, taking a free Negro out of state to tutorial sell him, bigamy, inciting slaves to rebel, circulating seditious literature among slaves, accessory to npg essay murder, robbery, burglary, arson, or mayhem and others. However, North Carolina did not have a state penitentiary and, many said, no suitable alternative to on essay capital punishment. [10] The first reforms of the death penalty occurred between 1776-1800.

Thomas Jefferson and four others, authorized to undertake a complete revision of Virginia's laws, proposed a law that recommended the death penalty for only treason and murder. After a stormy debate the legislature defeated the bill by one vote. The writing of phishings term, European theorists such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and tutorial on essay, Bentham had a great effect on American intellectuals, as did English Quaker prison reformers John Bellers and John Howard. [11] On Crimes and Punishment, published in nyu personal, English in 1767 by the Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria, whose exposition on abolishing capital punishment was the most influential of the on essay time, had an especially strong impact. He theorized that there was no justification for phishings term, the taking of life by the state. He said that the death penalty was a war of a whole nation against on essay, a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary, or useful to the general good.

He asked the question what if it can be shown not to be necessary or useful? His essay conceded that the only time a death was necessary was when only one's death could insure the contest security of a nation -- which would be rare and only in cases of absolute anarchy or when a nation was on tutorial, the verge of losing its liberty. He said that the history of using punishment by death (e.g., the Romans, 20 years of Czaress Elizabeth) had not prevented determined men from injuring society and that death was only a momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty. [12] Organizations were formed in different colonies for the abolition of the death penalty and to relieve poor prison conditions. Dr.

Benjamin Rush, a renowned Philadelphia citizen, proposed the complete abolition of capital punishment. William Bradford, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, was ordered to investigate capital punishment. In 1793 he published An Enquiry How Far the essay Punishment of Death is Necessary in Pennsylvania . He strongly insisted that the death penalty be retained, but admitted it was useless in preventing certain crimes. In fact, he said the death penalty made convictions harder to obtain, because in tutorial on essay, Pennsylvania, and indeed in all states, the death penalty was mandatory and preservation essay, juries would often not return a guilty verdict because of tutorial on essay, this fact. Statements Essay? In response, in 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder in the first degree, the tutorial on essay first time murder had been broken down into degrees. Npg Essay? In New York, in 1796, the legislature authorized construction of the tutorial state's first penitentiary, abolished whipping, and reduced the number of capital offenses from thirteen to two. Virginia and Kentucky passed similar reform bills. Four more states reduced its capital crimes: Vermont in 1797, to three; Maryland in 1810, to four; New Hampshire in 1812, to preservation two and Ohio in 1815, to two. Each of these states built state penitentiaries. A few states went the opposite direction. Rhode Island restored the death penalty for rape and arson; Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Connecticut raised death crimes from tutorial on essay six to ten, including sodomy, maiming, robbery, and forgery.

Many southern states made more crimes capital, especially for slaves. [13] The first great reform era occurred between 1833-1853. Public executions were attacked as cruel. Sometimes tens of thousands of eager viewers would show up to view hangings; local merchants would sell souvenirs and npg essay, alcohol. Fighting and pushing would often break out as people jockeyed for the best view of the hanging or the on essay corpse!

Onlookers often cursed the widow or the victim and would try to tear down the scaffold or the preservation essay rope for keepsakes. Violence and drunkenness often ruled towns far into the night after justice had been served. Many states enacted laws providing private hangings. Rhode Island (1833), Pennsylvania (1834), New York (1835), Massachusetts (1835), and New Jersey (1835) all abolished public hangings. By 1849, fifteen states were holding private hangings. This move was opposed by tutorial, many death penalty abolitionists who thought public executions would eventually cause people to cry out against execution itself. For example, in 1835, Maine enacted what was in effect a moratorium on capital punishment after over ten thousand people who watched a hanging had to be restrained by humanity, police after they became unruly and began fighting. All felons sentenced to death would have to remain in prison at hard labor and could not be executed until one year had elapsed and then only on the governor's order.

No governor ordered an execution under the tutorial Maine Law for twenty-seven years. Though many states argued the merits of the death penalty, no state went as far as Maine. The most influential reformers were the clergy. Ironically, the small but powerful group which opposed the abolitionists were also clergy. They were, almost to a person, members of the Calvinist clergy, especially the Congregationalists and Presbyterians who could be called the religious establishment of the time. They were led by George Cheever. Phishings Paper? [14] Finally, in 1846, Michigan became the first state to abolish the death penalty (except for treason against the state), mostly because it had no long tradition of capital punishment (there had been no hanging since 1830, before statehood) and because frontier Michigan had few established religious groups to oppose it as was the case in the east.

In 1852, Rhode Island abolished the death penalty led by Unitarians, Universalists, and tutorial on essay, especially Quakers. In the same year, Massachusetts limited its death penalty to humanity essay first-degree murder. In 1853, Wisconsin abolished the death penalty after a gruesome execution in which the tutorial on essay victim struggled for five minutes at the end of the rope, and a full eighteen minutes passed before his heart finally quit. Phishings? [15] During the last half of the century the death penalty abolition movement ground to a half, with many members moving into tutorial the slavery abolition movement. At the same time, states began to pass laws against car detailing business, mandatory death sentences. Legislators in eighteen states shifted from on essay mandatory to discretionary capital punishment by 1895, not to save lives, but to forests try to increase convictions and executions of tutorial on essay, murderers. Still, abolitionists gained a few victories. Maine abolished the death penalty, restored it, and essay, then abolished it again between 1876-1887. Iowa abolished the death penalty for six years.

Kansas passed a Maine Law in 1872 which operated as de facto abolition. [16] Electrocution as a method of execution came onto the scene in on essay, an unlikely manner. Edison Company with its DC (direct current) electrical systems began attacking Westinghouse Company and its AC (alternating current) electrical systems as they were pressing for nationwide electrification with alternating current. To show how dangerous AC could be, Edison Company began public demonstrations by electrocuting animals. People reasoned that if electricity could kill animals, it could kill people. In 1888, New York approved the dismantling of its gallows and the building of the nation's first electric chair. Spanish Lecturer? It held its first victim, William Kemmler, in tutorial on essay, 1890, and preservation essay, even though the first electrocution was clumsy at tutorial best, other states soon followed the lead. [17]

The Second Great Reform era was 1895-1917. Npg Essay Contest? In 1897, U.S. Tutorial? Congress passed a bill reducing the preservation essay number of federal death crimes. In 1907, Kansas took the Maine Law a step further and tutorial on essay, abolished all death penalties. Between 1911 and essay, 1917, eight more states abolished capital punishment (Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Arizona, Missouri and Tennessee -- the latter in tutorial on essay, all cases but rape). Votes in other states came close to ending the lecturer death penalty.

However, between 1917 and tutorial, 1955, the death penalty abolition movement again slowed. Washington, Arizona, and Oregon in 1919-20 reinstated the death penalty. In 1924, the cover first execution by tutorial, cyanide gas took place in Nevada, when Tong war gang murderer Gee Jon became its first victim. The state wanted to secretly pump cyanide gas into Jon's cell at night while he was asleep as a more humanitarian way of carrying out the penalty, but, technical difficulties prohibited this and a special gas chamber was hastily built. Other concerns developed when less civilized methods of execution failed.

In 1930, Mrs. Contest? Eva Dugan became the first female to be executed by on essay, Arizona. The execution was botched when the hangman misjudged the drop and Mrs. Dugan's head was ripped from education her body. More states converted to electric chairs and gas chambers. During this period of time, abolitionist organizations sprang up all across the country, but they had little effect.

There were a number of stormy protests against the execution of certain convicted felons (e.g., Julius and Ethel Rosenberg), but little opposition against the death penalty itself. In fact, during the anti-Communist period with all its fears and tutorial on essay, hysteria, Texas Governor Allan Shivers seriously suggested that capital punishment be the penalty for membership in the Communist Party. [18] The movement against capital punishment revived again between 1955 and preservation forests essay, 1972. England and Canada completed exhaustive studies which were largely critical of the death penalty and these were widely circulated in the U.S. Death row criminals gave their own moving accounts of capital punishment in books and film. Convicted kidnapper Caryl Chessman published Cell 2455 Death Row and Trial by Ordeal . Barbara Graham's story was utilized in book and tutorial on essay, film with I Want to Live! after her execution. Television shows were broadcast on the death penalty. Hawaii and Alaska ended capital punishment in preservation essay, 1957, and Delaware did so the tutorial next year. Controversy over the death penalty gripped the nation, forcing politicians to take sides. Delaware restored the death penalty in 1961. Michigan abolished capital punishment for nyu personal essay, treason in 1963.

Voters in 1964 abolished the death penalty in tutorial on essay, Oregon. In 1965 Iowa, New York, West Virginia, and Vermont ended the death penalty. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 1969. [19] Trying to end capital punishment state-by-state was difficult at best, so death penalty abolitionists turned much of their efforts to the courts. Term Paper? They finally succeeded on June 29, 1972 in the case Furman v. Georgia . In nine separate opinions, but with a majority of 5-4, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the tutorial on essay way capital punishment laws were written, including discriminatory sentencing guidelines, capital punishment was cruel and unusual and violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. Nyu Personal Statements Essay? This effectively ended capital punishment in the United States.

Advocates of capital punishment began proposing new capital statutes which they believed would end discrimination in on essay, capital sentencing, therefore satisfying a majority of the Court. Letter? By early 1975, thirty states had again passed death penalty laws and tutorial, nearly two hundred prisoners were on death row. In Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the npg essay Supreme Court upheld Georgia's newly passed death penalty and said that the death penalty was not always cruel and tutorial, unusual punishment. Death row executions could again begin. Another form of execution was soon found. Oklahoma passed the first death by lethal injection law, based on economics as much as humanitarian reasons. The old electric chair that had not been used in eleven years would require expensive repairs.

Estimates of over $200,000 were given to forests essay build a gas chamber, while lethal injection would cost no more than ten to fifteen dollars per event. [20] The controversy over the death penalty continues today. There is a strong movement against tutorial on essay, lawlessness propelled by citizens' fears for their security. Politicians at the national and state levels are taking the cover spanish lecturer floor of legislatures and calling for more frequent death penalties, death penalties penalty [sic] for more crimes, and longer prison sentences. Tutorial? Those opposing these moves counter by arguing that tougher sentences do not slow crime and that crime is little or no worse than in education essay, the past. In fact, FBI statistics show murders are now up. On Essay? (For example 9.3 persons per 100,000 population were murdered in 1973 and 9.4 persons per humanity essay 100,000 were murdered in 1992). The battle lines are still drawn and the combat will probably always be fought. [21]

A number of important capital punishment decisions have been made by the Supreme Court. The following is a list of the more important ones along with their legal citations: Wilkerson v. Utah 99 U.S. 130 (1878) -- Court upheld execution by on essay, firing squad, but said that other types of torture such as drawing and quartering, embowelling alive, beheading, public dissection, and burring alive and all other in the same line of. cruelty, are forbidden. Weems v. U.S. 217 U.S. 349 (1910) -- Court held that what constitutes cruel and unusual punishment had not been decided, but that it should not be confined to the forms of phishings paper, evil that framers of the Bill of tutorial on essay, Rights had experienced. Therefore, cruel and nyu personal statements essay, unusual definitions are subject to tutorial on essay changing interpretations.

Louisiana ex rel. Francis v. Resweber 329 U.S. Cover? 459 (1947) -- On May 3, 1946, convicted seventeen year old felon Willie Francis was placed in the electric chair and the switch was thrown. Due to faulty equipment, he survived (even though he was severely shocked), was removed from the chair and on essay, returned to letter his cell. Tutorial On Essay? A new death warrant was issued six days later. The Court ruled 5-4 that it was not cruel and unusual to finish carrying out the sentence since the state acted in good faith in the first attempt. Cover Letter Lecturer? The cruelty against which the Constitution protects a convicted man is cruelty inherent in the method of punishment, said the Court, not the necessary suffering involved in any method employed to extinguish life humanely. He was then executed.

Tropp v. Dulles 356 U.S. 86 (1958) -- The Court Ruled that punishment would be considered cruel and unusual if it was one of tormenting severity, cruel in tutorial on essay, its excessiveness or unusual in punishment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of nyu personal essay, decency that mark the progress of a maturing society. Furman v. Georgia 408 U.S. 238 (1972) -- The Court looking at three cases struck down the death penalty in many states and set up the on essay standard that punishment would be considered cruel and unusual if any of the nyu personal statements following were present: 1) it was too severe for the crime; 2) it was arbitrary (some get the tutorial punishment and others do not, without guidelines); 3) it offends society's sense of justice; 4) it was not more effective than a less severe penalty. Gregg v. Georgia 428 U.S. 153 (1976) -- [The] Court upheld Georgia's newly passed death penalty and said that the letter spanish lecturer death penalty was not always cruel and on essay, unusual punishment. Tison v. Arizona 481 U.S. 137 (1987) -- [The] Court upheld Arizona's death penalty for major participation in phishings, a felony with reckless indifference to human life. Thompson v. Oklahoma 108 S. Ct. 2687 (1987) -- The Court considered the question of execution of minors under the age of 16 at the time of the murder.

The victim was the tutorial on essay brother-in-law, who he accused of beating his sister. He and three others beat the victim, shot him twice, cut his throat, chest, and abdomen, chained him to a concrete block and threw the car detailing business body into a river where it remained for four weeks. Each of the four participants were tried separately and all were sentenced to death. In a 5-3 decision, four Justices ruled that Thompson's death sentence was cruel and unusual. The fifth, O'Connor, concurred but noted that a state must set a minimum age and held out the possibility that if a state lowers, by tutorial on essay, statute, the minimum death penalty age below sixteen, she might support it.

She stated, Although, I believe that a national consensus forbidding the statements essay execution of tutorial on essay, any person for statements essay, a crime committed before the tutorial age of 16 very likely does exist, I am reluctant to adopt this conclusion as a matter of phishings paper, constitutional law without better evidence that [sic] we now possess. States with no minimum age have rushed to specify a statute age. Penry v. Lynaugh 492 U.S. [sic] (1989) -- [The] Court held that persons considered retarded, but legally sane, could receive the death penalty. It was not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment if jurors were given the opportunity to consider mitigating circumstances. In this case, the defendant had the on essay mental age of approximately a six-year old child. [1] John Laurence, A History of Capital Punishment (N.Y.: The Citadel Press, 1960), 1-3.

[2] Michael Kronenwetter, Capital Punishment: AReference Handbook (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1993), 71. [4] Ibid., p.72; Laurence, op.cit., 4-9. [7] Hugo Adam Bedau, The Death Penalty in America (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1982). [9] Phillip English Mackey, Voices Against Death: American Opposition to Capital Punishment, 1787-1975 (N.Y.: Burt Franklin Co., Inc., 1976), xi-xii. [12] Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishment, trans.

Henry Paolucci (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963). [13] Mackey, op. cit., xvi-xvii. [18) Ibid., xxxii-xxxiv, xli. [21] FBI Uniform Crime Report 1992 ; The Sentencing Project. web site copyright 1995-2014 WGBH educational foundation.

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How to Find, Hire, and Work with Freelance Writers. As businesses increasingly rely on content to drive their brands forward, there's a growing need for top-notch writers—whether it's to on essay spice up landing page copy or to phishings term churn out engaging blog entries. But often for a business, hiring a full-time writer doesn't make sense: the demand for tutorial on essay, content isn't steady enough, or the price tag for a new marketing hire is too high. That's where freelancers come in—they're the on-demand resource for content needs. Businesses turn to business freelance writers for blog posts, case studies, white papers, and other copy, but also leverage them for grant work, ghostwriting articles or speeches, technical writing, email campaigns, and newsletters.

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