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Disadvantages of global warming essay

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Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming: 5 Key Aspects


Dr. Manishika Jain in this lectures explains the causes (natural and anthropogenic) and impacts of Greenhouse Effect & Global

Advantages and Disadvantages of Global Warming - ThoughtCo

Disadvantages of global warming essay

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any homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. Warming Essay. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the describe, time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the warming, value and plan dissertation bac francais, effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. Of Global Warming Essay. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework.

I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of gothic architecture papers homework and to of global, find out essays and events what kind of support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Disadvantages. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. Gothic. I wanted to disadvantages warming essay, understand more about their parents#146; views about school and essays and events, homework. I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back?

As I began this study, I had several assumptions. Warming. I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. This extra practice is argumentative essay helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an disadvantages warming essay, indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC. At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is holiday essay five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and disadvantages essay, multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the dissertation, school.

The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Disadvantages Of Global. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Gothic Architecture Research Papers. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and of global warming, many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms.

The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in introduction to climate, the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on of global essay grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of questions homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years. I am an of global warming essay, Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of argumentative 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language.

Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. Warming. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at the back of the room. Dissertation. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to essay, look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on change essay Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in disadvantages warming, English.

Jose has helped translate a few words for me before. Gothic Architecture. He is the disadvantages warming essay, oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in and events, the townhouse community behind the of global essay, school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about describe essay how he enjoys these classes. He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and of global warming, girls, in his class.

He is rhetorical reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. Disadvantages Of Global Essay. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the essays, last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Essay. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers.

Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from gothic architecture middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an of global, assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is gothic architecture emphasized at home and what is emphasized at disadvantages, school. Plan Bac Francais 2009. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child.

Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and disadvantages warming, may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in owl purdue, movies that do not do their homework. Warming Essay. Another outside influence might be the essays on actions, economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to of global essay, make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to introduction to climate, look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the warming, amount of owl purdue homework that I give.

After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the disadvantages, teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the and events, direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. Disadvantages Of Global Warming Essay. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by dissertation bac francais 2009 his/her teacher and how successful he/she is of global warming essay academically. Essays. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to disadvantages of global warming essay, gather information about my beliefs. Holiday. I chose to look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and disadvantages warming essay, why I think this situation is happening.

My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to rhetorical questions papers, the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the of global warming, opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and essay, find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to disadvantages essay, be gathered about gothic papers a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Disadvantages Of Global. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages.

Eventually I was able to essays, speak to Jose#146;s father. Disadvantages Essay. I also interviewed students using a modified version of bac francais 2009 The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to determine what the home environment and disadvantages of global, culture was like as well as to find out what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in owl purdue argumentative, elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in disadvantages of global warming essay, this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students?

In order to essays on actions, answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on of global warming students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of essays and events homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and disadvantages, responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the owl purdue argumentative essay, classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of disadvantages of global warming essay wholesome learning from essays and events scouts or sports. Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the disadvantages warming, disparity between the rhetorical in research, homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on of global warming homework and owl purdue, student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on disadvantages warming essay student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on owl purdue argumentative academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this.

I realized that giving homework benefited me as the disadvantages of global, teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of owl purdue argumentative bridge between the of global, last lesson and dissertation 2009, the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework.

Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and disadvantages of global, rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to argumentative, go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. He believed that homework should be given for students to disadvantages of global, build responsibility and for character building.

In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of essays what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at disadvantages of global, school. He said that he could tell the gothic papers, next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. Of Global Warming Essay. He also believed that homework helped students learn to questions in research, be responsible and build a good work ethic.

After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to of global warming essay, the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the owl purdue argumentative, principles include, flexibility and differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in disadvantages essay, view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school. To Climate. On the of global warming, daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to this is describe up to the individual teacher.

I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. Essay. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is essays on actions up to the individual teacher. Warming. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to bac francais, contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home.

After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the disadvantages of global warming essay, many messages I left for him. I was very excited to on actions, meet with him, but wondered how the disadvantages of global essay, meeting would go as we did not have a translator. After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and in research, Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at of global essay, home.

He seemed very responsive and concerned. Papers. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to of global warming essay, confirm it. He and architecture, his wife both worked long hours and warming essay, many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is argumentative either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Disadvantages. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of on actions and events paper that looked like homework. Disadvantages Warming. His father didn#146;t ask about it and owl purdue argumentative, forgot about disadvantages warming essay it until his meeting with me.

The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and describe holiday, maybe this would help Jose do his homework and disadvantages warming essay, bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. Rhetorical Questions Papers. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn.

Gonz á lez (1995) points out disadvantages of global warming how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to gothic research, not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about disadvantages of global his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to to climate change, do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to of global warming essay, discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to owl purdue argumentative, contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework.

When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in of global warming, school and sometimes was able to bring in dissertation bac francais 2009, finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by disadvantages of global essay his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is to climate change essay family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to of global, them as they circled responses. To Climate Essay. I emphasized that this was not for of global warming a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. On Actions And Events. Some sample questions from the disadvantages of global warming, survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework.

I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. On Actions. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Of Global Warming. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from being poor.

Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for change essay their children to disadvantages of global warming essay, learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about describe Tae Kwon Do lessons and disadvantages warming, other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to gothic architecture research, them for their son to be trained in some kind of sport. Disadvantages Of Global Warming. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at his homework. Owl Purdue Essay. They both worked long hours and it is of global essay possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework.

Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the owl purdue, support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and of global essay, noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. To Climate Change. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and disadvantages essay, made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school.

Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. I let him start his homework at school. I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to plan bac francais 2009, have difficulty getting his homework from disadvantages warming school to home and then back to school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. Change. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack. Disadvantages Of Global Essay. His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Before leaving to on actions and events, go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and disadvantages of global warming essay, noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it.

On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to plan dissertation bac francais, use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Disadvantages Warming Essay. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. Questions In Research. He comes up to me with his backpack open and his homework at disadvantages, the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework.

Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about essay half the time. Of Global. For the essay, first half of the disadvantages, year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and the ones he turned in introduction to climate essay, were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in disadvantages warming essay, school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to argumentative, learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better.

In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at of global warming essay, home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. Architecture Papers. This inquiry and research on the benefits and of global, negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about plan 2009 homework really contributed to my puzzlement. I have really been considering and of global warming, debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and introduction change, making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning.

Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom. Of Global Warming Essay. Although the school and argumentative essay, school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Disadvantages Essay. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in essays, moderation. Of Global Essay. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. (1995).

Homework practices of plan dissertation bac francais students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Of Global. Gonz á lez, N. Architecture Research Papers. E. (1995). Of Global Warming. The funds of essay knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Disadvantages. Educational Leadership , 39-42.

Tapia, J. On Actions And Events. (1998). The schooling of of global warming essay Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Describe Holiday Essay. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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Skills of an Effective Administrator. Although the selection and disadvantages of global warming, training of good administrators is widely recognized as one of American industry’s most pressing problems, there is surprisingly little agreement among executives or educators on what makes a good administrator. Owl Purdue. The executive development programs of some of the nation’s leading corporations and colleges reflect a tremendous variation in objectives. At the root of this difference is of global warming essay industry’s search for the traits or attributes which will objectively identify the “ideal executive” who is gothic architecture research papers equipped to cope effectively with any problem in of global warming essay any organization. As one observer of U.S. industry recently noted: “The assumption that there is an executive type is widely accepted, either openly or implicitly.

Yet any executive presumably knows that a company needs all kinds of managers for gothic research papers different levels of jobs. The qualities most needed by a shop superintendent are likely to be quite opposed to warming those needed by a coordinating vice president of manufacturing. The literature of executive development is loaded with efforts to define the introduction to climate change essay qualities needed by executives, and by themselves these sound quite rational. Few, for instance, would dispute the fact that a top manager needs good judgment, the ability to make decisions, the ability to win respect of others, and all the warming other well-worn phrases any management man could mention. But one has only to look at the successful managers in any company to see how enormously their particular qualities vary from any ideal list of executive virtues.” 1. Yet this quest for the executive stereotype has become so intense that many companies, in concentrating on describe holiday, certain specific traits or qualities, stand in danger of losing sight of their real concern: what a man can accomplish . It is the purpose of this article to suggest what may be a more useful approach to disadvantages the selection and development of rhetorical questions in research papers administrators.

This approach is disadvantages of global essay based not on what good executives are (their innate traits and characteristics), but rather on what they do (the kinds of skills which they exhibit in on actions and events carrying out their jobs effectively). As used here, a skill implies an ability which can be developed, not necessarily inborn, and which is of global warming manifested in performance, not merely in potential. So the principal criterion of skillfulness must be effective action under varying conditions. This approach suggests that effective administration rests on three basic developable skills which obviate the need for questions identifying specific traits and which may provide a useful way of looking at and understanding the administrative process. Disadvantages Of Global. This approach is the outgrowth of firsthand observation of executives at work coupled with study of current field research in essays administration. In the sections which follow, an attempt will be made to define and demonstrate what these three skills are; to suggest that the relative importance of the three skills varies with the of global essay level of administrative responsibility; to present some of the implications of this variation for selection, training, and promotion of in research executives; and to disadvantages of global essay propose ways of developing these skills. It is assumed here that an administrator is one who (a) directs the activities of other persons and (b) undertakes the responsibility for achieving certain objectives through these efforts. Within this definition, successful administration appears to rest on three basic skills, which we will call technical, human, and conceptual . Papers. It would be unrealistic to assert that these skills are not interrelated, yet there may be real merit in examining each one separately, and in developing them independently. As used here, technical skill implies an disadvantages of global, understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity, particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. It is holiday relatively easy for us to visualize the disadvantages essay technical skill of the surgeon, the musician, the accountant, or the engineer when each is performing his own special function. Technical skill involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and facility in bac francais 2009 the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline.

Of the three skills described in disadvantages warming this article, technical skill is essays and events perhaps the disadvantages warming essay most familiar because it is the most concrete, and because, in our age of specialization, it is the skill required of the greatest number of people. Most of our vocational and on-the-job training programs are largely concerned with developing this specialized technical skill. As used here, human skill is the essays executive’s ability to warming work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads. As technical skill is primarily concerned with working with “things” (processes or physical objects), so human skill is holiday essay primarily concerned with working with people. This skill is demonstrated in the way the individual perceives (and recognizes the perceptions of) his superiors, equals, and subordinates, and in the way he behaves subsequently. The person with highly developed human skill is aware of his own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs about other individuals and groups; he is able to see the usefulness and limitations of these feelings.

By accepting the existence of viewpoints, perceptions, and beliefs which are different from his own, he is skilled in understanding what others really mean by their words and disadvantages warming essay, behavior. He is equally skillful in communicating to others, in dissertation 2009 their own contexts, what he means by his behavior. Such a person works to create an atmosphere of approval and security in which subordinates feel free to express themselves without fear of censure or ridicule, by encouraging them to participate in the planning and carrying out of those things which directly affect them. He is sufficiently sensitive to the needs and motivations of others in his organization so that he can judge the possible reactions to, and outcomes of, various courses of action he may undertake. Having this sensitivity, he is able and willing to act in warming essay a way which takes these perceptions by describe others into disadvantages of global account.

Real skill in working with others must become a natural, continuous activity, since it involves sensitivity not only at times of decision making but also in the day-by-day behavior of the individual. Human skill cannot be a “sometime thing.” Techniques cannot be randomly applied, nor can personality traits be put on or removed like an overcoat. Because everything which an owl purdue, executive says and does (or leaves unsaid or undone) has an effect on his associates, his true self will, in time, show through. Thus, to warming essay be effective, this skill must be naturally developed and unconsciously, as well as consistently, demonstrated in the individual’s every action. It must become an introduction change essay, integral part of his whole being. Because human skill is disadvantages of global essay so vital a part of everything the administrator does, examples of inadequate human skill are easier to describe than are highly skillful performances. Perhaps consideration of an actual situation would serve to clarify what is involved: When a new conveyor unit was installed in a shoe factory where workers had previously been free to describe essay determine their own work rate, the disadvantages warming essay production manager asked the industrial engineer who had designed the conveyor to serve as foreman, even though a qualified foreman was available.

The engineer, who reported directly to the production manager, objected, but under pressure he agreed to take the job “until a suitable foreman could be found,” even though this was a job of lower status than his present one. Then this conversation took place: Production Manager: “I’ve had a lot of experience with conveyors. I want you to keep this conveyor going at all times except for essays and events rest periods, and I want it going at top speed. Get these people thinking in terms of 2 pairs of shoes a minute, 70 dozen pairs a day, 350 dozen pairs a week. They are all experienced operators on their individual jobs, and of global warming, it’s just a matter of getting them to do their jobs in a little different way. I want you to make that base rate of 250 dozen pair a week work!” [Base rate was established at slightly under 75 % of the maximum capacity. This base rate was 50 % higher than under the old system.]

Engineer: “If I’m going to be foreman of the conveyor unit, I want to do things my way. I’ve worked on conveyors, and I don’t agree with you on first getting people used to a conveyor going at top speed. These people have never seen a conveyor. You’ll scare them. Architecture Research Papers. I’d like to run the conveyor at disadvantages of global warming essay, one-third speed for a couple of weeks and then gradually increase the speed. “I think we should discuss setting the base rate [production quota before incentive bonus] on a daily basis instead of a weekly basis. Owl Purdue Argumentative Essay. [Workers had previously been paid on a daily straight piecework basis.] “I’d also suggest setting a daily base rate at 45 or even 40 dozen pair. You have to disadvantages essay set a base rate low enough for them to make. Once they know they can make the base rate, they will go after the bonus.” Production Manager: “You do it your way on gothic architecture research, the speed; but remember it’s the results that count. On the base rate, I’m not discussing it with you; I’m telling you to essay make the 250 dozen pair a week work.

I don’t want a daily base rate.” 2. Here is a situation in which the production manager was so preoccupied with getting the physical output that he did not pay attention to the people through whom that output had to be achieved. Change. Notice, first, that he made the engineer who designed the unit serve as foreman, apparently hoping to disadvantages force the engineer to research justify his design by producing the maximum output. However, the production manager was oblivious to disadvantages of global warming (a) the way the engineer perceived this appointment, as a demotion, and (b) the need for the engineer to be able to control the variables if he was to be held responsible for maximum output. Instead the production manager imposed a production standard and refused to make any changes in the work situation. Moreover, although this was a radically new situation for describe holiday essay the operators, the production manager expected them to produce immediately at well above their previous output—even though the disadvantages essay operators had an unfamiliar production system to cope with, the operators had never worked together as a team before, the operators and their new foreman had never worked together before, and the foreman was not in agreement with the production goals or standards. By ignoring all these human factors, the production manager not only and events, placed the disadvantages of global warming essay engineer in an extremely difficult operating situation but also, by refusing to allow the owl purdue argumentative engineer to “run his own show,” discouraged the of global essay very assumption of owl purdue argumentative responsibility he had hoped for in making the appointment. Under these circumstances, it is easy to understand how the relationship between these two men rapidly deteriorated, and how production, after two months’ operation, was at only 125 dozen pairs per disadvantages of global essay, week (just 75 % of what the output had been under the old system). As used here, conceptual skill involves the owl purdue essay ability to disadvantages of global see the on actions enterprise as a whole; it includes recognizing how the various functions of the organization depend on one another, and how changes in any one part affect all the others; and it extends to disadvantages of global visualizing the relationship of the individual business to owl purdue essay the industry, the community, and disadvantages warming essay, the political, social, and economic forces of the nation as a whole.

Recognizing these relationships and gothic research, perceiving the significant elements in any situation, the administrator should then be able to act in a way which advances the of global warming essay over-all welfare of the total organization. Hence, the success of any decision depends on the conceptual skill of the people who make the decision and rhetorical in research, those who put it into action. When, for example, an important change in marketing policy is made, it is critical that the effects on production, control, finance, research, and the people involved be considered. And it remains critical right down to the last executive who must implement the new policy. If each executive recognizes the over-all relationships and of global warming essay, significance of the dissertation bac francais change, he is almost certain to disadvantages be more effective in administering it.

Consequently the chances for succeeding are greatly increased. Not only does the effective coordination of the various parts of the business depend on the conceptual skill of the administrators involved, but so also does the whole future direction and plan 2009, tone of the warming organization. The attitudes of a top executive color the whole character of the organization’s response and determine the “corporate personality” which distinguishes one company’s ways of doing business from another’s. These attitudes are a reflection of the administrator’s conceptual skill (referred to by some as his “creative ability”—the way he perceives and responds to owl purdue argumentative essay the direction in which the warming business should grow, company objectives and policies, and stockholders’ and employees’ interests. Conceptual skill, as defined above, is describe holiday essay what Chester I. Barnard, former president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, is implying when he says: “…the essential aspect of the [executive] process is the sensing of the organization as a whole and of the total situation relevant to it.” 3 Examples of inadequate conceptual skill are all around us. Disadvantages Warming. Here is one instance: In a large manufacturing company which had a long tradition of job-shop type operations, primary responsibility for production control had been left to the foremen and other lower-level supervisors. “Village” type operations with small working groups and gothic architecture papers, informal organizations were the rule. A heavy influx of orders following World War II tripled the normal production requirements and severely taxed the whole manufacturing organization.

At this point, a new production manager was brought in disadvantages of global essay from outside the company, and he established a wide range of controls and formalized the entire operating structure. As long as the boom demand lasted, the employees made every effort to conform with the new procedures and environment. But when demand subsided to essay prewar levels, serious labor relations problems developed, friction was high among department heads, and disadvantages of global warming, the company found itself saddled with a heavy indirect labor cost. Management sought to reinstate its old procedures; it fired the production manager and describe holiday, attempted to give greater authority to the foremen once again. However, during the four years of formalized control, the foremen had grown away from their old practices, many had left the company, and adequate replacements had not been developed. Without strong foreman leadership, the traditional job-shop operations proved costly and inefficient. In this instance, when the new production controls and formalized organizations were introduced, management did not foresee the consequences of of global warming essay this action in the event of plan dissertation bac francais a future contraction of business. Later, when conditions changed and it was necessary to of global essay pare down operations, management was again unable to recognize the implications of its action and introduction change, reverted to the old procedures, which, under the circumstances, were no longer appropriate.

This compounded conceptual inadequacy left the warming essay company at essays, a serious competitive disadvantage. Because a company’s over-all success is dependent on disadvantages essay, its executives’ conceptual skill in establishing and carrying out change essay policy decisions, this skill is the essay unifying, coordinating ingredient of the administrative process, and of undeniable over-all importance. We may notice that, in a very real sense, conceptual skill embodies consideration of both the questions in research papers technical and human aspects of the organization. Yet the concept of skill, as an ability to of global warming translate knowledge into questions action, should enable one to distinguish between the three skills of performing the technical activities (technical skill), understanding and disadvantages essay, motivating individuals and introduction change, groups (human skill), and coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective (conceptual skill). This separation of effective administration into three basic skills is useful primarily for purposes of analysis.

In practice, these skills are so closely interrelated that it is essay difficult to determine where one ends and another begins. However, just because the skills are interrelated does not imply that we cannot get some value from looking at them separately, or by varying their emphasis. Essay. In playing golf the action of the hands, wrists, hips, shoulders, arms, and head are all interrelated; yet in improving one’s swing it is often valuable to work on one of these elements separately. Also, under different playing conditions the relative importance of these elements varies. Similarly, although all three are of importance at every level of administration, the technical, human, and conceptual skills of the administrator vary in disadvantages of global warming relative importance at different levels of introduction change essay responsibility. Technical skill is responsible for many of the disadvantages of global great advances of modern industry. It is indispensable to efficient operation. Yet it has greatest importance at the lower levels of owl purdue argumentative essay administration. As the administrator moves further and further from the actual physical operation, this need for technical skill becomes less important, provided he has skilled subordinates and of global warming essay, can help them solve their own problems. At the top, technical skill may be almost nonexistent, and the executive may still be able to perform effectively if his human and conceptual skills are highly developed.

For example: In one large capital-goods producing company, the controller was called on to replace the manufacturing vice president, who had been stricken suddenly with a severe illness. The controller had no previous production experience, but he had been with the company for more than 20 years and knew many of the describe holiday key production personnel intimately. By setting up an advisory staff, and by delegating an unusual amount of authority to his department heads, he was able to devote himself to coordination of the various functions. Of Global. By so doing, he produced a highly efficient team. The results were lower costs, greater productivity, and bac francais, higher morale than the production division had ever before experienced. Management had gambled that this man’s ability to work with people was more important than his lack of a technical production background, and the gamble paid off. Other examples are evident all around us. We are all familiar with those “professional managers” who are becoming the of global prototypes of our modern executive world.

These men shift with great ease, and essay, with no apparent loss in effectiveness, from one industry to another. Their human and conceptual skills seem to make up for their unfamiliarity with the new job’s technical aspects. Human skill, the ability to work with others, is disadvantages essential to effective administration at every level. One recent research study has shown that human skill is of paramount importance at the foreman level, pointing out that the chief function of the foreman as an administrator is to attain collaboration of essay people in the work group. 4 Another study reinforces this finding and extends it to the middle-management group, adding that the administrator should be primarily concerned with facilitating communication in the organization. 5 And still another study, concerned primarily with top management, underscores the need for self-awareness and sensitivity to human relationships by executives at that level. 6 These findings would tend to indicate that human skill is of great importance at every level, but notice the difference in emphasis. Human skill seems to be most important at lower levels, where the warming essay number of direct contacts between administrators and subordinates is greatest. As we go higher and higher in the administrative echelons, the number and frequency of these personal contacts decrease, and introduction to climate change essay, the need for human skill becomes proportionately, although probably not absolutely, less.

At the same time, conceptual skill becomes increasingly more important with the need for policy decisions and broad-scale action. The human skill of dealing with individuals then becomes subordinate to the conceptual skill of integrating group interests and activities into a whole. In fact, a recent research study by Professor Chris Argyris of Yale University has given us the example of an extremely effective plant manager who, although possessing little human skill as defined here, was nonetheless very successful: This manager, the head of a largely autonomous division, made his supervisors, through the disadvantages warming effects of his strong personality and the “pressure” he applied, highly dependent on him for most of rhetorical questions papers their “rewards, penalties, authority, perpetuation, communication, and identification.” As a result, the supervisors spent much of their time competing with one another for of global warming the manager’s favor. Argumentative Essay. They told him only the things they thought he wanted to hear, and spent much time trying to find out his desires. They depended on him to disadvantages warming set their objectives and to show them how to reach them. Because the manager was inconsistent and unpredictable in his behavior, the supervisors were insecure and continually engaged in interdepartmental squabbles which they tried to keep hidden from the essay manager. Clearly, human skill as defined here was lacking. Yet, by the evaluation of his superiors and by warming his results in increasing efficiency and raising profits and morale, this manager was exceedingly effective. Professor Argyris suggests that employees in modern industrial organizations tend to have a “built-in” sense of dependence on superiors which capable and alert men can turn to advantage.

7. In the dissertation context of the three-skill approach, it seems that this manager was able to capitalize on this dependence because he recognized the interrelationships of all the activities under his control, identified himself with the organization, and sublimated the individual interests of his subordinates to his (the organization’s) interest, set his goals realistically, and warming essay, showed his subordinates how to reach these goals. This would seem to be an excellent example of a situation in which strong conceptual skill more than compensated for a lack of human skill. Conceptual skill, as indicated in the preceding sections, becomes increasingly critical in more responsible executive positions where its effects are maximized and most easily observed. In fact, recent research findings lead to owl purdue the conclusion that at the top level of administration this conceptual skill becomes the most important ability of disadvantages essay all. As Herman W. Steinkraus, president of Bridgeport Brass Company, said: “One of the most important lessons which I learned on this job [the presidency] is the importance of coordinating the various departments into an effective team, and, secondly, to recognize the shifting emphasis from time to time of the relative importance of various departments to the business.” 8.

It would appear, then, that at argumentative essay, lower levels of administrative responsibility, the principal need is for disadvantages essay technical and human skills. At higher levels, technical skill becomes relatively less important while the need for conceptual skill increases rapidly. At the top level of an organization, conceptual skill becomes the most important skill of owl purdue argumentative essay all for successful administration. A chief executive may lack technical or human skills and still be effective if he has subordinates who have strong abilities in these directions. But if his conceptual skill is weak, the success of the whole organization may be jeopardized. This three-skill approach implies that significant benefits may result from disadvantages essay, redefining the objectives of executive development programs, from reconsidering the placement of executives in on actions and events organizations, and of global warming essay, from revising procedures for testing and selecting prospective executives. Many executive development programs may be failing to achieve satisfactory results because of their inability to foster the plan dissertation bac francais 2009 growth of these administrative skills. Programs which concentrate on the mere imparting of information or the cultivation of a specific trait would seem to be largely unproductive in enhancing the administrative skills of candidates.

A strictly informative program was described to me recently by an officer and director of a large corporation who had been responsible for the executive-development activities of his company, as follows: “What we try to do is to get our promising young men together with some of of global essay our senior executives in on actions and events regular meetings each month. Then we give the disadvantages of global warming young fellows a chance to ask questions to let them find out about the company’s history and how and why we’ve done things in the past.” It was not surprising that neither the senior executives nor the young men felt this program was improving their administrative abilities. The futility of pursuing specific traits becomes apparent when we consider the responses of an administrator in a number of different situations. Plan Dissertation 2009. In coping with these varied conditions, he may appear to demonstrate one trait in one instance—e.g., dominance when dealing with subordinates—and the directly opposite trait under another set of circumstances—e.g., submissiveness when dealing with superiors. Yet in each instance he may be acting appropriately to achieve the best results. Which, then, can we identify as a desirable characteristic?

Here is a further example of this dilemma: A Pacific Coast sales manager had a reputation for decisiveness and positive action. Yet when he was required to name an disadvantages of global, assistant to understudy his job from among several well-qualified subordinates, he deliberately avoided making a decision. His associates were quick to observe what appeared to be obvious indecisiveness. But after several months had passed, it became clear that the gothic research papers sales manager had very unobtrusively been giving the various salesmen opportunities to demonstrate their attitudes and feelings. As a result, he was able to identify strong sentiments for one man whose subsequent promotion was enthusiastically accepted by the entire group. In this instance, the sales manager’s skillful performance was improperly interpreted as “indecisiveness.” Their concern with irrelevant traits led his associates to overlook the adequacy of his performance. Would it not have been more appropriate to conclude that his human skill in working with others enabled him to adapt effectively to the requirements of a new situation? Cases such as these would indicate that it is more useful to disadvantages judge an administrator on the results of his performance than on his apparent traits. Skills are easier to identify than are traits and architecture, are less likely to be misinterpreted. Furthermore, skills offer a more directly applicable frame of reference for executive development, since any improvement in an administrator’s skills must necessarily result in disadvantages of global warming essay more effective performance.

Still another danger in plan 2009 many existing executive development programs lies in disadvantages of global essay the unqualified enthusiasm with which some companies and colleges have embraced courses in “human relations.” There would seem to be two inherent pitfalls here: (1) Human relations courses might only be imparting information or specific techniques, rather than developing the individual’s human skill. (2) Even if individual development does take place, some companies, by on actions and events placing all of their emphasis on human skill, may be completely overlooking the training requirements for top positions. They may run the risk of producing men with highly developed human skill who lack the conceptual ability to be effective top-level administrators. It would appear important, then, that the training of a candidate for disadvantages warming essay an administrative position be directed at the development of those skills which are most needed at the level of responsibility for which he is being considered. This three-skill concept suggests immediate possibilities for the creating of management teams of individuals with complementary skills. For example, one medium-size midwestern distributing organization has as president a man of unusual conceptual ability but extremely limited human skill. Introduction To Climate Change Essay. However, he has two vice presidents with exceptional human skill. Of Global Essay. These three men make up an executive committee which has been outstandingly successful, the skills of each member making up for deficiencies of the others.

Perhaps the plan of two-man complementary conference leadership proposed by Robert F. Bales, in which the describe essay one leader maintains “task leadership” while the disadvantages other provides “social leadership,” might also be an example in introduction to climate point. 9. In trying to predetermine a prospective candidate’s abilities on disadvantages of global warming essay, a job, much use is being made these days of various kinds of testing devices. Executives are being tested for everything from gothic architecture research, “decisiveness” to “conformity.” These tests, as a recent article in Fortune points out, have achieved some highly questionable results when applied to disadvantages of global warming essay performance on the job. 10 Would it not be much more productive to be concerned with skills of dissertation doing rather than with a number of of global warming traits which do not guarantee performance ? This three-skill approach makes trait testing gun necessary and substitutes for it procedures which examine a man’s ability to essays and events cope with the actual problems and situations he will find on his job.

These procedures, which indicate what a man can do in specific situations, are the same for selection and for measuring development. They will be described in the section on disadvantages of global warming essay, developing executive skills which follows. This approach suggests that executives should not be chosen on holiday, the basis of their apparent possession of a number of behavior characteristics or traits, but on the basis of their possession of the requisite skills for of global warming the specific level of responsibility involved. For years many people have contended that leadership ability is inherent in certain chosen individuals. We talk of “born leaders,” “born executives,” “born salesmen.” It is undoubtedly true that certain people, naturally or innately, possess greater aptitude or ability in certain skills. But research in psychology and dissertation bac francais 2009, physiology would also indicate, first, that those having strong aptitudes and abilities can improve their skill through practice and training, and, secondly, that even those lacking the natural ability can improve their performance and over-all effectiveness. The skill conception of administration suggests that we may hope to improve our administrative effectiveness and to disadvantages warming develop better administrators for bac francais 2009 the future. Of Global Warming. This skill conception implies learning by doing . Different people learn in different ways, but skills are developed through practice and through relating learning to one’s own personal experience and background. If well done, training in these basic administrative skills should develop executive abilities more surely and more rapidly than through unorganized experience.

What, then, are some of the ways in which this training can be conducted? Development of technical skill has received great attention for many years by industry and educational institutions alike, and much progress has been made. Sound grounding in the principles, structures, and processes of the individual specialty, coupled with actual practice and experience during which the dissertation 2009 individual is watched and helped by disadvantages of global warming essay a superior, appear to be most effective. In view of the vast amount of work which has been done in training people in the technical skills, it would seem unnecessary in this article to suggest more. Human skill, however, has been much less understood, and only recently has systematic progress been made in developing it. Many different approaches to the development of holiday human skill are being pursued by disadvantages of global essay various universities and owl purdue, professional men today. Of Global Warming Essay. These are rooted in such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Some of these approaches find their application in “applied psychology,” “human engineering,” and a host of other manifestations requiring technical specialists to help the businessman with his human problems. As a practical matter, however, the executive must develop his own human skill, rather than lean on the advice of others. To be effective, he must develop his own personal point of papers view toward human activity, so that he will (a) recognize the feelings and sentiments which he brings to a situation; (b) have an attitude about his own experiences which will enable him to re-evaluate and learn from them; (c) develop ability in of global understanding what others by essay their actions and words (explicit or implicit) are trying to communicate to him; and (d) develop ability in successfully communicating his ideas and attitudes to disadvantages others.

11. This human skill can be developed by some individuals without formalized training. Others can be individually aided by their immediate superiors as an integral part of the “coaching” process to be described later. This aid depends for gothic research papers effectiveness, obviously, on the extent to which the of global warming superior possesses the human skill. For larger groups, the use of describe case problems coupled with impromptu role playing can be very effective.

This training can be established on a formal or informal basis, but it requires a skilled instructor and organized sequence of activities. 12 It affords as good an approximation to reality as can be provided on a continuing classroom basis and offers an opportunity for critical reflection not often found in actual practice. An important part of the procedure is the self-examination of the trainee’s own concepts and values, which may enable him to develop more useful attitudes about himself and about others. With the disadvantages warming change in attitude, hopefully, there may also come some active skill in dealing with human problems. Human skill has also been tested in the classroom, within reasonable limits, by a series of analyses of detailed accounts of actual situations involving administrative action, together with a number of role-playing opportunities in which the individual is required to carry out the details of the action he has proposed.

In this way an individual’s understanding of the argumentative essay total situation and his own personal ability to do something about it can be evaluated. On the job, there should be frequent opportunities for a superior to disadvantages of global warming observe an individual’s ability to work effectively with others. These may appear to be highly subjective evaluations and to depend for validity on dissertation bac francais 2009, the human skill of the rater. But does not every promotion, in of global warming the last analysis, depend on plan dissertation, someone’s subjective judgment? And should this subjectivity be berated, or should we make a greater effort to develop people within our organizations with the human skill to make such judgments effectively? Conceptual skill, like human skill, has not been very widely understood. A number of methods have been tried to of global warming aid in developing this ability, with varying success. Describe Holiday. Some of the best results have always been achieved through the “coaching” of of global warming subordinates by dissertation 2009 superiors.

13 This is disadvantages of global essay no new idea. It implies that one of the rhetorical questions in research papers key responsibilities of the executive is to help his subordinates to develop their administrative potentials. One way a superior can help “coach” his subordinate is by assigning a particular responsibility, and then responding with searching questions or opinions, rather than giving answers, whenever the subordinate seeks help. Of Global Warming Essay. When Benjamin F. Fairless, now chairman of the board of the United States Steel Corporation, was president of the corporation, he described his coaching activities: “When one of my vice presidents or the head of one of holiday essay our operating companies comes to me for instructions, I generally counter by asking him questions. First thing I know, he has told me how to solve the disadvantages warming essay problem himself.” 14.

Obviously, this is an ideal and wholly natural procedure for administrative training, and owl purdue argumentative, applies to the development of disadvantages of global essay technical and human skill, as well as to and events that of conceptual skill. However, its success must necessarily rest on the abilities and disadvantages of global warming essay, willingness of the superior to introduction to climate help the subordinate. Another excellent way to develop conceptual skill is through trading jobs, that is, by moving promising young men through different functions of the business but at the same level of responsibility. This gives the man the of global warming chance literally to “be in the other fellow’s shoes.” Other possibilities include: special assignments, particularly the kind which involve inter-departmental problems; and management boards, such as the McCormick Multiple Management plan, in which junior executives serve as advisers to top management on policy matters. For larger groups, the kind of case-problems course described above, only using cases involving broad management policy and interdepartmental coordination, may be useful.

Courses of this kind, often called “General Management” or “Business Policy,” are becoming increasingly prevalent. In the classroom, conceptual skill has also been evaluated with reasonable effectiveness by argumentative presenting a series of detailed descriptions of disadvantages of global warming essay specific complex situations. In these the individual being tested is asked to set forth a course of questions papers action which responds to the underlying forces operating in each situation and disadvantages of global, which considers the implications of this action on the various functions and holiday essay, parts of the disadvantages of global warming organization and its total environment. On the job, the alert supervisor should find frequent opportunities to observe the extent to which the individual is able to relate himself and owl purdue argumentative essay, his job to the other functions and operations of the company. Like human skill, conceptual skill, too, must become a natural part of the executive’s makeup. Different methods may be indicated for developing different people, by virtue of their backgrounds, attitudes, and experience. But in every case that method should be chosen which will enable the executive to develop his own personal skill in visualizing the enterprise as a whole and in coordinating and integrating its various parts. The purpose of this article has been to show that effective administration depends on three basic personal skills, which have been called technical, human, and conceptual . The administrator needs: (a) sufficient technical skill to accomplish the mechanics of the particular job for which he is responsible; (b) sufficient human skill in essay working with others to be an effective group member and to essays on actions be able to build cooperative effort within the team he leads; (c) sufficient conceptual skill to recognize the interrelationships of the various factors involved in his situation, which will lead him to take that action which is likely to achieve the maximum good for disadvantages of global warming essay the total organization.

The relative importance of these three skills seems to vary with the level of administrative responsibility. At lower levels, the describe holiday essay major need is for technical and human skills. At higher levels, the administrator’s effectiveness depends largely on disadvantages of global, human and conceptual skills. At the top, conceptual skill becomes the most important of all for successful administration. This three-skill approach emphasizes that good administrators are not necessarily born; they may be developed. It transcends the need to identify specific traits in an effort to provide a more useful way of argumentative looking at the administrative process. Essay. By helping to identify the skills most needed at various levels of responsibility, it may prove useful in the selection, training, and owl purdue, promotion of executives. When this article was first published nearly 20 years ago, there was a great deal of interest in trying to identify a set of ideal personality traits that would readily distinguish potential executive talent. The search for these traits was vigorously pursued in the hope that the selection and training of disadvantages of global managers could be conducted with greater reliability. This article was an attempt to essay focus attention on demonstrable skills of performance rather than on of global, innate personality characteristics.

And, while describing the describe holiday three kinds of disadvantages of global warming essay administrative skill (technical, human, and conceptual), it also attempted to highlight the importance of conceptual skill as a uniquely valuable managerial capability, long before the concept of corporate strategy was well defined or popularly understood. It still appears useful to introduction change think of managerial ability in terms of these three basic, observable skills. It also still appears that the relative importance of these skills varies with the administrative level of the manager in the organization. However, my experience over the past 20 years, in working with senior executives in a wide variety of industries, suggests that several specific points require either sharp modification or substantial further refinement. I now believe that this kind of skill could be usefully subdivided into (a) leadership ability within the manager’s own unit and (b) skill in intergroup relationships. In my experience, outstanding capability in one of these roles is frequently accompanied by mediocre performance in the other. Often, the disadvantages warming essay most internally efficient department managers are those who have committed themselves fully to essays the unique values and criteria of their specialized functions, without acknowledging that other departments’ differing values have any validity at all. For example, a production manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on obtaining a high degree of reliability in his production schedule. He would then resist any external pressures that place a higher priority on criteria other than delivering the required output on of global warming, time. Or a sales manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on maintaining positive relationships with customers. Gothic Architecture Papers. He would then resist all pressures that would emphasize other values, such as ease of disadvantages of global warming production or selling the highest gross margin items.

In each case, the manager will probably receive strong support from in research papers, his subordinates, who share the same values. But he will encounter severe antagonism from disadvantages essay, other departments with conflicting values. To the extent that two departments’ values conflict with each other, skillful intergroup relationships require some equivocation. But compromise is often perceived by departmental subordinates as a “sellout.” Thus the manager is obliged to choose between gaining full support from subordinates or enjoying full collaboration with peers and/or superiors. Having both is rarely possible.

Consequently, I would revise my original evaluation of human skill to say now that internal intragroup skills are essential in lower and middle management roles and plan 2009, that intergroup skills become increasingly important in successively higher levels of management. In retrospect, I now see that what I called conceptual skill depends entirely on a specific way of disadvantages of global thinking about an enterprise. This “general management point of view,” as it has come to be known, involves always thinking in terms of the following: relative emphases and priorities among conflicting objectives and criteria; relative tendencies and probabilities (rather than certainties); rough correlations and patterns among elements (rather than clear-cut cause-and-effect relationships). I am now far less sanguine about the degree to which this way of thinking can be developed on the job. Unless a person has learned to think this way early in life, it is unrealistic to expect a major change on reaching executive status.

Job rotation, special interdepartmental assignments, and working with case problems certainly provide opportunities for a person to enhance previously developed conceptual abilities. Rhetorical Questions. But I question how easily this way of essay thinking can be inculcated after a person passes adolescence. Essays On Actions. In this sense, then, conceptual skill should perhaps be viewed as an innate ability. In the original article, I suggested that specific technical skills are unimportant at top management levels. I cited as evidence the disadvantages of global warming essay many professional managers who move easily from gothic papers, one industry to another without apparent loss of effectiveness. I now believe this mobility is of global essay possible only in plan bac francais very large companies, where the chief executive has extensive staff assistance and highly competent, experienced technical operators throughout the disadvantages organization.

An old, established, large company has great operational momentum that enables the new chief executive to concentrate on essay, strategic issues. In smaller companies, where technical expertise is not as pervasive and seasoned staff assistance is not as available, I believe the chief executive has a much greater need for personal experience in the industry. He not only of global, needs to know the right questions to ask his subordinates; he also needs enough industry background to know how to dissertation bac francais evaluate the answers. In the original article, I took too simplistic and naive a view of the chief executive’s role. My extensive work with company presidents and disadvantages of global warming essay, my own personal experience as a chief executive have given me much more respect for the difficulties and complexities of that role. I now know that every important executive action must strike a balance among so many conflicting values, objectives, and criteria that it will always be suboptimal from any single viewpoint. Every decision or choice affecting the whole enterprise has negative consequences for some of the parts. The chief executive must try to perceive the conflicts and essay, trace accurately their likely impact throughout the organization. Reluctantly, but wittingly, he may have to disadvantages warming sacrifice the interests of a single unit or part for plan dissertation the good of the whole. Disadvantages Of Global Essay. He needs to be willing to accept solutions that are adequate and feasible in the total situation rather than what, from a single point of view, may be elegant or optimum.

Not only must the on actions and events chief executive be an efficient operator, but he must also be an effective strategist. It is his responsibility to provide the framework and direction for overall company operations. He must continually specify where the company will place its emphasis in terms of products, services, and customers. He must define performance criteria and determine what special competences the company will emphasize. He also needs to warming essay set priorities and timetables.

He must establish the standards and controls necessary to monitor progress and to place limits on individual actions. Holiday. He must bring into the enterprise additional resources when they are needed. Moreover, he must change his management style and strike different balances among his personal skills as conditions change or as his organization grows in size and complexity. The remedial role (saving the organization when it is in disadvantages of global great difficulty) calls for drastic human action and in research papers, emphasizes conceptual and technical skills. The maintaining role (sustaining the organization in its present posture) emphasizes human skills and requires only modest technical or strategic changes. But the innovative role (developing and expanding the organization) demands high competence in both conceptual and disadvantages, intergroup skills, with the technical contribution provided primarily by subordinates.

In my view, it is impossible for anyone to perform well in these continually changing roles without help. Argumentative. Yet because effective management of the of global total enterprise involves constant suboptimizing, it is impossible for the chief executive to rhetorical questions in research get unanimous or continuous support from of global essay, his subordinates. If he is architecture research overly friendly or supportive, he may compromise his effectiveness or his objectivity. Yet somewhere in warming the organization, he needs to describe essay have a well-informed, objective, understanding, and supportive sounding board with whom he can freely discuss his doubts, fears, and aspirations. Disadvantages Of Global Warming. Sometimes this function can be supplied by an outside director, the outside corporate counsel, or the company auditor. But such a confidant requires just as high a degree of conceptual and human skills as the chief executive himself; and to be truly helpful, he must know all about the company’s operations, key personnel, and change essay, industry. This role has been largely overlooked in warming essay discussions of organizational requirements, but in my view, its proper fulfillment is essential to the success of the essays chief executive and the enterprise. I now realize more fully that managers at all levels require some competence in each of the three skills.

Even managers at the lowest levels must continually use all of them. Dealing with the external demands on a manager’s unit requires conceptual skill; the limited physical and warming essay, financial resources available to him tax his technical skill; and the capabilities and demands of the persons with whom he deals make it essential that he possess human skill. A clear idea of these skills and of ways to measure a manager’s competence in each category still appears to me to be a most effective tool for top management, not only in understanding executive behavior, but also in the selection, training, and promotion of managers at all levels. 1. Perrin Stryker, “The Growing Pains of 2009 Executive Development,” Advanced Management, August 1954, p. 15. 2. From a mimeographed case in the files of the disadvantages warming essay Harvard Business School; copyrighted by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. 3. Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1948), p. 235. 4. A. Zaleznik, Foreman Training in a Growing Enterprise (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1951).

5. Harriet O. Ronken and describe holiday essay, Paul R. Lawrence, Administering Changes (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1952). 6. Edmund P. Disadvantages Of Global. Learned, David H. Ulrich, and Donald R. Booz, Executive Action (Boston, Division of describe holiday essay Research, Harvard Business School, 1950). 7. Executive Leadership (New York, Harper Brothers, 1953); see also “Leadership Pattern in the Plant,” HBR January–February 1954, p. 63. 8. Disadvantages. “What Should a President Do?” Dun’s Review, August 1951, p. 21. 9. “In Conference,” HBR March–April 1954, p. 44. 10. William H. Whyte, Jr., “The Fallacies of ‘Personality’ Testing,” Fortune, September 1954, p. 117. 11.

For a further discussion of this point, see F. J. Roethlisberger, “Training Supervisors in Human Relations,” HBR September 1951, p. 47. 12. See, for example, A. Winn, “Training in Administration and dissertation 2009, Human Relations,” Personnel, September 1953, p. 139; see also, Kenneth R. Andrews, “Executive Training by of global the Case Method,” HBR September 1951, p. 58. 13. Rhetorical In Research. For a more comlete development of the concept of “coaching,” see Myles L. Mace, The Growth and Development of Executives (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950).

14. “What Should a President Do?” Dun’s Review, July 1951, p. 14.

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The Great Gatsby Nick Carraway Essay. (78). Gatsby uses Nick to reconnect with Daisy, because he is a mutual friend between the two. Nick is not only connected to the main characters but also has an amicable personality. Warming! Nick Carraway’s personality allows people to open up to him and put their trust in him. As a character Nick is a great listener and because of that people tend to share their secrets with him. Daisy said, “I’ll tell you a family secret, she whispered enthusiastically” (13). At this point in on actions, the story, Nick is just

lack-personal integrity and a sense of of global essay, right and wrong. However, Nick finds the fast-paced and essays on actions and events, fun-driven lifestyle of New York to be exciting. Disadvantages Of Global Essay! Nick’s conflict is repeatedly shown throughout The Great Gatsby and even though Nick struggles with it, by the end of the novel, Nick realizes that the sophistication and wealth of the East Egg is just a cover for the alarming moral decadence. Although some may assume that the describe essay protagonist is Jay Gatsby, Nick, in fact, is the protagonist because his character undergoes As the novel progresses, Nick learns more about Gatsby from Jordan Baker, a golfer whom Nick met when he went to have dinner with Diasy and Tom Buchanan in East Egg,and Gatsby himself. Gatsby rose from an improvished childhood in of global warming, rural North Dakota to in research papers become fabously wealthy. However he achieves this lofty goal by participating in warming, organized crime, including distributing illegal alchol and gothic architecture papers, trading in stolen secruties.

From his early youth, Gatsby despised poverty and longed for wealth and sophistication When Nick meets up with his cousin Daisy and his old classmate Tom in East Egg, he is shown an disadvantages essay, unfamiliar side of people, a darker side, and architecture research papers, he is at a loss and out of his element. Nick is tempted and curious about disadvantages of global, these things and they lead him away from his midwestern upbringing. The love triangles, the infidelity, gold digging and homicide disgust Nick and he becomes resolved to move back to his midwestern comfort zone almost like in doing so, he will be able to wash himself clean of the experience The discussion immediately preceding the characterization is most pressing on an interpretation of this self-characterization, as it provides a clear example of plan dissertation bac francais 2009, Nick's dishonesty just moments before he claims to be perfectly honest. Nick says of Jordan Baker, Her grey sun-strained eyes stared straight ahead, but she had deliberately shifted our relations, and for a moment I thought I loved her (63). But, however, before he could actively pursue Miss Baker, he acknowledges, there was one little

Without Nick, Gatsby's true colors would not be shown and his behavior would be left not pondered. His presence from the beginning to the end of the of global essay novel is imperative. Nick's uniqueness parallels his importance in the novel. Owl Purdue Argumentative! Nick is very unique and different from all of the other characters in disadvantages of global, The Great Gatsby. Bac Francais! Most of the characters symbolize reckless people during the rip roaring twenties that only want to disadvantages of global warming be in plan dissertation bac francais, the fast lane and do not give a damn about others of the disadvantages of global judgments Nick passes about the characters in this novel.

When Nick judges the essay characters it shows how he cannot resist the disadvantages of global warming essay temptation to be critical of every little fault with each character whether it has to do with their appearance, personality, or actions. Nick is an unreliable narrator because he is partial to certain characters in the novel. This is most evident when he speaks about Jay Gatsby. Although Nick starts the story out very critical of Gatsby because he thinks anyone’.

Although at the beginning we seem to put our trust in Nick that he will be a detailed narrator, we can begin to question his reliability near the end of chapter 1 when Nick says, ‘I was in and without’, highlighting inconsistent narrating skills (he won’t be fully involved in all the events that go on), and plan dissertation bac francais, therefore, we can assume that sometimes he will step back in the novel and let the inevitable unfold. One example of of global essay, Nick being reserved is in Tom Buchanans house, when he is being invited criticisms are accepted by the reader as impartial which greatly influences the reader's interpretation of wealth and the wealthy. Nick is the only major character who is not preoccupied with money or power or belonging to a particular class. This sets him apart from the characters he and the reader are observing and allows him to be used as a measure for other characters. Nick further sets himself apart by being the only person who does not form relationships based on class and plan dissertation 2009, money. All around him, Without Nick, Gatsby's true colors would not be shown and his behavior would be left not pondered. His presence from the beginning to the end of the novel is imperative.

Nick's uniqueness parallels his importance in of global warming, the novel. Nick is gothic architecture research papers, very unique and different from all of the other characters in The Great Gatsby. Most of the characters symbolize reckless people during the rip roaring twenties that only want to be in of global, the fast lane and do not give a damn about others. Nick sticks period of time. Describe Holiday! Consequently, Fitzgerald reasoned, someone like Gatsby would be much more understandable and sympathetic if presented through the eyes of a character the reader identified with. Rather than imposing himself between the action and us, Nick brings us closer to the action by forcing us to experience events as though we were Nick. Of Global! The 'I' of the novel becomes ourselves, and we find ourselves, like Nick, wondering who Gatsby is, why he gives these huge parties, and what his past and In his plans was the idea of interacting with different people and socialize with the wealthy folks around there. Shortly after arriving to this city, Daisy invites him to come for holiday dinner at her mansion, and Nick evidently accepts the invitation.

At the disadvantages moment he arrived at the Buchanan’s charming mansion, he was astonished at the size of it, and was also amazed at the vanity that seemed to fill the life of these individuals. Daisy, filled with childlike ideas, appeared to live in a life without Nick is aware that Daisy is not Catholic and bac francais, that Tom’s response shows his duplicitous nature. Once Myrtle’s husband finds out disadvantages, that she has been unfaithful to him, he decides that he and Myrtle are leaving town, which marks the end of the relationship between Tom and Myrtle. Describe Holiday! If Tom had possessed the of global essay same feelings toward Myrtle as she did for him and had cared about their future together, he would have married her and avoided Myrtle’s husband taking her away and owl purdue argumentative, her no longer being part of his life When Gatsby is waiting outside Daisy's house the disadvantages of global warming night after the fateful crash, he tells Nick: I thought so; I told Daisy I thought so. It's better that the shock should all come at once.

She stood it pretty well (151). This disgusts Nick, who is shocked that Gatsby can think only of Daisy under the circumstances: He spoke as if Daisy's reaction was the only thing that mattered. Gothic Architecture Papers! I disliked him so much by this time that I didn't find it necessary to of global tell him he was wrong (151). Nick dislikes She is just nosy and wants to get him involved with her friends. Introduction Essay! Nick assures her this is not true but she is essay, not sure because she did hear it from distant relatives of Nick’s. Nick’s summer in the East egg is and educational experience. He learns about Tom’s affair with Myrtle and how abusive tome is- breaking Myrtle’s nose because she wants him to leave his wife. Nick about Tom and Myrtle “They were careless people, Tom and Daisy -- they smashed up things and creatures and then The Role of a Setting in The Great Gatsby Essay. of the describe holiday setting in The Great Gatsby.

The nineteen twenties can be bestowed numerous names, such as “The Roaring Twenties,” or “The Prosperity Decade.” One name, however, is specifically attached to the nineteen twenties; “The Jazz Age.” It is during the nineteen twenties that jazz music becomes emphatically prevailing. With this new age, however, as with every age, comes a demeanor of fashion, spirit, and of global, custom. The wealthy class of the Jazz Age, composing of Jay Gatsby, the gothic architecture research papers Buchanans, and so The Great Gatsby- Jay Gatsby V Essay. Gatsby is a dreamer, he lives for and in his dreams. But his amazing ability to focus on and achieve his dreams makes him great. Nick Carraway describes himself in the first chapter as reserved in of global warming, judgement and tolerant of other people, even when subjected to their unwanted and boring secret confessions.

He is indeed more tolerant than most, and holds judgement even when faced with huge and unmistakable character flaws. And Events! For instance, he makes no solid judgement on Tom Buchanan when he sees him openly Feminist View on the Great Gatsby Essay. She is shown as selfish and not trustworthy. Nick Carraway, the narrator, realizes this also.

While running into Tom after Gatsby’s death he makes the of global essay comment “you know what I think of you” (179). This is Nick referring to plan dissertation bac francais his anger towards tom and daisy for betraying Gatsby. Daisy was supposedly in love with Gatsby, until she killed Myrtle and knew that Tom could keep her from essay, getting caught. She left Gatsby behind in the dust, and essay, let Tom blame him for the murder of Myrtle. Myrtle In return, Gatsby devoted his life to getting what he needed to win Daisy. Before he joined the service, Daisy was his unattainable object that he lusted for, and disadvantages of global, through her he sought to make all of argumentative essay, this dreams come true.

After the war, Gatsby became a bootlegger. It isn't clear how he made all of his money, but it is obvious that it was through illegal dealings in disadvantages essay, organized crime. The idealism evident in introduction essay, Gatsby's constant aspirations helps define what Fitzgerald saw as the basis for the American The American Dream in disadvantages warming, F. Scott Fitzgerald#x27;s The Great Gatsby. Her deranged husband George Wilson discovers that it was Gatsby?s car that hit wife; as a result, he seeks out Gatsby and kills him. ?When a man gets killed I never like to get mixed up in it any way. I keep out. When I was a young man it was different? I stuck with them to owl purdue the end?

Let us learn to show friendship for a man when he is alive and disadvantages essay, not after he is dead?? (Chapter 9, pg.173). Argumentative Essay! Consequently, The Great Gatsby represents mankind?s feebleness by illustrating its blind struggle to find acceptance Isolation in the Great Gatsby Essay. Nick was just an average person just trying to work his way up to the American dream. Essay! If no one came to say goodbye to Jay Gatsby after his death, what was in store for him when he died. This emphasized his fear of describe holiday essay, growing older and disadvantages warming, being isolated. Jay Gatsby seemed like he was on top of the argumentative essay world from the outside looking in. He was extremely wealthy and had hundreds of people at his house at all times; however, on of global warming, the inside he was just like everyone else, lonely. The love of his life married Cinematic Appropriations of rhetorical questions papers, The Great Gatsby Essay. Any given production of Gatsby is more important than the product, the film itself.

Everyone involved gets to live out of global essay, his fantasy, gets to be Jay Gatsby or Nick Carraway or Daisy Buchanan for a few weeks. Whether he knew it or not, Fitzgerald wrote out the charter of Hollywood. Everyone is young, rich, beautiful, and introduction, bursting with hormones. Disadvantages Essay! Everyone has some secret he will eventually, painfully reveal. Sure, The Great Gatsby is an American novel. We all identify with Fitzgerald's Essay on The Great Gatsby: An Important Literary Work. Paradise, the Beautiful and Damned, Tender is the Night and his most famous, the notable classic, The Great Gatsby. In this work, his protagonist, Nick Carraway is a thinly veiled characture of bac francais 2009, himself (Wikipedia). After one understands the disadvantages essay author, one must understand the novel by supplying an overview of the novel.

Nick Carraway, from Minnesota, is the narrator in Fitzgerald’s, novel. Nick is rhetorical questions papers, a stockbroker who lives on West Egg, Long Island; but spends his free time visiting old associates Use of Color in The Great Gatsby Essay. Gatsby has a large green lawn and disadvantages of global, green ivy going up his house. Inside Gatsby’s car, the passengers sit in a sort of green leather conservatory. Introduction Change! Later, Mr. Michaelis describes this death car as light green.

All of disadvantages warming, these things represent the riches, as well as the importance of money in Gatsby’s life. The color green can both symbolize envy and rhetorical questions in research, money. However, the most reasonable meaning would have to be one of disadvantages warming essay, future hope, especially in Gatsby’s case. Argumentative! In the first chapter, Nick Carraway Essay on Gatsby is Not Really Great. However as we begin to learn about of global essay, his corruption, and the way by which he came by this money, we begin to loose this image of greatness. Even Nick swings form admiration to resentment. When Gatsby tells Nick about all his great travels and accomplishments around Europe traveling like royalty and studying at plan 2009, oxford. This Makes Gatsby a hero, however Nick doesn’t believe him, until Montenegro is mentioned, and the same applies to us. This is the point when our faith in disadvantages of global warming essay, Gatsby’s greatness, is plan bac francais, reaffirmed Materialism - The Great Gatsby Essay.

with every bright feather that drifted his way (101). Gatsby is much more in love with the idea of Daisy, not the reality of who she is. Disadvantages Of Global! He wants everything she has and stands for. Gatsby wastes his entire adult life trying to achieve this idealistic dream. Indeed he loves Daisy, but through his fantasy he builds her up to be someone she is not. Lost in describe, his idealistic world, he molds his images of her into a perfect specimen. Nick Carraway comments, There must have been moments when Daisy tumbled The Great Death of the Great Gatsby Essay. The story The Great Gatsby written by F. Scott Fitzgerald takes you through the disadvantages of global warming life of the protagonist of the novel, Jay Gatsby, who is shot to death in the end.

Who was really the reason for Gatsby’s death? There are many of reasons that lead up to Gatsby’s death and plan, several people who are considered to have caused it. Although George Wilson physically killed him, Tom Buchanan, Daisy Buchanan and Jay Gatsby himself all take part in of global warming essay, the death. Tom’s anger, Daisy’s carelessness, and Gatsby’s idea pride falters when the time comes for plan his plan to reach his final part and he sees Daisy again. Gatsby’s cool confident attitude towards all never changed permanently even when he died. The Buchanans do not change their overall attitude even when Gatsby tried to end their marriage. Daisy knows that her husband is cheating on her but acts like it does not bother her. Tom reads scientific books trying to act sophisticated just like all the disadvantages other rich guys.

Together Tom and Daisy act as any rich Comparison of A Farewell to Arms and The Great Gatsby Essay. have sexual affairs with. Architecture Research! Nick has a more friendly character than Fredrick. He is the type of person willing to listen while Fredrick is less open minded and has a lower toleration level with other human beings. One example in which Nick’s high toleration level is shown is when he finds out that Gatsby is a big lie. Gatsby had been lying about the houses, his family, friends, College Degree, etc. He tolerated this issue in essay, a very mature way and doesn’t say anything to Gatsby or stops being his friend

The Great Gatsby As A Tragedy Essay. death. Questions In Research Papers! Gatsby made a great effort to achieve his dreams, but in the end his efforts were futile. Fitzgerald was obviously appalled at the general state of society in the 1920s. He appears to have been particularly saddened by the decayed social and moral values of the well-established American aristocracies. The old wealth seen on East Egg and the people attending Gatsby's parties signify the careless materialism of the disadvantages warming time. Tom and Daisy are prime examples of this. They outrage Nick and Essay on A Freudian Reading of The Great Gatsby. scrutinize the sexual identities of Gatsby and Nick Carraway. Describe Holiday! Nick Carraway's break with Jordan Baker could be very problematic, though on the surface it is because Jordan is incurably dishonest(75) and Nick thinks he himself is one of the few honest people that [he has] ever known(76).

Nick, it seems, always has been half attracted to of global warming essay women and we don't forget the reason why he goes to New York is to avoid some girl.(*1) Gatsby is plan dissertation, no better than Nick in this aspect. He devotes all Feminist Criticism of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. There are no emotional relations between Gatsby and Daisy to give an account of; there is disadvantages of global essay, only an emotional relation between Gatsby and his unutterable visions, of which she is the essays and events unwitting symbol. Not only warming are women treated as inanimate objects in introduction, The Great Gatsby, they are also shown as childlike and warming, without morality, whereas it is actually the men who have these characteristics. Owl Purdue Argumentative! One can see this in the way that Nick Carraway treats Daisy and of global warming, Jordan. Nick conceals the fact that Daisy was the Essay on The Great Gatsby by F. Gothic Architecture Research! Scott Fitzgerald. The word “great” has many meanings – outstanding, eminent, grand, important, extraordinary, and noble – that vary with the intent of the speaker and the interpretation of the listener. Someone may perceive something as great, while someone else may consider that same thing horrendous.

The greatness of warming essay, a being is not determined by the individual, but by those around them who experience and questions in research papers, perceive their greatness through actions and words. Disadvantages Of Global Essay! In the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the Essay on Symbolism on the Great Gatsby. the Great Gatsby. Owl-eyes is the only one that realized that Gatsby was putting on a show, the first time they met in the library. He was in complete disbelief of Gatsby’s “real books” in his library, which made it even more fascinating. Dissertation Bac Francais! The nickname Owl-eyes is ironic for this drunken man, but in his clear insight, he is wise.

Fitzgerald introduced Owl-eyes in a way that the readers are immediately critical, but then changes after using a positive attitude toward the drunken man. Like Nick, Owl-eyes she ends up ditching Gatsby for him. She is too easily pushed around by Tom. If she had told him that earlier maybe he would have listened to her and of global warming essay, done something else with his life. He has the introduction change essay potential to be very great. Disadvantages Of Global Warming! He had the character traits of a good leader. He was very charismatic, and thought things out carefully before jumping into them.

We know he could have been a good leader because of his experience in the army. 'If he'd lived on he'd have been a great man. Gothic Architecture Papers! A man like James F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby is essay, a story that has many different themes. Fitzgerald shows the themes that he uses through his character’s desires and actions. This novel has themes in it that we deal with in our everyday life. It has themes that deal with our personal lives and themes that deal with what’s right and what’s wrong. There are also themes that have to research papers do with materialistic items that we deal desire on a daily basis.

Fitzgerald focuses on disadvantages of global warming essay, the themes of corrupted love, immorality The Contrast and plan dissertation, Conformity in F. Of Global Warming! Scott Fitzgerald#x27;s The Great Gatsby. novel, The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald uses an ensemble of characters to portray different aspects of the 1920s. The characters’ occupations and lifestyles represent the corruption, carefreeness, and prosperity of the Roaring Twenties. Perhaps most striking of this ensemble is the pompous bigot Tom Buchanan and the novel’s namesake Jay Gatsby. Set in the fictional towns of questions papers, West Egg and East Egg on Long Island, New York, in the summer of 1922, the of global essay novel revolves around the protagonist Nick Carraway when he Shallowness and hollowness of the essays on actions and events upper class is of global warming, shown in The Great Gatsby by describe holiday Daisy’s love and addiction for wealth and disadvantages of global, money.

Many people may look at Daisy and call her a ‘fool’ for her addiction to money. Eventually this not only rhetorical questions papers corrupts her in the murder of Myrtle; however, her shallowness leads to the death of Jay Gatsby because of the carelessness of Daisy; which allowed Gatsby to take the blame of the death of Myrtle. Daisy represents the carelessness of most women in the Upper Class for her Creating Sympathy for disadvantages warming The Great Gatsby Essay. uses Nick to research lead us to sympathize with Gatsby whom Nick understands and sympathises with.

Fitzgerald uses Gatsby's parties and the way in which Nick views them to reveal that whilst Gatsby is surrounded by shallow and vulgar people, he is above this. Fitzgerald also uses these parties to expose Gatsby's isolation which leads us to feel sympathy toward Gatsby. Despite the amount of people at the party, Nick observes Gatsby's seclusion and loneliness, my eyes fell to Gatsby, standing them is unbearable when they are in public with their friends. Disadvantages Warming Essay! (Sutton). The basic plot of The Great Gatsby, like other Fitzgerald plots, develops slowly toward a violently dramatic incident and an ironical conclusion (Eble). Essays On Actions And Events! Everything towards the end of the novel happens so quickly it seems as if it does not even happen. It began with a simple accident and slowly led to an enormous disaster. Gatsby was mistaken as the one who ran over Myrtle, when it was Daisy. He was also mistaken as Myrtle’s Nick and Jordan leave with Tom and latter found out about Gatsby and Daisy driving their car into and killing Myrtle, Gastby’s adulteress. The Driver was Daisy but Gatsby took the blame.

Tom told Myrtle’s husband George and George though Gatsby was having an disadvantages of global, affair with his wife so he shoots and kills Gatsby in his pool. Then George kills himself. Nick has a small funeral for Gatsby then moves back to the Midwest. From this whole experience he comes to the conclusion that Gatsby dream represents The Great Gatsby As A Satire Essay. appearance, Jay Gatsby seemed to holiday essay be a rich, well-rounded man who was always very poised and disadvantages of global warming essay, eloquent.

But when turned inward, this confident man seemed very self-conscious and scared. He was scared that people would find out about his past and realize that he was not always the rich and graceful man that he now is. Throughout the novel, Gatsby informed all of his acquaintances that he was an Oxford man and that he came from a well-to-do family. However, this was not the 2009 case. Gatsby did not attend Materialism in the Eggs in The Great Gatsby Essay. The society of the mid nineteen-twenties, as depicted by F. Disadvantages Of Global Essay! Scott Fitzgerald in his novel “The Great Gatsby”, is one of glamorous parties and shallow, superficial and material-based relations. East Egg is home to the more apathetic portion of bac francais, New York’s elite, which cares only for their money and essay, view the world around them as disposable. West Egg, however, is full of rhetorical papers, hardworking people who are willing to disadvantages of global essay peer beyond one’s surface to discover the true potential locked within one’s self. Though both

Comparing the Books a Raisin in the Sun and the Great Gatsby Essay. These examples support the idea that both Jay Gatsby’s and The Younger Family’s minds revolve around money. Social classes play a massive part in society today, just like it has throughout history. And Events! Mr. Gatsby, being an entrepreneur and bootlegger, was an warming, upper-class individual with tons of wealth. Because he was so wealthy, he could afford a mansion and an expensive car (unheard of in the 1930’s). Respect came in droves for to climate him because of his social class. He had parties for which some he did not

2. What does Gatsby tell Nick about himself? Gatsby tells Nick that he was educated at Oxford, his family died, he came into some money, and when the disadvantages warming essay war came, he got some medals. He showed Nick the medals and describe holiday essay, a picture of himself with his college mates. Of Global Essay! 3. What matter did Gatsby have Jordan Baker discuss with Nick? Jordan discussed Nick's arranging a luncheon meeting between himself and Daisy at architecture, Nick's house. 4. Who is of global warming, Mr. Wolfshiem?

He is introduction to climate, a business associate of Gatsby. Actually he point Fitzgerald attempts to make through this allusion: it is an objective certainty that Gatsby cannot win Daisy (who is his Grail) back, but because he has been completely seduced by of global the prospect of the outcome, he cannot see that truth, deceiving himself into believing that it is possible. As foils for Gatsby and Daisy (and in some respect Tom as well) we are presented with Nick and Jordan. Of Jordan, Nick says that she is “too wise ever to carry well-forgotten dreams from rhetorical in research papers, age to age”(135). In Essay on The Great Gatsby and the Great Depression. Although Gatsby didn't live to know it, he was right. By Daisy not coming to Gatsby's funeral, it shows that she plummeted and took a long time to recover, as did the stock market during The Great Depression.

To society of the twenties, the disadvantages warming one true love was wealth. Tom Buchanan, who represents the high society of the time, wanted Myrtle Wilson. Therefore, meaning she is symbolic of what the rich wanted - wealth. Although Myrtle herself isn't wealthy, wealth is what the Symbolism in The Great Gatsby Essays. the eyes of God, especially pertaining to George Wilson. Introduction To Climate Change Essay! Each character in The Great Gatsby is guided by their personal ethic and, yet Nick has the final word and his judgment is superior. Since the of global warming events are through his eyes there is no objectivity. Although George Wilson invokes God by saying, “God sees everything” and “you can’t fool God” and indicts each character in the novel through the eyes of T.J Eckleburg.

Nick is the only other character that besides George to recognize him this. His eyes The Great Gatsby - Chapter 1 Essay. receives the impression that Nick’s self analysis of describe holiday essay, his own character tries to influence their opinion of him. Therefore the disadvantages of global warming essay reader becomes inclined to question his judgements. Gothic Papers! Nick Carraway’s narration takes the reader into his confidence; he describes significant experiences in an almost voyeuristic way. Nicks narrative style uses elaborate and very mature vocabulary that gives extra depth and description to his account; drawing the reader further into the story. Additionally Nick’s tone illusion and not actually reality.

Nick’s descriptions also change very quickly from one idea to essay the next, as well as to different times, which is holiday essay, also similar to dreams. The contrast to of global warming essay the theme of dreams is also seen in the characters of Tom, Daisy, Nick, Jordan and the people attending Gatsby’s parties, as they show that the ‘American Dream’ is 2009, a myth. This is seen through Gatsby’s attempts to repeat the past, and other evidence that proves the incapability of the American Dream such as George Wilson

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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the fields, the punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area. The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in disadvantages of global warming essay, the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for references that are in on actions, a single language. You have the option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in more than one language).

To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of disadvantages warming essay, formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the formatting from the Generic type to gothic architecture, the other types. From there you only of global warming need to make modifications as necessary. • In the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to to climate, create. Notice that the disadvantages warming Output Field Order box is now empty. • Verify that Generic appears in the Copy Fields from list. Use this feature as a quick way to essays, define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the disadvantages warming essay type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to owl purdue, define Book, Section you can copy from disadvantages of global, Book, Whole then make any needed modifications.

Tip: If you are creating the output style for a publication in the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to 2009, a Book example. If you are creating an output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the Generic format similar to of global essay, a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the fields available for owl purdue, the Reference Type, Generic . (The fields change depending on the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and click the right arrow icon to move it to the Output Field Order box. Continue selecting each field that you need, in the order you want it to appear. Under Preview of Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the fields you have added.

You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in order to see the updated information. Under Output Field Order , select a field and disadvantages of global essay, look at the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window. Essay? Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to warming essay, guide you through the format defining process. The first group of settings determines the formatting of the holiday field itself as opposed to the format of the of global elements within the field. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in the reference is to climate essay set to print or when the disadvantages of global warming source type is set to essays and events, electronic. Disadvantages Of Global Warming Essay? In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to describe holiday essay, be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character.

Tip : Detailed information about Field Settings typically used for defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the of global essay different types of options available for the various fields. Tip : A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is normally included with the field it is used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows. RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is no information for argumentative essay, the field in a particular record. If you have defined the of global warming essay field setting to include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is a good example. It generally appears at rhetorical, the end of a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the warming punctuation for the field before page number in to climate essay, the “precede with” area of the disadvantages of global essay page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming.

We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the on actions and events information you have imported into disadvantages warming essay RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator) Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of author names to introduction to climate change essay, be included in disadvantages warming, the bibliography. You can include all of the names or some portion of introduction to climate, them. Of Global? Selecting Include All overrides the rhetorical other settings.

Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic. Click Update and see the disadvantages of global display change to two authors and display the et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in place of gothic papers, author names if the author field in a reference is left blank. If you want to insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and type Unknown. If you want the field left blank, delete Anonymous and don't replace it with anything. If you want to replace the of global warming essay author with the title, click the bac francais 2009 Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the separator is located (i.e., between first and second author or between the second and third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and (without the quote marks) then press the spacebar again. It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on each side of the and disadvantages warming, or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in the If more than 2 use box and in the Before Last box. Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and after the gothic papers and.

These settings may be different than the settings for subsequent authors. Under Name select the correct order of the names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and middle name, select Last, First Middle. The Initial box determines the format of the name. Disadvantages Of Global Warming? For example, if the bac francais first name should be a full name and middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in of global, uppercase or Entire name in uppercase). These options determine the setting for all names after the first author. In many formats, the first author is Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author in a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank.

If you want to plan 2009, follow the author with a period, leave the period in the Follow With box. Keep in disadvantages of global essay, mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and questions in research papers, Follow With option. Disadvantages Of Global Warming? If you have Follow With characters of a period and rhetorical questions, a space and a Precede With in the very next field of of global essay, a space what will actually show between the two fields will be a period and architecture, two spaces. The Precede With and Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the warming essay author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary)

Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is introduction change information only and disadvantages of global warming essay, does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the plan dissertation bac francais 2009 appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the of global warming essay characters as lowercase, even the papers first word in the title (e.g., this is the entire title). Title case capitalizes the first letter of the disadvantages warming essay first word and rhetorical questions in research papers, all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title). Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the of global warming first word of the title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.).

Enter any information you would like to to climate change, include about this field. This field is of global essay information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name. For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. There are several options for the periodical name format.

To choose to have a preference in using the full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Or, you may specify using only one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and want a particular mark to follow it add the mark to owl purdue argumentative essay, the Follow abbreviations with box. Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to warming essay, include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the formatting or output.

Options for architecture, these fields are very similar. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field. Disadvantages Warming Essay? RefWorks adds the appropriate suffix for the number. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the rhetorical questions papers field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and essay, if any information needs to introduction change, precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Vol. in the precedes area). Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the disadvantages of global warming next field. Determine any text formatting and 2009, if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if the issue should appear as (1), you need to include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in of global warming essay, the Follow With area. Research Papers? Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field.

Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example “p.” might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the disadvantages warming p. if needed) . Introduction To Climate Change Essay? Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to show 149-159, select Full End Page, for the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to an output style allows you to disadvantages, type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript. Simply type the text in architecture research papers, the Text to insert box and click the box next to the appropriate format. One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type. Disadvantages Of Global Essay? A book section frequently requires you to include information on holiday essay the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to create a format like:

Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and disadvantages of global warming essay, select Italic as the essay formatting option. All other fields with the exception of disadvantages of global, Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of owl purdue argumentative, these fields may be useful for various reasons. Disadvantages Of Global Warming? For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for the Generic type. In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. If you selected Book for example, the plan dissertation bac francais 2009 Generic Reference is now patterned after the Book Reference Type.

In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the of global overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in essay, the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to expand and disadvantages essay, display the settings options. Select the appropriate sort order for the bibliography. In Order They Are Cited.

References are listed in the order they are cited in rhetorical questions in research, the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year. References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title. References are first sorted by the entire Author field.

References with the same authors are then sorted by title. First Author, Year Other Authors. References are sorted by disadvantages of global the first author only, then, for references with the owl purdue argumentative essay same first author, by year. References with the same first author and year are then sorted based upon all other authors. First Author, Number of Authors Year.

References are sorted by the first author only and then by the number of of global, authors in the reference. For example, if the first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four. Bac Francais? References with the same first author and the same number of authors are then sorted by disadvantages of global warming year. Author, Year Ascending Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year with the oldest first. References with the gothic papers exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and titles (for references with no author) into warming one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at dissertation, the top of the list. Title, Year descending.

References are sorted first by title and then by year with most recent articles at disadvantages warming essay, the top. Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by periodical name and then by year with the most recent at the top. Year descending, Author. Sorts first by year with the gothic research most recent at the top and within the same year by author.

Year descending, Title. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and within the same year by title. Year descending, Periodical. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and within the same year by disadvantages of global periodical name. Year ascending, Title.

Sorts first by year with the bac francais oldest at the top and within the same year by disadvantages essay title. Sorts references by the ID number. If the essays and events bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the title in the Reference List Title box. The title is automatically centered on the page when you view or print the document. Select Include empty fields in the reference output if, for example, you want the page number field included in the bibliography even if there is no page number in the reference. If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. Most output styles do not call for empty fields to be included, so this option should be cleared.

Select Apply APA Rules for Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the new APA guidelines that require inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in disadvantages, the bibliography. Plan Dissertation? When this option is selected, RefWorks will look for Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for the reference and print that first. If there is no DOI in disadvantages of global essay, the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in rhetorical in research, the Links and the Retrieved Date fields. If there is no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for a particular reference. Disadvantages Of Global Essay? This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages. For Unpublished Material the Database and Retrieved Date will print if there is no DOI or Links. Describe Holiday? For Web Pages, the Accessed Date and Database will print if there is disadvantages of global no DOI or Links.

Note: This setting only applies to references where the Source Type field is set to Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the spacing to apply to all lines within the essays on actions and events reference. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in the bibliography. Make the appropriate selection from the disadvantages warming essay drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author. Research? In some cases it may be appropriate to of global warming essay, substitute dashes for the author names. Enter the on actions appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference. For example, you may want to follow each reference with a period.

Text After Bibliography could be used to specify punctation for all bibliography entries. Placing the ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the warming essay need to include ending punctuation for every defined reference type.