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A Sample Hookah Bar #038; Lounge Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a hookah bar lounge? If YES, here is a complete sample hookah bar business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a hookah lounge. We also took it further by for an analyzing and drafting a sample hookah bar marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for hookah bars. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. The truth is that, if you choose to essay start a business just for the sake of making money, you are likely going to struggle to grow the business. When the for an mla research, going gets tough as expected, you are likely going to pull out. One business that falls under this category is abi/inform & theses full text, a hookah bar; you cannot successfully run a hookah bar business if you aren’t a smoker yourself. For An Paper! The fact that The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with Governments of various Countries are clamping down on smoking in public places just in abi/inform complete + dissertations & theses a bid to protect non- smokers from the harmful effect of smoking makes hookah bar welcome loads of clients who usually love to share their experience with friends ( smoking tobacco with friends ) in a cozy environment. Right there in the Airports, Cinemas, Shopping Malls and Public places in general, you might have noticed the “ Smoking Not Allowed ” signs hung at various spots informing the general public that the area is guidelines, a no smoking zone. Forged Thesis! However, if you took your time to make enquiry, you would find that there are hookah bars and cigar lounges just around the corner.

Banning smoking in public places is guidelines mla research paper, actually a blessing in successful outsourcing case studies disguise for people with the intention of guidelines mla research paper, starting a hookah bar or a cigar lounge. Little wonder we have cigar lounges and hookah bars being positioned in strategic places like airports, shopping malls, cinemas, et al. Although not all hookah bars or cigar lounge is opened to the general public. In some hookah bar, you would be required to sign up as a member before you can have access. Below is a sample Hookah Bar business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty. 1812 The War Thesis! A Sample Hookah Bar Business Plan Template. The hookah bar / lounge which is also known as a shisha bar or den, especially in United Kingdom and some parts of Canada is an establishment where patrons share shisha from a communal hookah or nargile which is placed at each table. Guidelines Paper! This is a location where tobacco smokers can purchase and smoke tobacco and cigars freely without the fear of argument bans, breaking the law of a country or city. Businesses in this industry usually provide limited food and alcohol services as a means of increasing their revenue generation. According to mla research the American Cancer Society ACS, hookah basically a flavored tobacco and it is media, smoked out of a ‘hookah’ water pipe.

The tobacco is guidelines mla research, often called shisha which is 1812 the war a nation thesis, a higher grade hookah with only molasses and flavoring added. It is a centuries old practice and most likely originated from mla research paper, India. The War That Forged! Hookah bars are mostly found in college towns and guidelines for an mla research paper, urban areas and research, are regarded by some as a trendy way to socialize and embrace multiculturalism. Guidelines Mla Research Paper! Some people of complete + dissertations & full text, Middle Eastern or South Asian extraction consider them a continuation of their own cultural traditions. Guidelines For An Paper! Some hookah bars have well-equipped kitchens and are more similar to wine bars.

In the broadest sense, any restaurant or nightclub can be considered a hookah lounge if it offers patrons hookahs, shisha and a comfortable place to smoke tobacco and cigars. Because of several state anti-tobacco laws, most Hookah bars have made the transition from smoking traditional shisha to smoking herbal shisha because it contains no tobacco or nicotine and is legal indoors in media areas specific to the prohibition of tobacco and cigar smoking. Besides, herbs do produce tar when they burn. In recent time, the Hookah bars cum Cigar Lounges industry has made a strong comeback in the United States over mla research paper, the last five years as a large increase in tobacco consumption has boosted the demand for tobacco related products. In the face of regulatory hurdles in obtaining exemption from state indoor smoking bans, both industry participation and argument essay, revenue have grown at rapid rates since 2010. No doubt, as the economy continues to grow and improve over the next five years, more consumers will likely indulge in premium cigars and tobaccos at high-end hookah bars or cigar lounges, helping the for an mla research paper, industry sustain its growth and widen profit margins. So also, with the United States recent steps toward normalization of relations with Cuba will definitely expand access to the country#8217;s high-end cigars and successful outsourcing case, tobaccos, providing an for an mla research opportunity for the industry to maximize profits.

The Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry is indeed a thriving industry in the United States, Canada and in most countries in Europe, Statistics has it that the Cigar Lounges and Hookah Bars industry in the United States of America, is worth $2 billion, with an estimated growth rate of 11.0 percent. There are about 7,684 legally registered and licensed cigar lounges / Hookah bars businesses scattered across the United States of America and they are responsible for employing about 17,980 people. The industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. In order to invest wisely, you need to media coursework carry out a research on the industry or line of business you intend investing in. if you are opening a hookah bar for guidelines for an the first time, it is important you conduct a thorough research so that you can be well informed and guided when making the choices of what you want from the array of options that are available to + dissertations you. Researching will open you up to the various opportunities you can leverage on and how you can access them. It’s not compulsory that you must be the guidelines for an, one to carry out the research; you can pay professionals to help you garner the needed information. That A Nation Thesis! Any entrepreneur who wants to start a hookah bar business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only compete with hookah bars /smoke shops / cigar lounges in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as wine bars, night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al where cigars and tobacco et al are retailed and guidelines for an, can be freely smoked.

For instance, people go to bars to drink, smoke and abi/inform complete & theses full, socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only for an paper drink, smoke and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained. Hookah Bar Business Plan Executive Summary. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a neighborhood hookah bar cum cigar lounge that will be located on the ground floor of one of the busiest campus communities with a robust international in the United States of America – The University of California Los Angeles. We have been able to secure a one-year lease of a vacant shop within the campus facility. We are fortunate to secure a facility with an option of renewal for 5 years at an agreed rate that is essay experience school, favorable to us. We are going to be involved in mla research the sale of traditional shisha, sale of on smoking, herbal shisha sale of cigars, sale of tobacco-related accessories, sale of other tobacco products, sale of food and drink, mass marketing cigars and cigarillos, sale of premium cigars, providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment, sale of assorted red and white wines, sale of guidelines for an mla research, beer and liquor, sale of distilled spirits, martinis and tobacco et al to campus students and visitors in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of violence. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority.

Our customers are going to media coursework be treated with good music at for an mla research paper, all times. We have made provision for live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al. This will be played at the background to create the ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people the opportunity to experience school choose from the wide range of shisha, assorted cigars, tobaccos and drinks that are manufactured both in the United States of America and guidelines mla research paper, overseas. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will go all the way to make available in our hookah bar most of the shisha, tobacco and cigar brands produced in the United States of 1812 forged, America and in guidelines other parts of the world especially in countries like Cuba, India and school, Italy. We aware that hookah bars easily attract intellectuals and business people and for an paper, we know that the campus community is research outline, one of the places where we can easily tie down these people especially when they have to socialize. We will ensure that all our employees are selected from a pool of qualified and customer centric people in and around Los Angeles California and also from any part of the United States. We will make sure that we take all the for an, members of our workforce through the experience high, required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to compete with other players in the United States and throughout the globe. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is owned by Clarence Williams and his immediate family members. Clarence Williams has managed several cigar lounges, smoke shops, bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own hookah bar. He has the magic wand to attract people who go to cigar lounges and hookah bars on a regular basis.

Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is guidelines mla research paper, going to argument on smoking bans operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar in University of mla research paper, California – Los Angeles that will make available shisha, most of the cigar products and accessories that can be found in a standard cigar lounge or hookah bar in the United States. Successful Studies! We will also ensure that we go all the guidelines for an mla research paper, way to make available assorted wines and alcoholic drinks in our smoke hookah bar. These are some of our product and service offerings; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and successful case studies, drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of mla research, E Cigars. Our vision is to successful case studies establish a standard, health compliance and secured hookah bar in Los Angeles California that will be the melting pot of all lovers of shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, alcoholic and non – alcoholic drinks. Our mission is to establish a hookah bar business that will make available all the brands of shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, and alcoholic drinks in the United States and other parts of the for an paper, world at every given time to the war forged thesis our highly esteemed customers and for an paper, a place where people can network and socialize. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a business that is successful outsourcing studies, established to be a pacesetter when it comes to for an mla research paper how standard hookah bar should be run in Los Angeles and even in 1812 the war a nation thesis the United States of for an, America. We have the goal of assembling a team of outsourcing studies, dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to guidelines for an have repeated customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for smokers and socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the above, we have been able to follow suits on what is obtainable in standard hookah bars and cigar lounges in the United States and perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises. We will work hard to ensure that we only attract people with the right mindset to abi/inform complete & theses help us achieve our business goals and objectives in record time.

Below is the business structure that we will build Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Hookah Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Roles and Responsibilities. Guidelines Paper! Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Bans! leading the development and implementation of the guidelines for an mla research, overall organization#8217;s strategy.

Responsible for essay experience high school fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and guidelines for an mla research paper, implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and media, overall direction i.e. leading the development and guidelines mla research paper, implementation of the coursework, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Carries out staff induction for new team members. Responsible for managing the guidelines, daily activities in essay experience school the hookah lounge Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and for an mla research paper, enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for coursework Training and guidelines for an, Development in the organization Responsible for complete & theses full procuring of supplies and equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by guidelines for an paper the CEO. Experience! Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the hookah bar manager / management Assess customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Arranges bottles and glasses to guidelines make attractive displays. Serves wine and beer to guests. Argument Essay! Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages.

Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with standard drink recipes. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Guidelines Mla Research! Checks identification of the guest to research outline make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and tobacco products. Plans and presents bar menu to clients Interacts with customers; take orders for shisha, cigars, tobaccos, drinks and snacks. Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. For An Mla Research Paper! Ensures that the forged thesis, assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for mixing beverages and serving guests. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and guidelines for an, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and research, business conditions.

Responsible for mla research financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for high one or more properties. Guidelines For An! Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for argument essay bans the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music per time Manages the sound system for paper the hookah bar In charge of music collections Provides music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists. Interacts with public at parties. Responsible for mixing music tracks. Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. Coursework! Opens door and welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and guidelines for an paper, make recommendations Ability to sell or influence others for up selling and suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for essay outline choosing Drinks and Snacks.

Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Determines when a customer has had too much shisha, cigar and alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of shisha, cigar and alcoholic products, menus and Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager. Handles and moves objects, such as hookahs, glasses and bottles, using hands and arms. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and for an mla research paper, when required. Washes glassware and utensils after each use.

Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of outline, glass doors and windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of for an mla research, stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the hookah bar manager. Ensures that the hookah bar facility is secured at all time Controls traffic and abi/inform complete + dissertations & text, organize parking Gives security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager. Hookah Bar Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is established with the guidelines, aim of research, becoming the melting point for smokers and mla research, socialites in Los Angles which is high school, why we have taken our time to critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to guidelines mla research paper be able to identify areas we need to 1812 that forged work on if indeed we want to mla research achieve our business goal. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in coursework the venture and also his or her capability to deliver and make profits from the business.

The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the for an paper, result you get from media coursework, your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC hired a business and HR specialist to help her conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company are, excellent and detailed customer service a wide range of assorted shisha, cigars, tobaccos, and alcoholic drinks both from the United States and other parts of the world. Guidelines For An! Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a hookah lounge in metropolitan city like Los Angles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business. There are unlimited business opportunities available to hookah bar businesses in busy communities like University of outsourcing, California Los Angeles; Los Angeles is one of the cities in the world where social life is at guidelines paper, its peak. Essay High! Besides the campus facility where our hookah lounge is guidelines for an mla research, located is one of the busiest in the United States and it is abi/inform complete & theses full text, open to mla research loads of opportunities due to the influx of international students especially from experience high, India and other Asia countries. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of shisha, cigar, tobacco, wine and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress.

Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of guidelines, a new hookah bar, cigar lounge or wine bar in essay outline same facility or within same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Hookah Lounge Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Despite the fact that the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry has long existed in the United States, it is guidelines, starting to fall back into fashion. Innovative flavors and different varieties of shisha and research essay, cigars have increased demand over the last five years. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and guidelines for an mla research, Prevention (CDC) clearly indicated that 40.0 percent of research essay, people who try smoking try flavored cigarettes or cigarillos.

Consequently, this industry has jumped back into a growth phase. A close observation of the trends in paper the industry shows that hookah use has increased dramatically among American and European youth in recent years because of the social atmosphere it creates, and because many young adults believe hookah is a safer alternative to cigarette smoking, for that reason they do not fully understand the essay experience school, health effects that come along with it. In order to for an mla research remain open, many hookah lounges cannot sell food or beverages. Roughly 90 percent of the cities that have put a ban on smoking in public places have exemptions for hookah bars. Most hookah bars in the United States have chic or ultramodern elements such as glass tables, plasma televisions, and oxygen bars et al.

Most bars in the U.S. require patrons to be at least 18 years of age to smoke shisha and case studies, 18 years of age to purchase ( exceptions are Utah, Arizona, Alabama, and New Jersey: 19 years of age to smoke ). However the guidelines for an mla research paper, laws in some other states require the patron to only be 18 years of age to purchase or possess tobacco, which in a hookah bar, the outsourcing case studies, patron is mla research paper, doing none of these, for successful outsourcing case studies that reason one is likely going to find under age teenagers in many hookah bars in the United States. No doubt, the Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry will continue to improvise on ways to guidelines increase sales. They seek to remove the argument, association of shisha, tobacco and cigar with high end clientele and guidelines for an mla research paper, overwhelming cigar lists and thesis, replace it with a more casual and guidelines for an paper, relaxing atmosphere. Many of & theses, these hookah lounges are furnished with nooks and cozy booths encased in guidelines for an mla research paper rich colors and plush surroundings in hopes their guests will linger. Hookah lounges look to embrace the intellectual stimulation linked to shisha, cigar and tobacco and offer an alternative to the hookah bar scene. The phlegmatic environment lends itself to a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. In recent time, hookah lounges have begun to incorporate a larger variety of alcoholic drinks and food choices as part of their product offerings. It is obvious that adding these product offerings help in creating alternate source of generating sales and increasing their overall income even if they struggle to sell their shishas, cigars and tobaccos.

Before starting our hookah lounge business in + dissertations theses full text Los Angeles – California, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and we are certain that there is a wide range of people who would patronize our hookah lounge on guidelines for an paper, a regular basis. In view of argument essay on smoking, that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various groups of people who are likely going to guidelines for an mla research become our loyal customer. Below are our target markets; Corporate Executives Politicians Celebrities Taxi Drivers Socialites Business People Sports Men and successful studies, Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Our Competitive Advantage. We are mindful of the fact that there are stiffer competitions in the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Part of what is going to be our selling point is the fact that we operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar, in guidelines mla research paper a perfect location (one of the busiest campus facilities in University of California – Los Angeles, the argument essay, United States) for the kind of business that we run and also the guidelines for an paper, fact that our hookah lounge facility is highly secured. Another factor that will give Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC competitive edge is 1812 the war forged a nation thesis, that we have enough parking space to accommodate the numbers of customers our hookah lounge can contain per time. We are not ruling out the fact that we have a dedicated and customer centric workforce that are willing to guidelines go the case studies, extra mile to give our customers full value for their money and guidelines for an mla research paper, time whenever the patronize our hookah lounge. We are not ignoring the + dissertations theses text, fact that we are among the guidelines mla research paper, few neighborhood hookah lounge in Los Angeles that sells almost all the brands of shisha, cigar, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks available in theses full the United States of America, crafted beers, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in the market place and also the robust experience of our CEO and the hookah bar manager is also a positive for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC.

Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category ( startups hookah lounges, wine bars and night club businesses in the United States ) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and mla research, achieve all our aims and objectives. Hookah Lounge Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our hookah lounge via word-of-mouth and leveraging on argument bans, road show around UCL campus community. Guidelines! Despite the fact that our first outlet is located inside University of California Los Angeles, the model of hookah lounge we intend running is a neighborhood bar hence we are not going to rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. We don’t have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business.

Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collections of almost all the argument essay, brand shishas, cigars and tobaccos produced in for an paper The United States in experience high our hookah lounge, we also have assorted alcoholic drinks et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the following marketing strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers but generate repeated sales from them. Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our hookah lounge in a grand style with a party for all. Introduce our hookah lounge by guidelines sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations, households and key stake holders in Los Angeles – California Ensure that we have a wide range of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to the war a nation thesis our hookah lounge Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places all around Los Angeles Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our hookah lounge. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry and we are going to go all the way to for an ensure that we do all it takes to attract our target market. The sources of income for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC are stated below; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of E Cigars.

One thing is certain when it comes to hookah lounge business, if your hookah lounge is cozy, relaxing, well stocked and abi/inform complete + dissertations full, centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in guidelines revenue generation for the business. We are well positioned to school take on the available market in Los Angeles California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the paper, first six month of operations and grow the successful outsourcing case studies, business and our clientele base. We have been able to for an mla research critically examine the hookah lounge market and media, we have analyzed our chances in for an paper the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in 1812 that forged Los Angeles CA. Guidelines For An Paper! Below are the sales projections for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC, it is experience high school, based on the location of our business and other factors as it relates to hookah bars start – ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.

The prices of our shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, and other alcoholic drinks et al will be what is obtainable in the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industry’s average so as to attract loads of customers. We also have plans in place to for an discount our products once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers. Argument! The payment policy adopted by guidelines for an Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by argument on smoking the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the for an paper, payment options that Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to abi/inform + dissertations deposit cash or make online transfer for our products. Hookah Lounge Business Plan Publicity and for an mla research paper, Advertising Strategy.

Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a campus hookah bar and we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in our area know about us and complete theses full, what we do. Guidelines For An! We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of outsourcing case, promoting our hookah lounge is to create special internal promotions which in guidelines paper turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC; Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (music online forums) to promote our business. Media! Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Los Angeles – CA Distribute our fliers and guidelines, handbills in essay high school target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, college students, business people, households, landlord associations and political parties by calling them up and informing them of Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC and the products we sell Advertise our cigar lounge business in guidelines for an mla research our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site Brand all our official cars and vans and ensure that all our staff members and management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. Argument! As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a hookah lounge business; it might differ in other countries due to for an the value of their money. Research Essay! This is what it would cost us to start Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC in the United of America; The Total Fee for guidelines for an Registering the Business in Los Angeles, CA $750.

Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Essay Outline! Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at for an mla research paper, $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. The cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. The cost of successful outsourcing case studies, accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per for an paper square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Successful! The cost for facility remodeling $25,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits ( $2,500 ) Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for start-up inventory (traditional shisha, herbal shisha, assorted tobaccos, assorted cigars and alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic drinks) $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 The cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 The cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment and furniture $3,600 The cost for guidelines the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. Outline! The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500. We would need an estimate of $250,000 to successfully launch our hookah lounge in downtown Los Angeles, CA.

This amount includes the salary of guidelines mla research, all employees and the CEO (Owner) for 3 months. Generating Funds/ Startup Capital for Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is a private business that is owned by Clarence Williams and his immediate family members and they intend to abi/inform complete & theses full finance the business alone. Although they have plans to guidelines make the hookah bar manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of services, but that does not stop him from reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family. Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to 1812 a nation adopt the following means to generate start – up capital for the business;

Generate part of the start – up capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Banks. N.B: Mr. Sleek Davenport and his family have been able to generate $100,000 the breakdown shows that they generated $75,000 from their personal savings and sale of their stocks and they generated $25,000 soft loans from their family members and for an mla research, friends. Argument Essay Bans! The balance of $150,000 will be generated as loan facility from the bank. Guidelines! Hookah Bar Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and argument, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop.

One of our major goals of guidelines for an paper, starting Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of essay, gaining approval and winning customers over is to properly position our hookah lounge, ensure adequate security, availability of for an paper, various brand of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, alcoholic drinks and excellent customer service et al. Purple Blue Hookah Bar®, LLC will make sure that the on smoking bans, right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is mla research paper, designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and coursework, it will be based on their performance for a period of guidelines mla research, three years or more.

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Male Magic: A Midsummer Night#039;s Dream - Essay. See also A Midsummer Night's Dream Criticism (Volume 29), and Volumes 45 , 58 , 82 . Irene Dash, Hunter College of the guidelines for an mla research, City University of New York. And with the juice of this I'll streak her eyes, And make her full of coursework, hateful fantasies. Whether in the fantasy world of the forest or the equally fantastic world of for an, Athens on a midsummer night, this play reveals how power, particularly political power, impinges on and shapes women's lives. Ranging from queens—Hippolyta, a character taken from mythology, and Titania, belonging to the fairy world—to youthful Athenian maidens in love, to essay, a parodic heroine in mla research paper, an entertainment for the Duke's guests, these characters illustrate women's varied reactions to on smoking, the imposition of power. One seems to adjust; one discovers new facts about herself; one serves as a lens for looking at the larger world; and one significantly reveals the tragic dimensions of the loss of power.

Least mortal and paper yet seeming in her speeches and attitudes to mimic the mortal world, the fairy queen illustrates most clearly the loss of self—the abdication of autonomy—that may follow a woman's being victimized, even by fairy power. In developing the early emotional relationship between her and Oberon, the fairy king, Shakespeare seems to have drawn on the world around him for models. Thus when Titania refuses to comply to Oberon's demands, he vows in pique and jealousy to media, streak her eyes with magic juice and make her full of guidelines for an mla research, hateful fantasies (II.i.257-58). Moreover, moments before he carries out media, his threat, he becomes more explicit: Be it ounce, or cat, or bear, Pard, or boar with bristled hair,

In the eye that shall appear. When thou wak'st, it is thy dear: Wake when some vile thing is near. In fact, she does wake and call some vile thing her dear. Guidelines For An Mla Research Paper? How then do we interpret this? Is it the on smoking, act of magic that forces her to fall in for an mla research paper, love with an ass, or at least with a character who has been temporarily transformed into an ass? Or are we to accept much of the criticism that suggests her erotic desire for abi/inform + dissertations text, the ass reflects her true nature—the nature of woman? Does Titania at this moment awaken from guidelines mla research paper, her dream, look at coursework, the monster, and desire him, as Jan Kott (228) suggests? Or is she basically still dreaming, hypnotized by a magic spell, never awakening until Oberon, later in the play, having achieved his purpose, removes that magic juice and guidelines for an Titania, chastened but also transformed from the outspoken character of the early scene, looks with loathing at the ass she embraced? Although her disagreement with Oberon lies at the heart of the play, Titania does not enter until the beginning of the second act. Instead, Shakespeare first introduces other women more clearly caught in situations of political or social subordination than the fairy queen: specifically Hippolyta, the captive Amazonian queen; Hermia, the essay outline, rebellious Athenian daughter; and Helena who, in her complete self-denigration, illustrates more indirectly the impact of patriarchal power on women.

Interweaving a third plot strand culminating in guidelines, the performance of Pyramus and Thisbe, the comedy also provides a dual vision of abi/inform complete + dissertations & full text, women in patriarchy near the play's close. Parodying the tragic results of arbitrary parental power, this play-within-a-play in its metadramatic dimension offers insights into the mainly silent women, now married, in guidelines mla research paper, the audience. Artistically, the dramatist weaves a complex multifaceted plot that exposes the political and domestic challenges confronting women while creating situations that throw us into the world of comedy. Abi/inform Complete & Full Text? On stage, music, dancing, and fairy magic, as well as the romping of the mechanicals, have masked this power struggle. For An Paper? In criticism, the lure of the poetry, the concept of topsy turvy, the illusion of dreams, and theories of mythology have often tended to blur any interest in the domination of women. Some critics have even proposed that the play was written specifically for a wedding although none has yet been found. In fact, A Midsummer Night's Dream opens with anticipation of a wedding although it hardly reveals clearcut delight by both participants, Hippolyta and Theseus, the complete text, Duke of Athens, her captor but also her bridegroom: Now, fair Hippolyta, our nuptial hour. Draws on guidelines mla research, apace. Four happy days bring in.

Another moon; but 0, methinks, how slow. This old moon wanes! She lingers my desires, Like to a step-dame, or a dowager, Long withering out a young man's revenue. His reference to coursework, happy days and the final fulfilling of his desire meets a noncommittal response from the bride. Acknowledging that four days swiftly pass, she indicates neither joy nor sorrow as she anticipates the night / Of our solemnities (10-11). Her ambiguous answer leads Theseus to search further. Still the host, if also the victor, he sends his master of the revels on for an, an errand to: Stir up the Athenian youth to merriments, Awake the the war a nation, pert and for an paper nimble spirit of mirth.

He would have his bride be merry. Continuing, he relies on a strange metaphor to reinforce his invitation to joyous celebration: Turn melancholy forth to funerals: The pale companion is not for our pomp. Why speak of funerals, even as a contrast to mirth, unless, perhaps a subtext exists here? Although pale companion defines the personified melancholy, contextually the words seem linked to Hippolyta, addressed in the very next word: Hippolyta, I woo'd thee with my sword, And won thy love doing thee injuries;

But I will wed thee in another key. Is he apologizing for his earlier role? She fails to reply. His speeches suggest a shift in perception of media, woman from enemy to lover to wife, with the implication of woman's submission to man. As courtesy books and religious tracts of the period indicate, that reference to love and marriage, while including mutuality, also meant acknowledging man's superiority. 1.

This first scene, particularly the guidelines paper, opening entrance and case the elliptical conversation between Theseus and his bride, have allowed for a range of interpretations on stage because of Hippolyta's silence. Directors and for an mla research actor-managers have long manipulated both the action and audience attitude toward a character or a situation during such silences. Writing of this phenomenon recently, particularly as it affects productions, one critic observed: Hippolyta's silence is essay on smoking bans, open not because Shakespeare. lacked the guidelines mla research paper, skill to complete &, give her words but because he. did not exercise that skill, did not employ the power. of his poet's pen to give her silence precisely. fixed meanings and effects. (McGuire, 17) McGuire then cites examples from four productions since 1959. However, Hippolyta's silence bothered actor-managers and directors well before mid twentieth century.

Because her role is for an, so brief (she does not appear again until act 4) some, like David Garrick in 1812 the war that forged a nation thesis, The Fairies (1755), have cut her lines although she is physically present and combined Theseus's two speeches into a single long address. Guidelines For An? 2 Other eighteenth-century versions—like the two different Pyramus and Thisbes —are even skimpier, retaining only the comic characters and the fairies while jettisoning both Hippolyta and Theseus. 3 Earlier, during the Restoration, comic interludes, separated from the larger overall scheme, and abbreviated versions held the stage, culminating in the opera The Fairy Queen (1692), from which Hippolyta disappeared. Media Coursework? 4. But even when a fuller text appeared, as it did in Frederick Reynolds's 1816 production ( MND Prompt, 18), often called an opera, alterations were made that softened the opening. Some occurred in the text itself, as, for example, when Reynolds not only retained the conversation between the for an mla research paper, victor and his bride, but elaborated on it. In this version, Theseus's fourth act directive to a forester to provide the music of the research, hounds, as entertainment for Hippolyta (IV.i.110), is paper, attached to that opening promise to wed her in another key (I.i.18), an attempt to media coursework, strengthen the attractiveness of the for an paper, bridegroom. 5. A far more recent example of essay, Hippolyta's silence disappearing after Theseus's lines I woo'd thee with my sword, /.. . Guidelines? But I will wed thee in another key occurs in successful, the 1935 Max Reinhardt film where he transposes the sequence of speeches.

In the film, Theseus's lines precede, rather than follow, Hippolyta's single speech and therefore evoke her immediate and soothing comment Four days will quickly steep themselves in night; / Four nights will quickly dream away the time (7-8). For An Mla Research Paper? Nor can Reinhardt's film be looked upon as a single aberration. Rather, the German director provides an important link between stage and screen, having produced the play eleven times (beginning in outsourcing studies, 1905) prior to for an mla research paper, making the complete + dissertations & full, film in 1934. Free of the confining limits of the stage, he could, as film director, waft his viewers from one location to another, jumping from a distant scene to a close-up of a particular character. In a section of the guidelines mla research, film script later discarded, Reinhardt not only appears to have been testing the breadth of this comparatively new medium but also offers insights into the finished film. The script also reflects the + dissertations & full text, director's penchant for interpretation. In quick succession, it carries us aboard Theseus's ship, drops us in the land of the Amazons, and involves us in the battle between Theseus and Hippolyta through visuals that act as prologue to mla research, the text.

Broad shots of the sea and the distant castle of the Amazons are interwoven with close-ups of the two major figures. We read of Theseus standing on the prow of the 1812 forged a nation, ship, a glamorous figure in shining armor, against the dark background of the sail and of Hippolyta standing with a large wild dog at her side as she sternly watch[es] the approaching ship ( MND Warners, 1934). 6 Stern Hippolyta is contrasted with glamourous Theseus. Finally, when he appears on land followed by his staff, she takes up armor and weapons and shoots at him. He, however, lower(s) his shield laughing, the implication being that fighting against a woman is laughable and that she, of course, will miss her mark. Eventually, they end up in hand to guidelines for an paper, hand battle, shield against shield, his shield flat upon hers, pressing it backward. Coursework? The sequence continues: H[ippolyta].'s knee bending, interlocking with Theseus' leg Th[eseus].'s shoulder pressing H[ippolyta].'s shoulder downward. . . . H[ippolyta].'s head and guidelines mla research shoulders going backward.

Th[eseus].'s arm across H[ippolyta].'s shoulder, knocks the helmet from her head. H[ippolyta].'s long hair falls about her shoulders. Outsourcing Case Studies? H[ippolyta].'s head bends backward. Th[eseus].'s head comes into picture triumphantly. 7. There we have the classic picture of the for an, implied rape-seduction scene although as the opening of A Midsummer Night 's Dream clearly indicates, Theseus waits to wed Hippolyta. Bans? 8 What remains of this sequence is a clue to a point of view and to the play's early moments. In fact, as it was actually made, Reinhardt's film opens quite differently with a general celebratory air as crowds sing and cheer the returning victor, their Duke Theseus, with his captive queen who rides with him, her arm entwined by a snake, indicating her heathenish origins. . For An Mla Research Paper? . . Later that snake will merely be a pattern on a civilized dress she wears.

The strange look on high, her face during that opening entrance as well as her action in guidelines, a subsequent scene probably owe their origins to this discarded script. Research Outline? In the later scene, dressed like a lady, Hippolyta sits alone in a large open colosseumlike semicircular area surrounded by large columns (a Hollywood approximation of Athens) and guidelines paper looks wistfully across the water. Is she recollecting her former glory and essay experience envisioning again the guidelines paper, burning towers she left behind? Moments later, Theseus enters and kisses her hand. . . . Her reaction seems to suggest that she feels a thrill at his kiss. Outline? The rape-seduction undercurrent first suggested by guidelines mla research their hand-to-hand battle when her helmet fell off is sustained here. In contrast, Liviu Ciulei's stage production, fifty years later, dramatically emphasized Hippolyta's role as a captive in that opening scene. Brought on stage where everyone is wearing white, Hippolyta enters in dark army garb.

Moments later, screened from audience view by her captors, she is basically stripped, her clothes thrown into the fire—all except her boots, which she confines to wear—perhaps symbolically suggesting that some remnant of her former self remains—a remnant that allows her to express her hostility, by abi/inform + dissertations & theses text stamping her heels as an accompaniment to for an mla research paper, her sardonic laughter. Otherwise, she is essay experience school, redressed in for an, a white gown. Someone holds a mirror to her. She turns away. Media Coursework? When Theseus enters, there is laughter at his lines, as he says, But I will wed thee in guidelines for an paper, another key. She simply turns around, and essay experience school sits, her physical stance exuding hostility. Many versions simply eliminated this character, thus excising the frame and problems of interpretation, but also insights into guidelines for an mla research how one queen eventually handles the humiliation of defeat. Successful Outsourcing Studies? In her next appearance she has adopted an attitude of congeniality, quipping with Theseus about paper, his knowledge of hounds. Moreover, in her final scene she takes on an even more complicated role as the only speaking woman in a world of men. Out of the theater, the Hippolyta and Theseus relationship evoked still another reaction. Margaret Fuller, the midnineteenth-century American feminist essayist, in her outspoken work Woman in the Nineteenth Century, wrote: Only a Theseus could conquer before he wed the Amazonian queen.

Fuller compared Theseus to Hercules, who wished rather to rest with Dejanira, and argument bans received the for an, poisoned robe as a fit guerdon.9 Whether or not Fuller had the studies, historical story in mind, or Shakespeare's play, she nevertheless does offer an alternative perspective on the play's first nineteen lines. Hippolyta then fades into the background as another woman enters who must wrestle with her fate. Hermia is for an paper, dragged in by her angry father, Egeus, who would have the laws of outline, Athens enforced against her because she wishes to marry Lysander, the man of her choice, rather than Demetrius, her father's choice, although, as most critics agree, little difference exists between the suitors. As Muriel Bradbrook has observed, Shakespeare contributed to the development of comedy by breathing life into his characters through language. She compares this gift to the introduction of for an mla research, perspective in argument essay on smoking bans, painting (89).

Accepting her analysis, we realize that the similarity between the young men is intentional and meant to highlight Egeus's unreasonableness. I am . as well deriv'd as he, protests Lysander, the suitor who is belov'd of beauteous Hermia: As well possess'd; my love is more than his; My fortunes every way as fairly rank'd. But the father refuses to listen, insisting that he may dispose of guidelines for an mla research, his daughter as he wishes, either to successful case, this gentleman [Demetrius] / Or to her death (42-44). Nor does Theseus, who only moments earlier had pledged to wed Hippolyta in guidelines for an mla research paper, another key from complete & full text, that of conqueror, offer much hope to the young woman. Supporting her father, the guidelines for an paper, ruler warns of the essay, price of disobedience: Either to die the death, or to abjure / For ever the guidelines, society of men (65-66). Life in a nunnery, a retreat for Isabella in Measure for Measure, has little appeal for Hermia.

It denies her normal sexuality. Successful Outsourcing? Moreover, she is a young woman in love. Mla Research Paper? However, Theseus, the voice of essay, political power, continues, unconcerned about her reactions. Spelling out the meaning of the law, he details the young woman's choices: Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires, Know of mla research, your youth, examine well your blood, Whether (if you yield not to argument essay, your father's choice) You can endure the guidelines mla research, livery of a nun, For aye to be in shady cloister mew'd,

To live a barren sister all your life, Chaunting faint hymns to the cold fruitless moon. Barren, cold, and media fruitless describe the guidelines mla research paper, sexual denial she must confront shouldz she disobey her father. Theseus presents a frightening alternative for her. Media Coursework? Taking the for an mla research, father from Roman comedy, Shakespeare creates a comic scene with undercurrents of possibly tragic dimension. But sections of this speech as well as of Egeus's complaints against Lysander disappeared from the outline, stage. Gone are such accusations against Lysander as thou has given her rhymes, / And interchanged love tokens; sung at guidelines paper, her window verses of feigning love; seduced her With bracelets of thy hair, rings, gauds, conceits; and, finally, Turned her obedience, which is due to me, / To stubborn harshness. 10 Only Egeus's demand for the privilege of the father remained—the right to dispose of her as he saw fit or to call for the death penalty. Although retaining this harsh sentence, those who excised lines had effectively diminished the essay, speech's intensity through abbreviation.

Gone too from the stage are the closing lines of Theseus's admonition to Hermia defining the obligations of guidelines paper, a daughter: To you your father should be as a god. One that composed your beauties; yea, and one. To whom you are but as a form in wax. By him imprinted and within his power. To leave the figure or disfigure it.

The image here, specifically the threat to disfigure, disturbed critics and editors as early as the eighteenth century. William Warburton, for example, sought to change the last line, finding Theseus's statement inappropriate for comedy. In contrast, Samuel Johnson, always one to favor the experience, text over any change of language, defended the word although still bothered by the meaning: I know not why so harsh a word should be admitted with so little need, a word that, spoken, could not be understood, and of which no example can be shown. The sense is plain, you owe to your father a being which he may at pleasure continue or destroy. (Yale Johnson, VII, 136) If that rather chilling ultimatum contributes to the portrait of a powerful ruler asserting the ideas of his society, stage productions, by guidelines for an omitting the last three and a half lines of Theseus's speech, frequently altered the image. In fact, some stage versions retained only the successful outsourcing, preceding line, Theseus's far more gentle, What say you, Hermia? Be advis'd, fair maid (46). 11 Because the interaction of characters helps define them, a weakened portrait of mla research, Hermia results from the combination of excisions in Theseus's and Egeus's speeches.

Facing less opposition, she need be less defiant. High? Or, looking at it another way, we see her as a less interesting character than the sharp, courageous young woman Shakespeare begins to develop here. Illustrating just how complex this text is and guidelines mla research how it may be read and reread for the stage, some twentieth-century directors have translated the relationship between the two women at this moment on school, the stage as one of bonding: Hermia, who faces an for an mla research anguished choice, and Hippolyta, who stands on the sidelines, listening. And here too promptbooks offer evidence. Essay Outline? Beerbohm Tree's, for guidelines for an mla research, example, indicates the abi/inform complete & full text, Amazonian queen's sympathy for the younger woman by paper directing: Hyp[polyta] leads Herm[ia] to seat ( MND 7, interleaf facing p. 4). In Liviu Ciulei's production, the bonding takes another form. Argument? Since Hippolyta's strong personality had been developed at the play's opening, here she sneeringly laughs at guidelines, Theseus's ultimatum, a clear comment on his actions and on the irony of his earlier words to her, But I will wed thee in another key (I.i.18). More humorous in approach and less sharply disapproving is the direction in the Peter Brook prompt: All bow their heads (12a). 1812 That A Nation Thesis? Brook dramatizes the rift between Theseus and Hippolyta by having them exit to guidelines for an mla research, opposite sides of the stage, pausing at doors to essay on smoking bans, look at each other. Guidelines Mla Research Paper? These twentieth-century directors found their cues in the text and responded, not with excision but with a new awareness of the play's subtlety and of the possibilities that staging might permit.

If Hermia's tragic fate is briefly understood by Hippolyta, the play quickly moves back to the world of the war that forged, comedy as the for an mla research paper, two lovers left alone on media, stage not only guidelines paper bemoan their fate but also engage in a conversation in which neither is research essay, hearing what the mla research, other says. Comforting his love, Lysander cites historical parallels of similarly fated lovers; Hermia, not listening, overflows with anger and frustration: Lys The course of true love never did run smooth; But either it was different in blood— He begins, but she interrupts: Alternating lines, they continue: Lys Or else misgraffed in respect of years— Her O spite! Too old to be engaged to young!

Lys Or else it stood upon the choice of friends— Her O hell! To choose love by another's eyes! The stichomythic pattern of the duet captures the intensity of the essay outline, lovers' feelings, but also the humor of their reactions as each finds solace from a different verbal outpouring. Nevertheless, the guidelines mla research, exchange disappeared from acting texts for over a hundred years. 12 Although the excision at first seems inexplicable, George Bernard Shaw's comments on outsourcing case, an Augustin Daly production offer a partial answer. Unaware of how much Daly's version owed to his predecessors, and indignant over his mauling of the guidelines for an mla research, text, Shaw attributes the excision to Daly's uncomfortableness with Hermia's Oh hell, then notes the essay bans, impact of the cuts.

Humorously he writes: Mr. Daly, shocked, as an guidelines mla research American and the war that an Irishman, at a young lady using such an expression as Oh hell! cuts out the whole antiphony, and leaves Lysander to deliver a long lecture without interruption from the lady. ( Our Theatres, I, 180-81) This long lecture without interruption also further denies audiences the partial portrait, later to be developed, of Hermia. Unsurprisingly, the lines disappeared from the guidelines for an, Garrick-Colman and Reynolds operatic versions since these works concentrated on songs loosely connected with one another by speeches, rather than on short exchanges. But the absence of Hermia's frustrated expression from the later stage versions is surprising.

13. Was her Oh hell too forthright for the sensibilities of all those audiences, as Shaw implied in blaming Daly? A glance at the Variorum, strong in coursework, nineteenth-century criticism, suggests other, literary reasons, as well. Guidelines For An Mla Research? Coleridge, for on smoking bans, example writes: There is no authority for any alteration,—but I never can help feeling how great an improvement it would be, if the mla research, two former of Hermia's exclamations were omitted—the third and only appropriate one would then become a beauty, and essay outline most natural. (Coleridge [101], quoted in the Variorum, 18)

Rather than denigrating that last line with its Oh hell, Coleridge praises it. Obviously, Hermia's annoyed exclamations bothered him more than the simple comment on for an mla research paper, the unfairness of choosing love by another's eyes. School? Less generously, Halliwell, another critic of the time, believed Lysander's speech would be improved by the omission of all of Hermia's interpolations (18). Moreover, to guidelines paper, support his opinion, he cited the editions of Dodd and successful Planche which actually deleted Hermia's lines. 14 Once again, as so often happens, literary criticism correlates with contemporaneous staging. Why did her short speeches offend so? Was Lysander's single uninterrupted speech more appropriate?

But then how could his speech help project Hermia's personality as it does in the original exchange? Stylistically, those clipped single lines suggest the exasperation and intensity of the young woman we are to meet later on in the guidelines for an mla research paper, forest. Moreover, the patter, or duet, of these two lovers complements the long heavy speeches of Egeus and complete & theses Theseus, taking us back into the comic, romantic world of the paper, play. As critics have often noted, conflict between father and daughter arises here as it does in so many other of Shakespeare's plays, and argument essay on smoking here too the strength of the daughter is created by showing her resistence to her father's pressure; her lines in this duet are important. For An Mla Research Paper? Shaw's review of Daly's production suggests a further effect of the alternating lines spoken by research the two star-crossed lovers; he believes the guidelines mla research, alternating pattern sets the whole scene throbbing with their absorption in one another (133).

It also explodes with their differing responses to the same situation. Although a strong, self-confident, if frustrated, young woman emerges through the language here, not all of her lines reinforce this portrait. The War That Forged Thesis? In fact, her subsequent speech advises, Then let us teach our trial patience (152). Between her two speeches, she has listened to guidelines paper, Lysander's litany of lovers who, throughout history, have faced problems. In the cut acting texts I have examined, the line advising patience always remains.

What a different Hermia we experience. The War A Nation Thesis? The language has been modulated, the mla research, humor of the research essay, exchange lost, and the outspoken young woman tempered. Artistically, too, a change occurs. No verbal echoes will sound for the audience when, a few lines later, Hermia and her best friend, Helena, indulge in for an, a similar pattern of alternating lines. Media? Nor will the audience hear how their conversation mimics and yet differs from that of the lovers. The repetition of the pattern, comic in its shift of topic, also defines and guidelines mla research contrasts the young women.

Helena pines for Demetrius. Hermia would most willingly relinquish him. Unlike the abi/inform complete + dissertations text, earlier duet, this one concentrates on each young woman's attitude towards Demetrius. Rhyming couplets mark their exchange of for an mla research, confidences, and again acting texts excise: Her. I frown upon him; yet he loves me still. Hel. O that your frowns would teach my smiles such skill! Her. I give him curses; yet he gives me love.

Hel. O that my prayers could such affection move! Her. The more I hate, the more he follows me. Hel. The more I love, the more he hateth me. Differing in their appeal to Demetrius, the women differ in case, their sense of self, Hermia confident with two adoring males, Helena disconsolate that the for an mla research paper, youth she loves has eyes only for her friend.

Physically they differ too: Hermia being small and dark, at one point called puppet (III.ii.286), dwarfish (295), and an Ethiop (257); Helena being tall and lanky—a painted may-pole (296). She is also probably fair. Throughout this scene, Hermia exhibits a sardonic sense of humor, not only in her exclamations after her father leaves with Theseus, but even in complete + dissertations theses text, her exchanges with her less confident friend. For An Paper? And once again, some texts delete Hermia's attempt to on smoking, console her friend: Before the time I did Lysander see, Seem'd Athens as a Paradise to me; O then, what graces in my love do dwell,

That he hath turn'd a heaven unto a hell! Although meant to emphasize the problems Hermia faces, the lines referring to Lysander's graces making Athens a hell also have a built-in irony. Surely a lover's graces should turn a hell into heaven rather than the opposite. Although differing from mla research paper, Theseus's comment to Hippolyta on altering their relationship from excombatants to lovers, Hermia's words here suggest a similarly thin and tenuous line between heaven and hell, springing from love. Of the exchange, Samuel Johnson wrote:

Perhaps every reader may not discover the propriety of these lines. Hermia is willing to comfort Helena, and to avoid all appearance of triumph over her. She therefore bids her not to consider the power of & full text, pleasing, as an advantage to be much envied or much desired, since Hermia, whom she considers as possessing it in the supreme degree, has found no other effect of it than the loss of happiness. (Johnson, The Plays, 1:98) The comment also appears in a footnote in the Phelps promptbook (MND 13, 314). Since this was an 1805 printed text used for an 1861 production, it suggests that the lines were not only challenging in the eighteenth century but continued to be relevant in the nineteenth. When they disappear, as often occurs, they erase a problem for interpreters, but also an insight into Hermia's capacity for humor and sympathy. To further comfort Helena, Hermia and Lysander reveal their secret plan to escape Athens. In soliloquy at for an mla research paper, the scene's close, Helena confesses her response. She will divulge the news of coursework, their flight to Demetrius, hoping to win his favor.

Bemoaning her fate in guidelines for an mla research paper, rhymed couplets, she begins: How happy some o'er other some can be! Through Athens I am thought as fair as she, But what of that? Demetrius thinks not so; Love looks not with the eyes but with the mind; And therefore is wing'd Cupid painted blind. But Helena does not think herself as fair as Hermia. Thus this reference to Cupid suggests a rather confused young woman.

Continuing for twenty-six lines, the soliloquy ranges from analyses of love to complete &, a discussion of Hermia's strengths to a lament for the speaker's own plight: For ere Demetrius look'd on Hermia's eyne, He hail'd down oaths that he was only guidelines for an mla research paper mine; She therefore resolves, I will go tell him of media, fair Hermia's flight (246), expecting a kind response. Here too excisions mar the paper, portrait. Sometimes the lines are absent from printed acting versions; sometimes sections are crossed out or blocked for cutting. Argument Essay On Smoking Bans? 16 As a result only the bare plot outline of this section remains, subtleties in mla research, characterization being lost. Later, in the forest, the dramatist further develops the young women's personalities. Research? There the popular Hermia, speaking with confidence, gently reprimands her lover, while the rejected Helena subjects herself to further humiliation, frustratingly following the man she loves. Hermia's reprimand comes after long and fruitless traveling through the woods with Lysander. Escaping Theseus's ultimatum, they seek refuge with the guidelines for an, young man's aunt, beyond the range of Athens' law.

Weary with wandering, Hermia would rest; Lysander then admits he has lost his way in the enchanted forest: We'll rest us, Hermia, if you think it good, And tarry for the comfort of the day. Appreciating the abi/inform complete & full, idea, she then counters: Be't so, Lysander.

Find you out a bed; For I upon this bank will rest my head. But he would have it otherwise. In fact, the lines indicate the action that has just occurred on stage as she chooses her sleeping site. A minidebate then ensues: Lys. One turf shall serve as pillow for us both, One heart, one bed, two bosoms, and guidelines mla research one troth. Her. Nay, good Lysander; for my sake, my dear,

Lie further off yet; do not lie so near. The adapters once again cut. Garrick's abbreviated musical version provides a record of the 1812 that, cuts in this speech, and, to some extent, sets the pattern for what subsequently occurred. The first eight lines of the exchange between the guidelines for an, couple are retained (lines 35-42), followed by a duet (25). Media? Then come lines not Shakespeare's, but believed to be composed by Garrick, which appear in a handwritten insert ( MND 6). 17 In that version Hermia exhibits proper womanly fear: Now my Lysander, on that bank repose, That if perchance my woman's fears shou'd seek. Protection in thy love and brav'ry, I may not call on love and thee in vain.

( MND 6, insert 21; Garrick, 25) Lysander responds with the promise of protective care. The Garrick lines also appear in guidelines for an, the Reynolds printed text ( MND 8, 18). Later the pattern of excision continues although without the new, added material. The musical Reynolds version ( MND 8, 18) contains no hint of her asking him to move.

In most staged versions, however, her request that he find another bed meets simple acquiescence. Usually gone are his lines One turf shall serve as pillow for media coursework, us both / One heart, one bed, two bosoms, and one troth (41-42) along with his attempt to convince her of the reasonableness of his proposal. Gone too is Hermia's perceptive Lysander riddles very prettily. . Guidelines Mla Research Paper? . . Outline? / But, gentle friend, for love and courtesy, / Lie further off, in humane modesty (53, 56-57). 18 Amusing, her response in Shakespeare's play highlights her realistic awareness of the mla research, physical attraction between lovers. Their debate is reminiscent of Juliet's What satisfaction canst thou have to-night? ( Romeo and Juliet, II.ii.126) when Romeo protests, O, wilt thou leave me so unsatisfied (125). In both cases, the dramatist suggests that confidence in the loyalty of her lover does not blur each young woman's recognition of the essay, reality of the sexual drive. Unlike Hermia, her friend Helena nurtures no such fear. Mla Research Paper? Groveling for school, some affection, she trails Demetrius. I love thee not; therefore pursue me not (188), he dictates.

But Helena, like Emilia in Othello so many plays later, has divulged the secret of Hermia and Lysander's flight in guidelines for an, order to win a boon: I am your spaniel; and, Demetrius, The more you beat me, I will fawn on you. Use me but as your spaniel; spurn me, strike me, Neglect me, lose me; only abi/inform + dissertations full give me leave, Unworthy as I am, to follow you.

Nor do Demetrius's threats to her virginity (217-19) bother her. Rather they allow her to guidelines for an, assert her confidence in his character. On Smoking? But those lines along with Helena's reply beginning Your virtue is my privilege (220-26) and then her Run when you will . . . (230-34) disappear from the stage in many promptbooks. 19. By cutting Helena's lines here and elsewhere, those versions tended to obscure the perceptiveness of mla research, Shakespeare's sketch of a young woman who is filled with self-doubt and self-hatred. 20 In fact, Shakespeare's insight here, although theatrically developed and placed in a comedic setting, has a contemporary counterpart in complete full text, Kate Millett's more serious analysis of the lack of self-love that flourishes in women and minorities. She describes this as. group self-hatred and self-rejection, a contempt both for herself and for mla research paper, her fellows—the result of that continual, however subtle, reiteration of her inferiority which she eventually accepts as a fact. (56) Helena appears to essay on smoking, have internalized this attitude.

In an excellent essay on guidelines for an mla research paper, the play, David Marshall asks a relevant question concerning Helena. Are we to forged a nation, be pleased by the success of Helena's subjection of herself? (548), he wonders, challenging the idea that this is one of Shakespeare's happiest comedies. 21 Actually, by the time we reach this section of the play we become aware of the various ways in which the women have been dominated by men—bridegroom, father, ruler, and rejecting suitor. However, we have not yet met the strongest and seemingly freest woman character in A Midsummer Night's Dream: Titania, the fairy queen, who so delights us at mla research, her first entrance and later raises questions about argument essay bans, women's roles. Is she the victim of male power, male irrationality, trickery, or jealousy? Is she merely a fairy? Or does she illuminate the feelings and attitudes of women reacting to guidelines paper, dominating male behavior?

At its opening, act 2 stresses the conflict between her and argument on smoking bans Oberon, the guidelines for an, fairy king. Quickly we learn the source of their dissension: control over an Indian boy at the time in her possession but desperately desired by Oberon. Representatives of successful studies, king and queen, Puck and a fairy quickly sketch in the conflict, each hoping the other party will relinquish the field. But room, fairy! here comes Oberon (II.i.58), announces Puck. And here my mistress.

Would that he were gone! (59) retorts the guidelines paper, fairy. And then, king and queen enter. Do they make a grand entry from high school, either side of the stage, magically from the air, with a train of followers, or simply alone? The scene has allowed for a tremendous range of interpretations, some concentrating on the two principals, some surrounding them with troops of followers, many including the Indian Prince. Nonexistent in the play and guidelines mla research paper seeming to essay outline, symbolize Oberon's drive for dominance over Titania—or perhaps his jealousy of her—the prince materializes into guidelines mla research paper an actual character. Not listed in the dramatis personae, he takes on a life of his own in successful outsourcing case, nineteenth- and early twentieth-century productions, including the Reinhardt film. Although mystery surrounds him in the text—we don't know his age, his size, or his exact identity, except as he is described variously by Puck, Titania, and Oberon—he acquires theatrical substance on stage, frequently wearing a turban or carried in on a golden cushion.

22. Suggesting the importance of this character to the relationship between the fairy king and queen are the stage directions written in guidelines for an, pencil on abi/inform & text, the interleave to Kean's prompt: Fairies enter dancing round Titania. 2 Bodies of guidelines for an mla research paper, Oberon's Train, — enter separately, . . . then 2 parties of Titania 's — chorus first, who make an avenue of boughs, then a second troop of smaller fairies trip down through them, — on tiptoes — and run back thro avenue, — down L[eft] then round avenue and follow Titania with Indian Boy tripping down through avenue, — Oberon entering same time down slote, R[ight] (MND 9, interleaf facing p. 21). In another production, a dance of twelve fairies precedes Titania's entry in argument essay bans, a car drawn by swans and accompanied by the Indian Prince. Paralleling their entry, Oberon descends to meet them ( MND 20, verso of interleaf facing p. 12). A sketch indicates the placement of fairies, with Titania, Oberon, and the Prince at center front. The presence of an for an mla research paper actual prince also allows the director editorial commentary as he emphasizes the different functions of men and women, father and high school mother. Thus Titania is usually portrayed in a maternal relationship with that young child whereas Oberon is presented as giving the youth space and training for manhood. Consider, for example, the Reinhardt film where the young prince is practically smothered by attention from Titania's fairies and elves whereas later he is free to accompany Oberon.

Even in for an mla research, criticism, this reference to the prince colors the perspective. C.L. Barber, for example, writing of Titania's later development, considers her giving up of the child as a maturing process. But one may question whether or not it is the successful outsourcing case, child, as an mla research paper actual person, or the symbolic importance of the debate between Titania and argument on smoking bans Oberon and its later outcome that is really at issue in guidelines mla research, the play especially since the prince's exclusion from the text helps stress the equality between king and queen. Before turning to their actual verbal sparring, I want to media coursework, cite other theatrical factors that further vitiated the guidelines for an mla research paper, strength of the debate, attracting eyes to the stage and ears to the music rather than attention to the words. I refer to the persistence of experience, lavish musical accompaniments to productions. Mla Research? In fact, whether it was coincidence or not, the mid-nineteenth-century productions—beginning with that of Elizabeth Vestris and Charles Mathews in 1840, which included Mendelssohn's music—were highly successful and included more of the text than had previously appeared on stage. Discussing that production, one commentator suggested, It would be an unpardonable mistake to any future performances .. . to omit . Media? . . Mendelssohn's music ( MND. *NCP 18—, p. 6). 23 In Reinhardt's film, fairies, accompanied by the orchestral sounds of Mendelssohn's music, dance in on a cloud that spirals around a tree. Later productions, like that of the famous Old Vic Company in 1954 that featured Robert Helpmann and Moira Shearer, both professional dancers, as Oberon and Titania, also testify to the pervasiveness of a musical tradition and the emphasis on dance for guidelines, the two principal fairies. . Essay Outline? . . Finally, along with the music and the young prince, one stage property worked its magic on the audience: the mushroom from which Puck eventually emerged.

The young Ellen Terry as Puck, for guidelines mla research, example, lay hidden in such a mushroom in Kean's production, springing into view as the mushroom rose. Following Kean's lead, Daly's Puck, hidden by a mushroom, was discovered when a fairy's wand brushed a plant (1888, MND 5, p. 32). Featuring complex machinery, Burton's production too had Puck spring from a mushroom that rose from the war forged a nation, a trap then sank back down ( MND 21, p. 15 and for an facing interleaf). 24 The rival Barry production featured a different but equally enticing, entry for Puck: A romantic Landscape, through which is seen a stream of water. (By moonlight.) A bush in the c[enter]. MUSIC — A troop of Fairies are discovered grouped. Abi/inform Complete + Dissertations & Full? A Fairy touches the bush with her wand, it opens and Puck comes out; the bush disappears through the guidelines, stage. Supplementing this text, the directions on experience high school, the interleaf specifically place Puck inside the flower piece which then changes to a peacock. Accompanied by music, the first fairy trips on from [the side entrance] . . . round the flower waving the wand. The flower opens and discovers Puck in guidelines mla research, a Peacock Car (with wand).

More music sounds as Puck descends from the car. Eventually, a trap bell rings, the flower closes then descends into a trap (interleaf facing p. 11). I cite these extensive productions because they characterize what occurred on outsourcing, stage once the fuller text was presented. Whether this was because of the accompaniment of Mendelssohn's music or because the combination of the text with that music appealed so strongly to Victorians we do not know. Clearly, however, language and the verbal conflicts between men and women characters, whether fairy or not, were overshadowed by for an mla research paper productions. Nor do the many references to a full text, as in the case of Phelps's production, which boasted of having omitted only three hundred lines, alter the essay experience high school, general impression of the acted play. If these varied staged versions seemed to promise new perspectives, they failed to deliver; they still concentrated on the magic and guidelines wistfulness of the dream. Moreover, extant promptbooks testify to a disproportionate number of excisions of abi/inform complete + dissertations theses full, lines that blur Shakespeare's portrayal of the inequities that women faced whether in the real or unreal fairy world. For it is in guidelines for an paper, the unreal world of the fairies that the argument essay bans, dramatist most clearly questions the patriarchal structure.

Despite the extravagance of their entrances in different productions, Oberon's and Titania's opening lines sound more like those of humans than of guidelines for an paper, fairies or otherworldly beings: Ill met by complete theses moonlight, proud Titania (60), asserts proud Oberon. We then encounter the queen of the fairies whom Shakespeare has endowed with dramatic and evocative poetry. Unlike the other women thus far presented, Titania has a sure sense of self-worth and guidelines for an an independence of spirit. Hippolyta was presented as defeated but enigmatic, Hermia as a challenge to the rules of her society, and Helena as a self-doubting person, questioning her own worth. But in Titania Shakespeare offers a portrait of media, a queen, someone reliant on no one but herself for her power. Her answer to Oberon in her opening lines rings with contemporaneity: What, jealous Oberon? Fairies, skip hence— I have forsworn his bed and company. Why need a fairy assert she has forsworn another fairy's bed? Since when do fairies discuss such mundane matters?

Moreover, Oberon carries the discussion one step further by for an mla research clarifying their relationship with one another: Am not I thy lord? (63) he asks. Then I must be thy lady (64) she asserts before accusing him of infidelity with various women. In his recent book Road to Divorce: England 1530-1987, Lawrence Stone notes that until recently—but particularly in the early period covered by this book—all women of childbearing age were in a state of constant anxiety about their bodies. They worried about whether they were pregnant (8) and coursework about such things as the possibility of dying in childbirth, of coming to mla research, term, and of having a well child. Titania, being a fairy, has no such worry although her conflict with Oberon has to do with the child of a mortal who died in childbirth. His mother was a vot'ress of my order (123), explains Titania. Media Coursework? For her sake do I rear up the boy; / And for paper, her sake I will not part with him (136-37). Moreover, in recent studies of essay experience school, women's writings of the period, we become aware not only of women's quest for divorce and of the mla research paper, problems they faced in confronting their husbands but also of the real fears attending childbirth (Otten).

Titania's opening lines to argument on smoking, Oberon may well have had specific resonances for Shakespeare's audience. The phrase separation from bed and board was applied at the time to a legitimate form of divorce, whether as'de facto' grants of permission to remarry or merely following church ordinance that allowed a form of divorce but forbade remarriages (Stone, L., 304). Although Titania, of course, had no particular plans to remarry, her language mimics that of the for an paper, time, with, however, a twist—an assertion of her rights vis-a-vis an adulterous husband. Nor does Oberon's listing of her less-than-faithful exploits affect her decision to foreswear his bed and company. According to Stone, the pattern changed in the 1640s and 50s, which may explain an altered reaction to this section of text. He writes: The 1640s and 1650s were a period of disorganization and institutional chaos in outsourcing case, the church. The ecclesiastical courts ceased to for an mla research, function in the early 1640s and in 1646 church control over marriage was abolished, authority being shifted in theory to secular authorities. But the bulk of the population seems either to have found ways to be married clandestinely by essay school the old rituals of the Church of England, or were married by non-conformist clergy of guidelines for an mla research paper, their own religious persuasion, or reverted to marriages by verbal contract. As a result of this confusion, when the research outline, ecclesiastical courts were restored in 1660 they found themselves faced with an unprecedented torrent of petitions for separation which had been pent up for guidelines, over a decade. (308) Interestingly, what Shakespeare is doing here is using the vocabulary of research, divorce without presenting the mla research, actual situation.

Moreover, unlike the usual separation between husband and research essay wife of the time, this separation is instituted by the wife. The dramatist then interweaves the experience of mortals, specifically women, with that of the fairy queen. During the nineteenth century, the line referring to bed and company was often deleted. It disappeared from the Charles Kean printed text ( MND 9) and mla research was crossed through in the Beerbohm Tree prompt ( MND 7). Experience High School? On the other hand, Garrick and Colman retained this line ( MND 19) although slashing so much material on either side to make room for guidelines mla research, musical airs that the line's implications probably had little effect on essay, the audience.

In that text, the accusations by fairy king and queen refer merely to their specific favorites within the context of this play—Titania's preference for Theseus and Oberon's for the bouncing Amazon (70). However, Titania's full speeches, although couched in fairy terms, offer insights into the imperfect relationship between men and women. Describing the mla research, conflict between her and Oberon, she begins by mentioning jealousy: These are the forgeries of jealousy; And never, since the middle summer's spring,

Met we on hill, in dale, forest, or mead, By paved fountain or by rushy brook. Or in the beached margent of the sea, To dance our ringlets to media, the whistling wind, But with thy brawls thou hast disturb'd our sport. The speech continues for thirty-six lines, but has usually been reduced to six, or even four. For An? The remnant simply accuses Oberon of disturbing the gatherings of the fairies with his brawls whenever the 1812, two have met (87). As critics have frequently noted, the speech gives us a sense of Titania's breadth and for an paper sensitivity, connecting her with an Eden or a classical world of the gods, or even with nature deities of rustic sixteenth-century England. She refers to the effect of the successful outsourcing case, dissension between her and guidelines paper Oberon on the elements, The ox hath . Case? . . stretched his yoke in vain, / The plowman lost his sweat . . . For An Mla Research Paper? / The fold stands empty in the drowned field / And crows are fatted with the murrion flock (93-97). Internal rhyme, the repetition of sounds, and the development of images characterize the pattern.

Her concern for the maintenance of the successful studies, rhythms in guidelines paper, the animal world extends to the human world as well. She decries the successful case studies, effect of their arguments on the normal flow of the mla research paper, seasons and on human life. The human mortals want their winter here; No night is now with hymn or carol blest. . . The spring, the summer. The childing autumn, angry winter, change.

Their wonted liveries; and school the mazed world. By their increase, now knows not which is which. Images of nature's gifts and paper blights vie with one another, investing her speech with cosmic concerns beyond merely trading accusations with Oberon. When, later, she explains why she will not relinquish the research essay outline, child, she describes his mother, with whom she laughed and guidelines for an mla research gossip'd. 25 Titania's lines—we have laugh'd to see the sails conceive / And grow big-bellied with the theses text, wanton wind (128-29)—suggestively describe the pregnant woman herself. They too disappear, the mla research paper, verbal inferences coming too close to nature, pregnancy, and women's physical appearance. Complete Theses Full Text? 26 Whittling down the guidelines paper, lines narrows this portrait of Titania; she then more closely parallels Oberon who in outline, this section has only brief comments. 27 Her short complaint about his disturbing their games is countered by his insistent query Why should Titania cross her Oberon? / I do but beg a little changeling boy, / To be my henchman (119-21). Reinhardt's film cuts even further. For An Mla Research? None of coursework, Titania's lines remain except her response to Oberon's request for mla research, the changeling boy: Set your heart at research essay, rest; / The fairy land buys not the child of guidelines for an, me (121-22).

The scene's focus changes to the Indian boy. Even when they retain practically all of the text, however, productions may alter the power of Titania's lines by stage directions, as did Peter Brook's in the wonderfully unisex-looking work. The performance had an exuberance and originality that captivated audiences. It also captured some of the research essay outline, attitudes of the 1960s and 1970s, as a glance at the Authorized Acting Edition testifies, raising questions about the Oberon-Titania relationship that one might even have missed in watching the play. Here, for example, is a detailed description of what went on during this scene of their first meeting which begins with Titania's crossing down stage center and kneeling (23a) before Oberon when she refers to their brawls. Guidelines For An? Later during the speech, Oberon goes down behind Titania (23a) and, as the directions continue, she gets up, hands out. Oberon puts hands around her waist with wand (24a). In talking about the hoary headed frosts she puts her hands over Oberon's. Outsourcing? And at guidelines mla research, the lines and the mazed world / by their increase now know not which is which (24b) the essay high, stage direction reads, Oberon's hands on for an mla research, Titania's breasts, with wand. Media? Titania's arms out (24a). As the scene continues, one sees more of physical sexual interaction between them until finally at her decision not to give him the boy, she pushes Oberon away.

The interpretation seems unrelated to the language but rather offers a subtext contradicting her assertive speeches. The comments accompanying the promptbook offer a partial explanation of this treatment of guidelines for an, Titania. Brook had chosen to double the roles of Titania/Hippolyta and the war that a nation thesis Oberon/Theseus. Alan Howard, who played Oberon/Theseus, discusses the point of view towards the relationship between his roles and the joint Titania/Hippolyta role: At the for an paper, beginning of the play, Theseus/Oberon is worried about the media coursework, moon being gone and that his desires are, in consequence, bottled up. And Hippolyta/Titania says: Don't worry.

Another moon will come in. For An Mla Research Paper? Wait, and it will all be fine again. Her kind of intensity is toward her knowledge of herself as a woman . . Coursework? . in terms of whatever it is that women do that men don't . Theseus/Oberon has somehow got to explain his case. (41, emphasis added) Howard's comment indicates a perception of Titania as inexplicable other although her language clearly expresses her dismay at the destructiveness of their conflict. Guidelines Mla Research? Oberon simply isn't listening. What is exciting about the play, however, is the way Shakespeare seems to essay, be applying what he has been hearing, or observing, in the real world to this fantasy couple, embedding a contemporaneity within an otherworldly framework. Paper? 28. After her departure, Oberon vows, Thou shalt not from this grove / Till I torment thee for this injury (146-47), indicating a vindictiveness as well as a desire to exert power over research essay, her. And here, perhaps because of the implication of equality suggested first by the conversation between the fairy and guidelines for an mla research paper Puck and media coursework later by the confrontation between Oberon and Titania, we are unprepared for the trick he plays on her.

Shakespeare's audience, however, may well have expected it, since Titania was behaving like the rebellious, dominant, independent wife who, according to Stone, might be breaking the code of the guidelines for an mla research paper, social group concerning sexual or power relations within the family (3). Thus a husband-beating wife, a passively henpecked husband, a couple married despite gross disparities in age, a cuckold, an adulterous wife . Outsourcing Studies? . . were all liable to be treated to . . . humiliating demonstrations of public disapproval (3). Titania suffers just such a humiliating demonstration later on when she falls in love with the first thing that she sees upon awakening, a mortal with an ass's head—the translated Bottom. By endowing the situation with such human qualities and giving Titania wonderful lines, however, the dramatist may also be questioning the justice of guidelines for an mla research paper, Oberon's action especially where he seems to be motivated by revenge. When he directs Puck to fetch the magic herb called love-in-idleness (II.i.168), the fairy king explains: The juice of it on sleeping eyelids laid. Will make or man or woman madly dote. Upon the next live creature that it sees. He will squeeze the research, juice into her eyes and guidelines for an mla research paper eventually defeat the play's most independent woman.

In the complex interweaving of plots, he will also, almost casually, exercise his power benevolently. Although some critics have perceived Oberon as an even-handed ruler who insists on establishing a certain kind of obedience to essay high, his rule, his actions here seem arbitrary and tinged with jealousy. For An Paper? When later on he acts more generously towards Helena, attempting to change her fate from that of cast-off woman to desired one, Oberon's actions seem to come almost as an afterthought to high school, his more driven desire for revenge on paper, Titania. Having sent Puck on his way, Oberon, alone in the forest, sees Demetrius and Helena approaching. 1812 The War That? 1 am invisible, he announces to for an, his audience, as Hamlet's and Banquo's ghosts do not; rather on-stage characters provide the clues to the emptiness of the space even while the 1812 the war that forged, invisible character appears on stage.

Alan Dessen discusses the guidelines for an paper, implications of this not seeing or blindness of argument bans, characters on stage as often metaphoric for the blindness or inability of the characters on stage to see and for an mla research paper understand (130-55). Here, however, Shakespeare denies us this metaphor by having Oberon proclaim his invisibility. The dramatist, skilled in embedding stage directions in high school, his text, chooses, instead, to characterize Oberon through this more direct statement, possibly with the aim of literalizing him, just as the mechanicals, later on, so carefully literalize their actions. Observing Helena trailing Demetrius, the fairy king reacts with sympathy to her plight; he would have Demetrius sue for her love. The magic herb holds the guidelines for an, key.

What are we to make of Oberon's reaction here? If Titania is aggressive in complete + dissertations theses, rejecting him, Helena is aggressive in pursuing Demetrius. Ironically, Oberon, who would have the fairy queen exhibit the kind of self-abasement practiced by Helena, expresses great sympathy for the mortal woman and later sends Puck to for an paper, find the Athenians while the fairy king himself will anoint Titania's eyes. In one of the four calls for music in A Midsummer Night's Dream, a play usually drenched in music on stage, she has just been lulled to sleep by her fairy troop. Come, now a roundel and a fairy song. . . . sing me now asleep (II.ii.1,7), Titania directs, becoming vulnerable to Oberon's scheme. Meanwhile, Puck, having sought Athenians in the forest and found only the sleeping Hermia and essay school Lysander, squeezes the magic juice into paper the eyes of the wrong man. Now Helena, the rejected Helena, is forced to face a new role—that of the chosen one, the pursued one, when Lysander, upon being awakened, expresses his undying love for complete + dissertations & full text, her. This is difficult for a woman whose self-image has already been shaped. Speaking in soliloquy moments before his sudden and inexplicable pursuit, she weighs her virtues and strengths and finds them nonexistent. She compares herself first with Hermia then indulges in close self-analysis:

How came her eyes so bright? Not with salt tears; If so, my eyes are oft'ner wash'd than hers. No, no; I am as ugly as a bear; For beasts that meet me run away for fear.

Therefore no marvel though Demetrius. Do, as a monster, fly my presence thus. Helena doesn't like what she sees. Although the guidelines for an paper, speech continues developing her profile, it too, like so many earlier speeches by experience the women, frequently loses its subtlety and color through excision. 29 Only two lines remain; they function as a bridge between her self-hatred and her discovery of Lysander. The full speech, however, explains her astonishment at his actions, and her inability to guidelines, find any excuse for them. Lacking any sense of self-worth, she is outline, bewildered. The play, however, provides a rationale. According to Lysander, one needs maturity to appreciate Helena's worth. Reason must be the guide:

The will of man is by his reason sway'd; And reason says you are the worthier maid. He then expands on this, explaining, Things growing are not ripe until their season, / so I, being young, till now ripe not to guidelines, reason (117-18). The scene also permits the abi/inform theses full, dramatist to differentiate further between the two young women because even in guidelines for an paper, these mere sketches, he assigns specific qualities to each. But once again major chunks of text are cut for the stage, eliminating all but the media coursework, most obvious differences—the women's varying appeals to men. For An Paper? 30. Illustrating the effectiveness of the magic juice, the brief scene between Helena and Lysander in its complete form anticipates the sharp reaction Titania will experience. Because so much criticism has interpreted the fairy queen's later actions when under the juice's spell as truly representative of essay experience high school, her underlying feelings, one could test the guidelines mla research, validity of such a theory by applying it to successful outsourcing, Lysander, the first to be transformed. Does he really mean it when, responding to Helena's reminder of his love for Hermia, he refers to mla research, his former love scornfully as the media, surfeit of the sweetest things (137) and undesirable? Since he later returns to her, one must believe that this is merely his manner of coping, under the spell's influence.

Although some critics consider Oberon's potion a symbol of love, as it applies to for an mla research, Titania it appears to be more a symbol of power, or at least of revenge for her failure to release the child. Research? In direct response to her unwillingness to acquiesce to his demand, Oberon induces the guidelines for an paper, spell: The next thing then she waking looks upon. (Be it on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull, On meddling monkey, or on busy ape), She shall pursue it with the soul of media coursework, love.

No handsome youth or prince charming but rather a list of animals is intended as her fate. For An Mla Research Paper? In fact some promptbooks—for the 1856 [MND 9] and Tree 1900 [MND 7] productions—excise these references to animals. In Garrick's production, she is never seen enamor'd of an ass (IV.i.77). Instead, the audience must rely on 1812 that, Puck's report: My mistress with a patched fool is in love. Near to her close and consecrated bower. This clown with others had rehearsed a play. Intended for great Theseus' nuptial day. When, starting from her bank of mossy down, Titania waked, and straightway loved the clown.

(III.i.2-7; Garrick in Pedicord, III:176) References to the ass have disappeared; the paper, substitute terms patched fool and 1812 forged thesis clown soften Titania's fate. Through the complex interweaving of mla research, plot strands in which fairies, tradesmen, and high-born characters from the world of Athens intermingle, Shakespeare can raise questions about research essay outline, women's roles. The dramatist draws on the third group, the mechanicals, for for an mla research, the ass who will humiliate, humble, and subdue the fairy queen. Entering the outline, enchanted forest to rehearse their play, Pyramus and for an Thisbe, these comic characters, hoping to perform before the Duke on his wedding day, inadvertently participate in Oberon's trickery. Reacting variously to the idea of performing—some with trepidation about learning the words, others protesting assignment of their roles—one in the group plunges into the adventure. He would play every role.

Quickly we become acquainted with Nick Bottom, the weaver, who would shout like a bear and weep like a woman. High School? He will, eventually, bray like an mla research paper ass, a role not in their skit, but one he will take on in his unexpected adventure with the fairy queen. Doomed to awaken when some vile thing is outline, near whom she will take for her love, Titania hears the braying Bottom—anointed with an ass's head by Puck—and marvels at his musicality. She finds his music beautiful and his person appealing. But then she has been blinded by Oberon's magic spell.

In the Ciulei production, she reacts to that juice by screaming as if hit by lightning. Few productions, however, dramatize the evil inherent in this type of magic. Rather, they concentrate on Bottom and, salaciously, the humor of Titania's plight. More than anywhere else, it is in the effect of guidelines for an mla research, Oberon's trick on Titania, however, that one feels the tragedy for the women and the insights the dramatist gives us into the ways in which patriarchy manipulates women's options. This is particularly true when Titania continues to perceive herself as in control and powerful. Outline? During her first meeting with Bottom, the paper, enchanted Titania praises his wisdom as well as beauty and musical skill, declaring that she loves him. When he wants only to leave the wood, she warns: Out of that forged thesis, this wood do not desire to go; Thou shalt remain here, whether thou wilt or no. I am a spirit of no common rate; The summer still doth tend upon my state.

The lines underscore the guidelines mla research, ironic contrast between her perception of outsourcing case studies, herself and her actual situation. Like Lysander, she is trying to cope. Some versions eliminate her reference to power: whether thou wilt or no. For An Mla Research Paper? In many texts, her whole last speech, beginning Come wait upon him; lead him to my bower, is excised. 1812 The War Forged Thesis? Thus audiences do not know that she entertains him in for an mla research paper, her bower, or that the moon, when she weeps, weeps every little flower, / Lamenting some enforced chastity (199-200). Complete + Dissertations & Theses Full? As a result, the full implication of Oberon's trick on Titania is guidelines mla research paper, lost to the audience.

31. Sometimes a critic will overlook Oberon's role, concentrating instead on abi/inform + dissertations theses text, the effect of the magic potion on Titania. Jan Kott, for example, not only guidelines for an mla research stresses the eroticism and harshness embedded in the text but also translates this eroticism in terms of the fairy queen. The War That A Nation Thesis? To him, her invitation to Bottom exemplifies woman's passion and hidden desire, rather than illustrating the male (Oberon's) exercise of power. Analyzing the guidelines, staging of those scenes between Titania and Bottom, Kott also decries the tendency to research essay outline, play them for laughs rather than present them as black humor, an English kind of humour, 'humeur noir', cruel and scatological, as it often is in for an paper, Swift (228).

Most revealing, however, is Kott's final comment about the forged, scene, as he describes Titania: The slender, tender and guidelines lyrical Titania longs for animal love. Bans? Puck and Oberon call the transformed Bottom a monster. The frail and sweet Titania drags the monster to guidelines for an paper, bed, almost by force. (228) This is the effect of the magic juice.

Kott continues his male fantasy—the fantasy of women never wanting to admit to themselves that they really like being raped. Research Outline? In fact, Kott inverts this: This is the for an mla research paper, lover she wanted and dreamed off (sic); only she never wanted to admit it, even to herself. Sleep frees her from inhibitions. The monstrous ass is outline, being raped by the poetic Titania, while she still keeps on chattering about flowers. .. . Of all the characters in guidelines mla research paper, the play Titania enters to the fullest extent the dark sphere of sex where there is no more beauty and studies ugliness; there is only infatuation and liberation. Guidelines For An? (228)

Obviously to Kott, beauty and ugliness vanish before infatuation and liberation. Fuseli's eighteenth-century illustration captures much of the implied eroticism in the war forged a nation thesis, this scene although it differs in point of view from Kott's. .. . In the painting, dominated by the two major characters, a large nude male figure, topped by a donkey head with large ears and sitting crossed legged with his arms clasping his knees, is guidelines for an mla research, being caressed by Titania, her nude breast amply visible beneath the outsourcing case, outstretched arm around his head. Surrounding the guidelines paper, two are small insect-headed nude males, their penises visible, and small fairies looking like flirtatious women, their breasts seductively apparent although wearing female garb. While Fuseli indicates the eroticism in the scene, bringing in the whole forest and suggesting, too, the male appetite, Kott concentrates only on Titania, perceiving her as a voracious female. Neither acknowledges the idea of her being tricked. C. Essay School? L. For An Mla Research Paper? Barber provides a totally different perspective. To him, the Titania scenes with Bottom reveal a growing up, as I mentioned earlier: It is when the flower magic leads Titania to find a new object that she gives up the child (who goes now from her bower to the man's world of Oberon). So here is another sort of change of heart that contributes to the expression of what is consummated in marriage, this one a part of the rhythm of outline, adult life, as opposed to the change in the young lovers that goes with growing up. ( FC 137) Again the question arises of whether Titania experiences a change of heart or is victimized by Oberon and therefore no natural growth occurs, merely a change depriving her of her former sense of for an mla research paper, self. Nor does her subsequent awakening offer confidence about outline, adult life for women.

Deluded, she courts the ass-headed Bottom, taking him to her bower. Meanwhile Oberon plans his next move: I'll to my queen and beg her Indian boy; And then I will her charmed eye release. From monster's view, and all things shall be peace. But shall they be at peace? Or worse, shall Titania's spirit have been broken? In The Taming of the Shrew, Kate says, My tongue will tell the for an paper, anger of my heart / Or else my heart concealing it will break (IV.iii.77-78). Shakespeare recognizes the effect on successful outsourcing, the human heart of paper, bottling up resentment. 32 Although Titania is not human, her eloquent expression of anger early in the play leads us to expect a strong reaction when her sight is restored.

But no such response occurs. Instead, she cares neither about the Indian boy, nor the trick that has been played on her, but only about the humiliation of having been in love with an ass. Are we to think of her as resembling the nonhuman witches in outsourcing studies, Macbeth whose deeds do not upset them? Or, since so much of her speech sounds human, must we think of her as resigned to a power structure she cannot alter? After Oberon removes the spell, Titania, with great equanimity, asks: My Oberon, what visions have I seen! / Methought I was enamor'd of an ass (IV.i.76-77). Nor does Oberon try to soften the answer. There lies your love (78), he asserts, pointing to guidelines for an mla research, the transformed Bottom. In a Daly edition (1888) [ MND 5] believed to have been used for the production . . . tour of 1895-96, Oberon's There lies your love (77) is accompanied by successful case studies the stage direction sneering Puck titters (61), reinforcing a sense of Oberon's power, his delight in having played this trick on her, but more importantly, of a director's point of view.

Undoubtedly he reflected the attitudes of his time. Unfortunately, as we keep discovering, this delight in seeing a strong woman bested is not confined to a bygone age. Attempting briefly to understand, Titania asks, How came these things to guidelines mla research paper, pass? / O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now! (78-79). But Oberon offers no direct answer. Instead, he orders Puck to take off this head [the ass's head] (80). Then, continuing to exert his power over Titania, the on smoking bans, fairy king directs: Titania, music call, and strike more dead. Than common sleep of all these five the sense. She complies: Music, ho, music, such as charmeth sleep! (86). Finally, as they fly off together, she once more returns to the subject of Bottom:

Come, my lord, and in our flight, Tell me how it came this night. That I sleeping here was found, With these mortals on the ground. But we never know if she receives an answer. Although little has been written about Titania's character disintegration from a fiery, concerned fairy to a compliant partner, her change and lack of any clearly defined personality in the last scenes illustrate, on for an mla research, the one hand, the destructiveness of Oberon's action and, on the other, an successful case studies inconsistency in characterization.

Too easily the richness of her personality as well as her intensity vanish. Writing of the linguistic and guidelines paper dramatic complexities and contradictions in the play, Jay Halio observes that. [they] keep us from simplistic reductions of experienced situations, specifically the play's mirrored experiences of outsourcing case studies, reality . . . and force us out of. an artificial prison that R. P. For An Mla Research Paper? Blackmur has . described as a tendency to set artistic unity as a chief criterion of essay outline, excellence. (145) Borrowing from Halio but concentrating on how language defines and sometimes creates ambiguities concerning characters, particularly the female characters, I find in Titania either an inconsistency or a tragic transformation. Since this is a comedy one must consider the former as more likely. Examining an early nineteenth-century musical version of the play that attempts to inject sentimental logic to the Oberon-Titania relationship, reconciling the behavior of Oberon through some staging and language, one realizes that Shakespeare probably intentionally allowed the ambiguity in characterization to stand. Reynolds's 1816 version provides an for an mla research paper easy alternative. Oberon speaks: I'll to my Queen, and coursework beg her Indian boy!

Not, not so much from love of him, as her, I court this contest,—I'd put her to the trial— If she refuse, I know her love is on the wane;— But, if she yield! Ah! that she may! and for an mla research paper still— (Prompt MND 18, 8 p. 40)

Music then is played. Outline? (Clouds descend and open.—A Fairy is guidelines for an, discovered, who chaunts the following lines) Fairy. Oberon! no more despair! Titania wafts him to research outline, your care! Borne by each propitious gale, From India's shores her gallies sail. Nor storms, nor quicksands can they meet, For Zephyrs fan the Fairy fleet! And silv'ry seas the treasure bear,— The Boy!—The Indian Boy is near! (Clouds begin to ascend again.)

This finale of act 2 in for an mla research paper, the Reynolds play confirms the portrait of an Oberon driven by love rather than jealousy and of a Titania who, on her own initiative, relinquishes the boy. 34 Shakespeare, however, fails to provide any easy logical development to the Titania-Oberon relationship in the closing scenes. In fact, the difference between this version and Shakespeare's play reminds one of the difference between Gibber's Richard III and Shakespeare's, between simple blacks and whites as compared with an extraordinary range of argument essay, greys, between directness and ambiguity. In A Midsummer Night 's Dream, the dramatist raises questions concerning women and mla research the power structure imposed on them, even when he supplies no easy answers. Having showed us Titania in her strength, he seems to turn to essay experience high school, other concerns, returning her to her fairy role. The young Athenian women provide another example of the power of guidelines paper, patriarchy over essay school, women's lives. Never confused in their affections for the two young men, Hermia and Helena gain insights into themselves and into the unpredictability of male behavior as a result of guidelines mla research paper, their experiences in the forest. Differing from the two young men, the women never have their eyes anointed with Oberon's magic juice; nevertheless, their relationships with the two youths as well as with one another change.

Hermia must face rejection by both young men because Puck, partially correcting his error, finally anoints the right lover's eyes. Suddenly both Demetrius and Lysander are amorously pursuing Helena. Desired by both youths, she believes neither. Essay Bans? Nor does her earlier passion for Demetrius convince her of his sincerity at this moment. She accuses them of mocking her. For An Mla Research Paper? Disbelief, anger, and hurt mark her words: Can you not hate me, as I know you do, / But you must join in souls to mock me too? (III.ii.149-50). Changing places and relationships, the women find their friendship turned into rivalry and their dispute quickly reduced to successful case, name calling, hair pulling, and physical conflict. Intermittently they recollect a happy, earlier time together before this blinding in the woods. Much cutting of lines, however, reduces this section to the outline of the contest between the men, diminishing any sharp character definition of the women. Large sections of Hermia's reprimand to Demetrius disappear.

Gone too is Helena's sensitive description of their childhood friendship when they sewed together sitting on one cushion, / .. . As if our hands, our sides, voices and minds / Had been incorporate. So we grew together, / Like to a double cherry, seeming parted (205-9). Much later Shakespeare would develop this recollection of an early innocent friendship ruined by sexual jealousy, transmuting it into a description of the friendship between two men, Leontes and Polixenes in The Winter's Tale. Seldom heard on the stage, Helena's lines again individualize her, as she accuses her friend of guidelines for an paper, conspiring with the men. Characteristically, Hermia counters with anger and successful outsourcing case frustration. Because both suitors are fiercely pursuing Helena, Puck must lead them Up and for an down, up and down, (396) to keep them apart, and coursework because the role has its own magic, the scenes in the forest with the blinded lovers allow for farce, action, and paper humor.

The two men pursue one another in the wood while Puck blankets it with fog and mimics each man's voice to mislead and essay confuse his opponent. Finally exhausted, each of the four young people falls asleep, allowing Puck to clear Lysander's vision. The dramatist then switches focus from the youths to their elders. Hippolyta, last seen at the play's opening when her silence left questions of interpretation open, now enters with Theseus. Discord seems to have vanished. But here, unlike the Titania-Oberon exit when the guidelines for an mla research paper, fairy queen seemed so muted and transformed, the Amazon queen exhibits sparks of individuality as she jokingly debates the relative merits of essay, Theseus's hounds. Stumbling on the sleeping young lovers, the guidelines mla research paper, older couple, upon abi/inform complete + dissertations & theses text awakening the youths, discovers two matched pairs. For An Paper? Oberon had never removed the magic juice from Demetrius's eyes; he will no longer pursue Hermia. Theseus's perspective alters. Rather than being the rigid, unbending Duke of Athens, he overrules Egeus's sentence on Hermia. Confused and uncertain, the couples leave the forest.

Bottom then awakens, the ass's head removed, and the spell lifted. In a soliloquy emphasizing the contrast between his and Titania's responses to their strange interlude, he marvels: I have had a most rare vision, I have had a dream, past the wit of man to say what dream it was (IV.i.204-6). His speech, as we know, parodies St. Paul's I Corinthians ii.9 ff. If Bottom's vision has been expanded, Titania's has been destroyed. Looking at him, she had reacted with revulsion. Thus, again, the victimization of a woman is implied. As the play moves towards its denoument, the roles of the women characters have begun to shrink or change. Hippolyta opens the the war that forged thesis, fifth act with the conciliatory 'Tis strange, my Theseus, that these lovers speak of (V.i.I, emphasis added). Her term of address, like Titania's lines when she flies away with Oberon, reveals acceptance of for an, her position although as the scene develops she is the one woman who constantly speaks out.

Hermia and essay on smoking Helena, so vocal earlier, are strangely silent during the bridal entertainment hosted by Theseus. In contrast, the young bridegrooms, Lysander and Demetrius, along with Theseus speak a good deal, deriding the entertainment by Bottom and his friends. Here we watch the farcical production as the actors strive with their lines. The prologue begins the performance: If we offend, it is for an, with our good will. That you should think, we come not to offend, But with good will. But he is soon interrupted by Theseus, followed by Lysander: He hath rid his prologue like a rough colt; he knows not the research, stop (119-20). Mla Research? Hippolyta too contributes: Indeed he hath play'd on this prologue like a child on a recorder—a sound, but not in government (122-24).

Trying to outdo one another, the commentators keep interrupting the action as Pyramus exclaims against his fate: O grim-look'd night! O night with hue so black! O night, which ever art when day is not! O night, O night! alack, alack, alack. As the play-within-a-play progresses and both Pyramus and Thisby commit suicide in a case of mistaken supposition, much like the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, the interruptions come more often and are more incisive. Whether it is Hippolyta protesting, I am a-weary of this moon. Would he would change! (251-52) of a character portraying moon, or Theseus's response, It appears . . .that he is on the wane (153-54), promptbooks, including that of the 1955 Old Vic version, indicate that the lines of the auditors are frequently cut.

35 Meanwhile, sitting on 1812 that a nation, the sidelines, the guidelines, two younger women do not participate. Is it an accident that for complete + dissertations theses full text, so long, in mla research paper, the early years, it was Pyramus and Thisbe or other abbreviated versions that were produced? 36 Abstracted from its place in essay bans, the context of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Pyramus and Thisbe was merely a farcical commentary on lovers who die for love, having been hindered by their parents from uniting. But as part of the larger whole, the play-withina-play not only mocks the intensity of the guidelines for an paper, Athenian lovers and the price of love, but also highlights, through this distancing lens of media, metadrama, the submissiveness (or at least silence) expected of women in guidelines paper, marriage. Perhaps aware of the implication of the young women's silence, Augustin Daly, having given the role of Helena to his favorite actress, Ada Rehan, reassigned many of the interrupting lines to the women. Successful Case? Altering the text and countering its implication of the silent women, Daly gave several of the for an paper, lines of the media, commentators to Helena and Hermia, but primarily to Helena, creating in her an assertive personality.

Specifically, the guidelines mla research, exchange on the moon is assigned to Helena and Hermia, as is another exchange between Hippolyta and Theseus. In fact, Daly's reassignment of lines spotlights the freedom of speech that Hippolyta, of all the women in the play, has gained. Did Shakespeare give her these lines because she was, even if won in argument essay on smoking bans, battle, a former queen and Amazon? Or was the guidelines for an mla research paper, assignment based on her role as Theseus's wife? Hermia and Helena's last speeches occur in the fourth act when, delighted to have been united with the the war a nation thesis, men of guidelines for an, their choice, each marvels at the outcome, Helena still treasuring Demetrius, whom she has found . . . like a jewel (191), Hermia in wonder noting how everything seems double (189). Of all the women characters, Titania has changed the most, accepting her role as Oberon's handmaid. Returning with the fairies, she sings and blesses the newly married couples' beds. Abi/inform & Full? No recollection of the votress who died in childbirth mars the blessing. Nor is the Indian boy ever mentioned again. As Stevie Davis observes: When Oberon reclaims his rule, and Theseus leads the characters into the reasserted status quo of the final Act, the issue of the changeling child is laid aside, the mother forgotten, as the play closes around the guidelines mla research paper, artisans' comedy it contains.

But a reader may not forget nor really forgive the misappropriation of the boy-child by the law of the fathers, nor is the coursework, haunting music of for an mla research paper, Titania's elegy contradicted by media coursework a preferable ethic or emotion. (127-28) Shakespeare's portraits of women here raise questions about the validity of the for an paper, political and social structures that limit women's actions. At other times the dramatist challenges accepted notions by abi/inform complete + dissertations theses full text creating women characters, such as those in All's Well That Ends Well, who are more capable, clever, and intelligent than their male counterparts. In A Midsummer Night's Dream, he invents basically parallel male and female characters of equivalent ability, then weights the paper, scales in favor of the men, illuminating the research outline, obstacles women face. Guidelines For An Mla Research Paper? Having presented the issues lightly, he then moves on to conventional theatrical treatment in the ending. Nevertheless, one can believe that Shakespeare has painted here a complex work whose inner design has more depth than has yet been captured on stage and whose implications are still to be realized. Productions still tend to rely on music and exotic settings, frequently avoiding the intensity of the text. As John Simon wrote of a production in 1988 at the Public Theatre in New York, decrying its lack of lyricism, What has been added is a lot of samba, bossanova, and Brazilian ambiance that often clashes with what is spoken.

In that late twentieth-century production by A. J. Antoon, an coursework important contemporary director, the text still seems to have been secondary to for an, music and setting. Perhaps an argument for the play's still untapped potential lies in essay outline, the example of the recent revival of Carousel of which one critic wrote: Carousel will be 50 next year, but as of paper, this morning it is the successful outsourcing studies, freshest, most innovative musical on Broadway (Richards). Praising its power to explore the darker side of life, another critic called it an Everyman for our time. Whatever A Midsummer Night's Dream might have been planned for in its own time—whether a wedding; a simple entertainment, a vibrant piece of stagecraft to amuse even those who were being examined—in its language, in its questioning of societal values, and in for an paper, its brief portraits of several women suffering at the whim of a power structure they did not devise, the play holds the the war that forged thesis, potential for being an guidelines Everywoman for our time, briefly exploring the argument essay bans, darker side of guidelines, life. Forged A Nation? On the other hand, it remains for for an mla research, a work like Hamlet to focus more closely on that darkness—on the confusions that face women as well as men in their search for a clearer path in 1812 forged thesis, a patriarchal world. 1 Such popular works as Vives's Instructions of guidelines mla research, a Christian Woman and Whately's A Bride-bush, although slightly later in time (1617), address the obligations of the bride. Love appears on this list.

In speaking of marriage and its obligations, he speaks of successful outsourcing case studies, mutuality, at least obliquely: 6. The mutuali therefore (that wee may speake of guidelines, them in order) are requyred both of man and wife, though not in an equall measure of both. For in all these common duties, the research essay, husband should bee most abundant, knowing that more of paper, every grace is that a nation, looked for from him, then from the weaker vessell. For An? Wee call them not therefore common or mutuali, because both should have a like quantity of them; but because both must have some of all, and the husband most of all. 1812 That Forged? And for these common duties, you must know in generali, that whatsoever is requyred of all men and women, generally towards other, by the Law of Christianity and Charity, as they bee men and neighbors; the same is in an higher degree and larger measure requyred from the for an, husband toward the wife, and from her to him. (6) Unfortunately he then writes of persuasion of a wife to yield to the husband's authority, although earlier he wrote of love being a very important ingredient in research essay, the relationship.

Yea indeed she must be a monstrous and unwomanly woman, that being drawne by entreatie will not yeeld. Authority is for an mla research paper, like the arts of Logick and argument essay on smoking bans Rhetoricke, that must in speaking be used, and yet concealed: and then they most prevaile when being used, they are least seene. .. . Men that ride horses have a wand and a spurre, both; they will rather set forward their horses with the whisk sound, or perhaps little touch of the mla research, smal stick, then with the 1812 the war a nation, sharpnesse of their iron spurre. They proceed not to spurring till their horse be either restie or tiry; and if tiry, that doth more hurt. So the husband should governe his wife, provoke her to accomplish his will with quiet, pleasing and insinuating termes, rather than open and guidelines mla research expresse, much lesse violent commandings, unlesse shee bee more then ordinarily unruly. Christ beseecheth his Church most an end, which hee might with most right command. 1812 Forged Thesis? (29) Having finally finished writing of the duties of the husband, Whately then turns to the duties of the wife: The whole duty of the wife is referred to two heads. The first is, to acknowledge her inferiority: the next, to carry her self as inferiour.

First then the wives judgement must be convinced, that she is not her husbands equall, yea that her husband is her better by farre; else there can bee no contentment, either in her heart, or in her house. For An Mla Research Paper? If shee stand upon termes of media, equality, much more of being better than he is, the very root of guidelines for an mla research paper, good carriage is withered, and the fountaine thereof dryed up. (36) 2 The Fairies (1755) was billed as an opera. It is made up from the first four acts only, of Shakespeare's play and essay experience does not include references to Bottom and his troop. It also includes twenty-eight songs added to the text. Some are from the paper, play, some from other plays or other sources, such as Milton's L'Allegro. It was a success (Stone, MND, 469-72). In 1763 a version of A Midsummer Night's Dream, attributed variously to Garrick and Colman but which Stone faults Colman for, appeared for media coursework, one night and guidelines for an mla research paper failed. It was subsequently followed by A Fairy Tale, which consists of two short acts, centering about the Oberon-Titania dispute and includes Bottom and his fellows (Stone, MND, 480-81). For a complete discussion of the adaptations variously attributed to successful outsourcing, David Garrick and George Colman, see Stone, A Midsummer Night's Dream; and Pedicord and Bergmann, eds.

The Plays of David Garrick, vol. 4, 420-31. Depending upon guidelines for an mla research paper which version I am discussing, I refer either to Garrick or Garrick-Colman as the adaptors. 3 The first Pyramus and Thisbe, adapted by Richard Leveridge, 1716, contained their early scenes of essay outline, planning as well as the actual play-within-a-play; the second, adapted by John Frederick Lampe, 1745, retained only the fifth-act production but omitted the court personnel (Hogan, I.339). Departing further from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, but adopting its adventures of the workmen, Charles Johnson, in guidelines paper, 1723, inserted a Pyramus and Thisbe comic segment into + dissertations full text his version of guidelines mla research, As You Like It calling his work Love in a Forest (Hogan, I.339). We are not here dealing with Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, merely with bits and successful outsourcing case studies pieces.

4 Generally, but inconclusively, attributed to Elkanah Settle, its music definitely written by guidelines Henry Purcell, The Fairy Queen was a lavish production costing ?3000 ( LS, l:Iv). Its closing was capped by research a dance with twenty-four Chineses (Odell, 1:194). 5 The nineteenth-century dedication to massive staging may have contributed to this shift. For An Mla Research Paper? According to Gary Jay Williams the transposition of text and the scenic effects may also reflect the studies, general celebration of for an, empire at theses text, the time, with Theseus as the triumphant victor. 6 Reinhardt here drew on his 1927 stage production at the Century theater, in New York, in which Hippolyta appears with a group of for an, large dogs.

7 These are some of the numbered shots in the script. 8 That script, although designated as Final was not incorporated into the finished film. Nor has any copy of 1812 forged, this visual sequence of guidelines for an mla research, film—a first reel—been found. Robert H. Ball, in seeking to media coursework, document this same information, found, in 1971 that no indication of reels until 15 reel version existed. This comment appears on guidelines for an paper, a chart he made of the different versions, identifying them as R=Reinhardt; K=Kenyon + McCall; 15=15 reel dial; 12=12 reel dial. In addition, his K list has (marked 'Final') and corresponds exactly with the material I found in the Warner Brothers archives at outsourcing case, Princeton. The Ball notes are currently in guidelines for an paper, a file at the Folger Shakespeare Library. It also contains an earlier correspondence between Ball and Joel Swensen at Warner Brothers in case studies, 1947. This says, Our print man thinks all we have is the for an, 12 reel version 30 July 1947. Argument? An earlier letter from Henry Blanke, at Warner Brothers in California, to guidelines for an, Joel Swensen, states, As far as I can recall, the 15 reel version of A Midsummer Night's Dream ran all over the country, except that very much later on a certain re-issue it was cut down to 12 reels. However, neither the 15 nor the 12 reel version will completely correspond with the script as many sequences contained in the script were eliminated—as is usually the case in motion pictures—before their release.

So the closest thing to go by or to get a comparison to the script would be the dialogue sheets that were put out with the original 15 reel version. Successful Outsourcing Case Studies? The letter is dated 14 July 1947. 9 The full text of Fuller's comment is: In every-day life, the feelings of the many are stained with vanity. Each wishes to be lord in a little world, to be superior at least over one; and he does not feel strong enough to retain a life-long ascendency over a strong nature.

Only a Theseus could conquer before he wed the Amazonian queen. Hercules wished rather to guidelines for an mla research paper, rest with Dejanira, and essay received the poisoned robe as a fit guerdon. The tale should be interpreted to all those who seek repose with the weak. (43) 10 Aside from having been eliminated from the mla research, Garrick-Colman and coursework Reynolds versions, the for an mla research, references also disappeared in & theses text, whole or part from the for an paper, printed acting texts of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries such as French's ( MND 20), Charles Kean's edition ( MND 9), Augustin Daly's ( MND 5), and from the type-script of Henry Jewett's for a 1915 production ( MND 12). When promptbooks relied on the full text, the lines were then crossed out for the acting versions.

Among the latter were the recording of the Burton performance of 1854 ( MND 21), the media, Beerbohm Tree production of for an paper, 1900 ( MND 7), and the Samuel Phelps production of 1861 ( MND 13). The Reinhardt film retains only a small section of the speech. 11 Excisions persisted over a long period of time beginning with the media, earliest record, the Smock Alley prompt, sometime before 1700, where the lines are crossed out. Garrick eliminated them from his preparation copy of 1763. They do not appear in Reynolds's 1816 version, are crossed out in Charles Kean's ( MND 9) and eliminated by Daly in guidelines mla research paper, 1888 as well as by Herbert Beerbohm Tree for the 1900 production ( MND 7), to name just a few characteristic productions. 12 Literally, the 1812 the war that forged a nation thesis, lines (136-49) were not printed in the French acting texts ( MND 15, MND 20) and guidelines mla research paper Charles Kean's text of 1869 ( MND 9). In the Burton text of 1854 ( MND 21), the lines appear but are then crossed through.

13 They are excised from the French text (Prompt MND 15, 20), the Charles Kean text ( MND 9), the Daly text ( MND 5), and are crossed out or blocked for omission in the Burton prompt (page 9, MND 21), the Tree prompt (page 5, MND 7). In the Phelps prompt (page 311, MND 13), it is 1812 the war forged thesis, more difficult to be certain of whether or not the section was excised since there are two different sets of markings here—some in brown ink, others in pencil. This section has a penciled bracket on the left. Since another passage immediately above it on the page has been crossed through, the question remains of whether this passage was in fact excised. 14 The Variorum also notes that Halliwell afterwards modified this by the reflection (p.36, folio ed.) that 'the author evidently intended both the speakers should join in passionately lamenting the difficulties encountered in the path of love' (18). 15 Having removed this section from the printed text, the for an paper, Kean book (prompt MND 9) indicates even further excision, penciling out still more of the beginning of this exchange between the essay outline, two women. It is also excised from the Phelps promptbook ( MND 13).

Earlier, Garrick, who had cut the lines of the speech, nevertheless retained the character of paper, Helena here whereas Reynolds, despite his promise to restore more of the play in experience, 1816, eliminated her completely from the guidelines for an mla research, scene. 16 The excisions occur in 1812 a nation, the following prompts: MND 9, MND 20, MND 21, MND 15, and others. 17 The handwriting has been identified as Garrick's. See also Stone article on A Midsummer Night's Dream, discussed in note 2. 18 In a Charles Calvert promptbook of an 1865 production ( MND 1), for example, after her line, For I upon this bank will rest my head (40), her speech continues with and good night, sweet friend / Thy love ne'er alter, till thy sweet life end! (60-61). Thus the entire debate (lines 41-59) has been excised from the printed text. Kean too ( MND 9) follows this format. Paper? Tree ( MND 7) crosses out coursework, text, retaining only one line of Lysander's—'One turf shall serve as pillow for us both, (41)—and then, once again, Hermia's Nay good Lysander; for for an, my sake (43) precedes the jump to the conclusion so far be distant, and good night, sweet friend: / Thy love ne'er alter till thy sweet life end! (60-61). Lysander's innocuous Amen and the few brief lines of good night precede their finally falling off to media, sleep, which closes this section of the scene.

Phelps's book, too ( MND 13), cuts the debate. Gone is guidelines for an mla research paper, Lysander's sophisticated argument in favor of one bed, along with her Lysander riddles very prettily . . . Essay On Smoking Bans? (42, 43b-56a). Daly, too ( MND 5), includes Lysander's One turf . . . (41-42) and Hermia's brief response Nay good Lysander . . . (43-44) then jumps to line 60, So far be distant; and good night sweet friend. / Thy love ne'er alter, till thy sweet life end! (60-61). 19 As a sampling, they are crossed out in Burton's text (22-23) (MND 21 ) and Phelps's of 1861 (328-29) ( MND 13); and are omitted from George Colman and David Garrick's 1763 version ( MND 19), Charles Kean's ( MND 9), Augustin Daly's, 1888 ( MND 5), Herbert Beerbohm Tree's ( MND 7), French's ( MND 15), and the edition recording performances at the Broadway Theatre ( MND 20), as well as Henry Jewett's 1915 typescript ( MND 12). Of course the highly abbreviated Colman version of 1777, A Fairy Tale ( MND 22), does not include these Athenian characters at all. 20 Seldom the subject for guidelines, criticism, Helena has the largest percentage of lines (10.4) and words (11.2) of any woman character in the play although Hermia has more speeches (9.5 percent to Helena's 7.14). Hermia's fewer lines (7.5 percent) and words (7.9 percent) suggest the difference in the pattern of the women's speeches.

Following is the record in abi/inform complete + dissertations & text, the Concordance of the other long roles: Theseus: 9.5 percent speeches, 10.9 percent lines, 10.7 percent words; Bottom 9.9 percent speeches, 9.7 percent lines, 10.3 percent words; Oberon 5.7 percent speeches, 10.2 percent lines, 9.9 percent words. Spevack, Concordance 1:666-713. 21 Many fine references appear in this article, including one to guidelines, Gayle Rubin's The Traffic in Women. Experience School? Marshall asks questions: How are we to take Demetrius' recovery from the 'sickness' of guidelines paper, abandoning Helena and loving Hermia since it is just as much the product of enchantment as Lysander's abandonment of Hermia and love for Helena? Are we to be pleased by the success of Helena's subjection of herself to Demetrius or Titania's sudden and successful studies manipulated surrender to Oberon? What about paper, Hippolyta's marriage to the soldier who vanquished her? . . . They raise the possibility that A Midsummer Night's Dream is not one of Shakespeare's happiest comedies' [Madeline Doran, intro. in argument essay on smoking bans, Penguin Complete Works] but rather a 'most lamentable comedy' (I.ii.11-12) and 'very tragical mirth' (V.i.57) (548). Marshall also takes exception to C. L. Barber's comment that Theseus and Hippolyta are looking toward their wedding 'Theseus . . . with masculine impatience, Hippolyta with a woman's willingness to for an mla research, dream away time' ( Shakespeare's Festive Comedies, p. Complete + Dissertations & Full? 128) (548). Marshall asks how Barber knows this since the language doesn't say it.

I don't know how Barber manages to assign genders to these feelings (548). Of David P. Guidelines For An Paper? Young's comment ( Something of Great Constancy: the Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream , New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966, 109), It is appropriate that Theseus, as representative of daylight and right reason, should have subdued his bride-to-be to the rule of his masculine will. Argument Bans? That is the natural order of things (p. 99), Marshall comments, This may have been the ruling ideology in guidelines mla research, the sixteenth century or in 1966—I don't see that it has ever been the natural order of 1812 forged thesis, things—but it is not necessarily the ideology of A Midsummer Night's Dream (550). 22 The typescript of Henry Jewett's 1915 production ( MND 12), for example, directs Titania to take the boy to her side (14). In the elegant Daly version, when Titania enters, her attendant fairies .. . carry a canopy covering the Indian child, reclining on a silver couch ( MND 5, 33).

In this cut version, there is even the printed stage direction, Oberon orders his attendants to for an paper, advance, and he dashes toward the couch to seize the child. He tears aside the curtains, and & theses finds that it has disappeared (34). Crossed out in paper, pencil by a later manager, the action dramatizes the a nation, hostility between king and queen although simplifying the portraits. 23 The comment is by guidelines mla research Thomas Hailes Lacy for the 1840 text. Actually Mendelssohn first wrote the overture for research essay, an 1827 revival in Berlin (Campbell, 546). However it was the Vestris production, claiming to mla research paper, present the play almost as Shakespeare wrote it, for the first time since 1642, that was such a huge success (Campbell, 546). According to Odell, no version this close to Shakespeare's had appeared since Davenant's in the seventeenth century (II.204). Vestris's was followed by other lavish productions, most relying on this music. Only Phelps eschewed the music. 24 The popularity of A Midsummer Night's Dream at mid nineteenth century extended from London to New York, two rival productions appearing in February, 1854: at Burton's and the Broadway theaters. Both claimed Mendelssohn's music.

25 See Stevie Davis's sensitive analysis of Titania and of her relationship with the mother of the boy before his birth (125-29). 26 See the following promptbooks: MND 5, MND 9, MND 20, MND 21, MND 13, MND 15. Although, according to Allen, all but 300 lines of the original were excised by Phelps, in prompt MND 13, believed to be a record of his production, huge chunks of Titania's speeches were cut. In fact only the first seven lines (81-89) remain of the the war that a nation, speech beginning These are the forgeries of jealousies. They are followed immediately be Oberon's Why should Titania cross her Oberon? / I do but beg a little changeling boy, / To be my henchman (119-21). Guidelines? A single line is cut from his speech. Again Titania's description of the boy's mother is also crossed through.

Thus, the restoration hardly affects the essay school, lines of for an mla research paper, Titania. In II.i Phelps excises most of her speech to Oberon 88-117 and then Oberon's 118, Do you amend it then. Again the that forged thesis, actor-manager excises When we have laugh'd to see the sails conceive .. . did die, 128-35. 27 Crossed out in Burton's text ( MND 21), and in Samuel Phelps's ( MND 13), her lines disappear from the Kean printed text ( MND 9), the Daly text ( MND 5), and guidelines for an others. 28 Marilyn Williamson refers to the need to be aware of the historical contexts in which the plays were written. Surely the ideas on marriage and divorce are embedded in this text although the characters are cast as fairies. 29 Circled for excision from outline, MND 6 (by Garrick), therefore gone from 1763 text ( MND 19), and from Reynolds's 1816 text ( MND 18); Burton ( MND 21) 1854; ( MND 9); Daly ( MND 5); the lines are circled for excision in mla research, Phelps MND 13.

Also excised from type-script of Jewett's, 1915 ( MND 12). 30 Here again Phelps's prompt ( MND 13) has excised lines as have the texts of 1763, 1854, and research Tree, etc. The whole section referring to reason in Lysander's speech has also been eliminated from the 1856 printed text ( MND 9); most of the guidelines for an paper, lines have been excised from Jewett's 1915 typescript ( MND 12) and thesis from Daly's 1888 text ( MND 5); finally, the guidelines mla research, section has been crossed out in the 1853 ( MND 13) and 1854 versions ( MND 21), Tree's in 1900 ( MND 7) (and probably other contemporaneous ones that I did not examine). 31 Kean ( MND 9). He emphasizes her unique role as a spirit of no common rate and the war thesis retains only the first line (152) of the quote, following it immediately with For I do love thee, a variant on the text's And I do love thee (156). Mla Research? In that version, neither Bottom nor the audience is high, told of her power to keep him from leaving. 32 See chapter 3, Challenging Patterns, in Irene Dash's Wooing, Wedding, and Power: Women in guidelines mla research, Shakespeare's Plays, 33-66. 33 In Prompt MND 8, this section has been crossed through in pencil.

34 According to Shattuck (323), this is a Kemble edition (1816) although nowhere on the title page or elsewhere does the usual attribution appear. Some of the research, alterations, however, do appear in later acting versions. 35 Among the other versions that excised, once the mla research paper, longer play appeared are the 1935 film, the Beerbohm Tree version, and the 1854 version. 36 According to Hogan (11.718), the play ranked twenty-first in popularity of Shakespeare's plays between 1701 and 1800. But this figure is deceptive since only one production is listed as the original during the period. The other sixty-three times that it was acted audiences were seeing either a version of Pyramus and Thisbe, The Fairies, or A Fairy Tale. Source: Male Magic: A Midsummer Night's Dream, in argument, Women's Worlds in Shakespeare's Plays, University of guidelines for an mla research paper, Delaware Press, 1997, pp.

67-107. Access our A Midsummer. Study Guide for Free. A Midsummer Night's Dream Homework Help Questions. One of the roles of the supernatural in A Midsummer Night's Dream is to create a dreamlike state that helps portray Shakespeare's theme of fantasy vs. reality.Critic Northrop Frye points out that. Demetrius is the only character to have been left permanently changed by the magic within Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.

At the beginning of the play, Demetrius is in love with Hermia. One classic way to essay, create comedy is through irony. Irony takes place when words, actions, or plot development contradict what is intended or expected to happen. Mla Research Paper? Shakespeare uses many instances of. This is actually a crucial quote for the entire play, as Helena here in the war a nation, Act I scene 1 explains the complete irrational nature of love that had already been displayed by the central lovers and will. The four Athenian lovers are easily to confuse, particularly Helena and Hermia, due to the similarity in how their names are spelt.

It seems as if Shakespeare deliberately present them as.

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An Essay For The Book The Giver Essays and Research Papers. The Giver - Summary The Giver This book is about a boy names Jonas. Jonas lives in a futuristic society where there . is no pain, fear, war, and hatred. Guidelines For An Mla Research. There is also no prejudice, since everyone looks and acts basically the same, there is very little competition. Successful. They have also eliminated choice.

You have to apply for a spouse. You cannot just chose who you want and marry them, the community does it for guidelines for an paper, you. His dad works as a Nurturer of new children, and his mom works at the Department of the war thesis, Justice. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Study Questions 1. For An. The ending of the giver has been interpreted in a few different ways. Choose one possible interpretation of the ending and . argue its validity, using clues from the coursework, text to explain your conclusions. Answer for Study Question 1 The two major interpretations of The Giver’s ending are that (1) Jonas and guidelines paper, Gabriel have truly escaped the physical boundaries of their society and discovered a real village in Elsewhere, and (2) Jonas’s vision of the village is only a hallucination. Dystopia , Gender , Gender role 1815 Words | 5 Pages. THE GIVER Compare / Contrast Essay In The Giver I believe that in outline Jonas’ community they live in a dystopia. . Guidelines. The book gives me many reasons to believe so. The setting for Jonas’ community is in the future where numerous technological advances have been made.

In the beginning of the book it is December, the essay high, month where the Ceremonies 1 through 12 happens. In this community during the Ceremonies your name, your job, and guidelines mla research paper, your child are “assigned” for you unlike in the real world. . Dystopia , Intersectionality , Jonas 923 Words | 3 Pages. In her book ‘The Giver ’, Lois Lowry has created a futuristic utopian community where there are no feelings, no choices and . Sameness prevails. Sameness, as the essay outline, name suggests, is the idea that all aspects of life are almost invariably the same for all community members and life itself has no choices; everything is dictated, from what to guidelines for an paper, wear and who to marry, to how one is required to act and the number of offspring. Essay Outline. There exist no colours; the community sees in guidelines for an mla research black and white and hues of grey.

Because. Dystopia , Feeling , Jonas 999 Words | 3 Pages. The Community that Lois Lowry creates in essay outline The Giver appears to be a utopia, but is in fact a dystopia. To get rid of the extremes, such as pain . and hunger, you have to get rid of things like true friendship and happiness. Jonas is constructed to convey ideas about society by paper, his speech, thoughts, actions, appearance, interaction with others and his name. We first see this when his sister, Lily says to him, “He has funny eyes just like you Jonas!” Most people in the community have dark eyes but. Essay. Envy , Eye , Eye color 917 Words | 3 Pages. ? Book Report English Title: The Giver Author: Lois Lowry Setting: A controlled, utopian community Sometime in guidelines mla research the future . Protagonist(s): Jonas Antagonist(s): The Community Relationship between the Protagonist and Antagonist Jonas, the protagonist of the story, is a twelve-year-old boy who lives in complete + dissertations & theses a place called The Community, which is the guidelines for an, antagonist of the story. In the Community, led by successful outsourcing studies, a Committee of paper, Elders, almost all aspects of every citizen’s lives are controlled and planned. Dystopia , Jonas , Lois Lowry 2276 Words | 6 Pages. Research Essay Outline. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of paper, discovery consists not in . seeking new landscapes, but in research having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in for an Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages.

The Giver is a 1993 American children's novel by Lois Lowry. It is outsourcing case studies set in a society which is at first presented as a utopian society and . gradually appears more and more dystopian. The novel follows a boy named Jonas through the twelfth year of for an, his life. The society has eliminated pain and strife by high school, converting to for an paper, Sameness, a plan that has also eradicated emotional depth from their lives. Jonas is selected to inherit the position of Receiver of on smoking, Memory, the person who stores all the past memories. Dystopia , Gathering Blue , Jonas 1319 Words | 4 Pages.

Book Title: The Giver Author: Lois Lowry Date of Publication: 2002 Publisher: Laurel Leaf (reprint edition) ANALYSIS I. . Guidelines For An Paper. Setting: In an isolated Arcadian community at an unknown time in successful outsourcing case studies the future II. Characters and guidelines, Commentary: A. Jonas – The eleven year old protagonist (turns twelve at a point) who has “bizarre powers” and is chosen as the Receiver of Memory. He has a wide variety of interests. Argument Essay On Smoking. For a pre-adolescent, he is extremely wise, curious, thoughtful, and has a much deeper understanding. Dystopia , Jonas , Literary technique 1327 Words | 4 Pages. The Giver INTRODUCTION The book was great! This book and its story are unique.

The Giver is for an a . deftly crafted work, both stunningly beautiful and deeply disturbing. Finding myself being imperceptibly lulled by the peace, order, safety and successful outsourcing case, serenity of Jonas's world; being awakened by the sickening thud of reality's steel-toed boot in the gut, leaving both him and me breathless and disoriented in the aftermath. This story is haunting and powerful. Guidelines For An Mla Research. It's a raw portrayal of the presumed moral sacrifices. Dystopia , Gathering Blue , Jonas 1614 Words | 4 Pages. The Giver and successful outsourcing, Holes Comparative Essay. The Giver and mla research, Holes The Giver of Lois Lowry and studies, Holes by Louis Sachar are both based on certain societies and mla research, how the essay, main . characters on each book made decisions to solve the main problem. The two stories contain a lot of dillemas for the main characters to decide on. They both also contain great adventure and inspiring stories for guidelines for an mla research paper, the reader to enjoy. Argument On Smoking Bans. These two John Newberry Awarded books will definitely prove themselves why they deserved their award.

THEME The two books gave the. Guidelines. Holes , Lois Lowry , Louis Sachar 1197 Words | 4 Pages. ?Reflective Essay : The Giver by studies, Lois Lowry The Giver by for an mla research, Lois Lowry is a directive novel about how structured . Research Essay Outline. lifestyle could lead to absence of being a true human. In a lifestyle of freedom, people are not mainly subjected to how they should feel and also what to guidelines for an, have feelings for. For instance, in a country like United States, as a citizen you have the right to successful outsourcing case studies, freedom which is guidelines mla research stated in its Constitution. Media. In such, there is little to no infringement as to what you choose to believe in or have feelings. Human , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 983 Words | 4 Pages. novel The Giver is “Choices cannot be made without wisdom and guidelines for an paper, knowledge of the past”. This is displayed in many times in the . book . Three examples are; the elders asking the coursework, Giver for advice on important tasks, Jonas’s father releasing a baby, and Jonas’s choice to leave community. The first examples of the theme take place after Jonas recently received the guidelines for an mla research, painful memory of war. That memory had poured him over the edge of bearing the memories.

He had then started to question why the Giver and himself. Cognition , Decision making software , Decision theory 917 Words | 3 Pages. The Giver by essay school, Lois Lowry. A sociological view of the book The Giver. The Giver Society refers to for an, people who interact in a defined territory and share culture. Experience. In Lois Lowry's The Giver 1993, . Jonas grows up only knowing the existence of his society. The society in which The Giver takes place is known as sameness. Everything is done the same, and nobody knows different. It is considered rude to ask a question that makes another citizen look different. In the book Jonas has lighter eyes compared to everyone else.

It would be wrong to guidelines for an paper, bring his eye shade up in conversation. Family , Jonas , Lois Lowry 1170 Words | 3 Pages. ?English Essay - Freedom Essay Question: How has the study of your prescribed text The Giver , and one other . related text, challenged your understanding of freedom. Page reference: (15.6) 15 = Chapter 6 = Page Freedom is the power or right to essay experience school, act, speak or think as one wants. For An Paper. The power to ones self views as to 1812 the war forged a nation thesis, their will and to determine their actions without restraint. Acquiring the ability of knowing the truth, and the knowledge are essential elements, to experiencing a life of freedom.

However. Guidelines Paper. Jonas , The Giver , Truth 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Dearest Mother and Father, I know you are probably very concerned upon learning I have left the essay high school, community. However, . Mla Research Paper. I have written to you to explain why I did so. As you both know, I have been training along the Giver to media, become the new Receiver of Memory. Over time, I have received many memories, and for an mla research paper, experienced pain like no other, you are unable to grasp the concept of some things I have learned, but I will try my best to explain them to you so you can understand. Color , Dystopia , Jonas 1255 Words | 4 Pages.

Book Report - The Giver The Giver by Louis Lowry was published in 1993. I did not choose this . book it was recommended to me I classify this book as an argument essay on smoking bans, inner adventure. As in Jonas goes through an emotional metamorphosis (if you will) Jonas lives in a community where pain, rudeness, and war are non-existent. All children undergoes a ceremony in guidelines for an mla research paper December every year until they reach twelve years of age, at which point they receive their Assignments, the that a nation thesis, jobs they will perform as adults. A committee. Dystopia , Islam , Jonas 1073 Words | 3 Pages. The Giver Essay Finallllllllllllllllll. ?English 93 9MWF May 15th 2013 Sameness does not mean perfectness The Giver , by Lois Lowry, is told from the perspective of a twelve-year-old . boy named Jonas growing up in mla research paper a Utopian society. Jonas lives in a seemingly perfect community in which there is little pain and on smoking bans, little crime.

People are polite. Everyone belongs to a supportive family. Mla Research. But this harmony comes at a price. There is media also no choice, and guidelines, real emotions are nonexistent. Life is dictated by studies, strict rules. This story is set in a perfect.

Dystopia , Emotion , Human 1306 Words | 4 Pages. Title: The Giver Author: Lois Lowry Science-fiction # Pages : 179 By: Annika Keewatin Monday June 17, 2013 Meet Jonas, a twelve year . old boy who lives in a rigidly controlled society sometime in the future. In his “community,” there is no suffering, hunger, war, and, as you will see, no color, music or love. In short…this world is paper a lame place to argument bans, hang out. The Giver , by Lois Lowry is a classic which has 179 pages. I think it’s an guidelines mla research, emotional dystopia, with a genre of essay bans, science fiction.

This. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 910 Words | 3 Pages. have choices, or to love one another. In the guidelines mla research, novel, The Giver , by Lois Lowry, a 12-year-old boy called Jonas finds himself in a dystopia when . he realizes that there is more to life outside of outline, his sheltered community. Although the guidelines mla research, people of Jonas' community know no different than their way of essay bans, life, the society is a dystopia, rather than a utopia. Mla Research. 'It wasn't a practical thing, so it became obsolete when we went to argument essay on smoking, the Sameness.' (84) The Giver , by Lois Lowry, is told from the guidelines for an mla research paper, perspective of abi/inform complete & full, a twelve-year-old. Dystopia , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 1050 Words | 3 Pages. figuring out how to show happiness and sadness and other emotions.

When The Giver first transmits his memories to mla research paper, Jonas, he was just beginning . to feel and learn for himself. Jonas learns that there are many emotions, good and bad ones. Toddlers are also curious, and I think Jonas is too. And because of coursework, their curiosity, they like to explore. Jonas was interested in exploring the new emotions he was feeling. The book says that Jonas was “perceptive”. Guidelines Paper. He was interested in sharing these emotions. Debut albums , Emotion , Feeling 1319 Words | 7 Pages. Julia Jones Literary Analysis Essay Language Arts 1.14.12 Feel?ings noun [feliNGs]- 1. An emotional state or reaction; love compassion . grief.

In the story The Giver , by Lois Lowry, ‘feelings’ is nothing but a word, for feelings do not exist. They were removed long ago, along with all other forms of diversity, leaving everyone numb, unable to experience love, depth, risks, and the unknown. Everyone, that is, except Jonas, who learns the importance of feelings and discovers the many imperfections. Combined oral contraceptive pill , Emotion , Family 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Essay for the Giver: Relationships in the Story. The Giver , the community which the main character, Jonas, lives in is exactly like this.

The society which is portrayed in the story is an . illusion of what a utopia is. Through the relationships that we are able to see in the story, such as interactions with the opposite sex, Jonas’s relationship with the Giver , and successful outsourcing case studies, relationships between family members, we can clearly see that the idea of a utopia has clearly been misunderstood by the society and its leaders. In the society of The Giver , interaction. Dystopia , Interpersonal relationship , Jonas 1201 Words | 3 Pages. For An Mla Research. ?Date: February 8, 2013 The Giver : The Fight For Freedom The challenging attempt to research, successfully achieve a Utopian Society, while . balancing the freedom of the citizens has existed since the first civilizations. Lois Lowry’s, The Giver (1993), follows the paper, story of essay outline, a young boy named Jonas living in guidelines mla research a supposedly utopian society as well discovering the flaws in the community’s apparent freedom and safety. The community of The Giver violates many basic human rights as set forth by that thesis, the Universal. French Revolution , Human , Human rights 1243 Words | 4 Pages.

Imagine a world without fear, pain, warfare, poverty, hunger, or terror. It sounds like a perfect world, a utopia but as you read farther into the . book you realize that to accomplish all of these things you have to take away some fundamental elements of life such as feelings, love, diversity, choices, and guidelines for an mla research paper, even the essay, ability to see colors. For a community to mla research paper, take away all those aspects of life I don’t think there is a utopia in fact it’s the exact opposite. Argument On Smoking Bans. Life is all about perception of events. Dystopia , Emotion , Feeling 1511 Words | 4 Pages. ?Tornike Obolashvili English F Block Manana Mgeladze 26/02/2014 Essay It is an uninteresting book teacher! It was phrase . which I told, when I started reading of The Giver , but after a few chapters I understood, that it was good and ideally book with deep thought. The Author of this book is Lois Lowry. The main character is Jonas 12 years old boy, who lives in community in where everything is calculated and there are no feelings.

People move with bicycle and every year they celebrate their birthday. Emotion , Jonas , Lois Lowry 491 Words | 2 Pages. The giver is guidelines paper written from the point of view of Jonas, an eleven-year-old boy living in a futuristic society that has eliminated all pain, fear, . war, and hatred. There is no prejudice, since everyone looks and acts basically the successful outsourcing case, same, and there is very little competition. Everyone is guidelines unfailingly polite. The society has also eliminated choice: at age twelve every member of the community is assigned a job based on his or her abilities and interests. Citizens can apply for essay bans, and be assigned compatible.

Family , Jonas , Memory 1121 Words | 3 Pages. Sameness and a predictable society, Jonas's community has rejected the truly utopian possibilities of a society where people are free to move society . forward. The result is a dystopia of conformity. A series of conversations between Jonas and mla research paper, The Giver shows that the totalitarian rationale for restricting each person's choice of clothing, job, spouse, and children results from the fear of making wrong choices. Yet, as Jonas realizes after he escapes from the community, he would rather be able. Dystopia , Emotion , Human 1252 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay : The Giver Imagine living in a world full of lies, a world where there are many secrets, a world . where what you see is complete + dissertations & theses not always what it is. For An Paper. Jonas has lived all his life in a world like this. Can you even imagine a perfect, uniform and fully equal life for all people? It would be a boring life, right? At the essay bans, end of the book , Jonas gets tired of all the lies of the community in which he lives and decides to escape.

Many people like his father, his foster brother, Gabe. Jonas , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 523 Words | 2 Pages. The utopian society described in Lois Lowry's The Giver is very similar to guidelines, the form of government described in the Republic by Plato, . especially The Allegory of the Cave. Both are descriptions of totalitarian dystopic governments included the coursework, separation of people by guidelines paper, professional class, assignment of profession and purpose by the state, and the absence of traditional family units, replaced by research essay outline, state-organized breeding. If Jonas, the leader, is the man released from the cave, then his obligations as. Mla Research. Dystopia , Jonas , Knowledge 1037 Words | 3 Pages. + Dissertations Theses Full. Thomas Araujo December 13, 2012 The Book Thief Essay In The Book Thief there are many references to words having . Guidelines Mla Research Paper. power.

Throughout the book , Liesel stole many books which would affect her life during World War II. She learns how to read and thesis, this allows her to guidelines, survive the essay, world of war. These books keep her away from the destruction and despair from the war. Liesel and Max, the Jewish man hiding in guidelines mla research paper her basement, give each other strength through the words and stories that they exchange. There are. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Mein Kampf 898 Words | 3 Pages. his job. Then Jonas’s sister Lily appears, asking for her “comfort object”—a community-issued stuffed elephant. The narrator refers to the comfort objects as . “imaginary creatures.

Jonas’s had been called a bear.” Analysis At the beginning of The Giver , we have a difficult time figuring out the setting of the novel. We do not know what it is that Jonas is afraid of—from the reference to unidentified aircraft, we might think that he lives in a war zone. When we find out that it is against the rules. Anxiety , Family 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Independent Novel Essay Small literary devices create maximized results in the novel, The Book Thief by Markus Zusak.

Zusak’s . novel is about a young girl, named Liesel Meminger, who after losing her brother was given away by her mother to a couple from Mochling, Germany, named Hans and Rosa Hubermann. The Hubermann’s raise Liesel well, helping her through chaos she went through, as Liesel made friends, like her best friend and unknown lover, Rudy Steiner. As Liesel explores her love of books and media, her thrive. For An Mla Research Paper. Adolf Hitler , Fiction , Foreshadowing 1395 Words | 4 Pages. Shaheed Awati Ms.Pindar ENG2D April 17, 2015 The Book Thief Essay The Book Thief written by the war, Mark . Zusak, which is guidelines mla research paper narrated by Death who is also a character in the story. Death states, ? “It’s just a small story really, about, among things: A small girl, some words, an essay, accordionist, some fanatical Germans, a Jewish fist fighter, and quite a lot of thievery” (Zusak 5). Mla Research Paper. ? Humans are capable of both great compassion and great evil based . Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Jews 1833 Words | 7 Pages. ?One of the main themes in The Book Thief is that words have the power to destroy and to save lives. More important, however, is that words can . change the argument bans, way a person feels. Whether written or spoken, words bring the characters in Zusak’s novel happiness, and guidelines mla research paper, fear. This novel also shows that words can sometimes be used for media coursework, evil. The words they encounter influence the moods of Liesel, and the people around her.

Several times throughout the story, words give people a feeling of happiness or serenity. Anger , Emotion , Happiness 935 Words | 2 Pages. For An Mla Research. Essay compare and contrast givers and takers. ? Givers versus Takers Givers versus Takers There is a reason why the biblical phrase it is . better to give than to receive is so popular. For a long time, authors described successful people in business as having talent and luck, but nowadays according to Adam Grant, they share another quality; they give back (Brandom, 2013, para 1). In this context a dilemma surfaces. One component that distinguishes organized cultures is whether the cultures themselves are framed. The Giver , Time 818 Words | 5 Pages. Media Coursework. Individualism, The Only Way. For An Mla Research. Persuasive Essay with Background on the Book: The Giver Jonas, a pale-eyed, different, calm, intelligent and abi/inform complete & text, determined kid was introduced in the plain Giver ?s society by Lois Lowry; society in which . everybody most be the guidelines for an mla research, same in terms of physical appearance and psychological structure, theres always tension because of that, fear of braking rules and being released (that in guidelines mla research paper this specific community means to be killed), theres a permanent seek for perfection that reaches the point of killing the weird people and the needs and worries of individuals are not even. Anarchism , Capitalism , Collectivism 1115 Words | 4 Pages. Smith 01 Peter Smith Professor Stone HUM 202 26 JAN 2013 Night Comes to the Cumberlands- Book Review Essay I recently . Theses Full Text. read a book titled “Night Comes to the Cumberlands” written by a man named Harry M. Caudill.

I chose this book for a couple of different reasons. The first is because after reviewing the book , I realized it was very thorough in guidelines mla research how it covered the plight of the argument essay on smoking, Appalachia people, it also goes into detail about how many different events from when his grandfather’s grandfather. Appalachia , Appalachian Mountains , Coal 2062 Words | 6 Pages. For An. Children’s Book Essay : The Tale of Peter Rabbit Human nature of children, adolescents, and argument essay bans, teens will at times resurrect the . urge to approach a rebellious stance, which include receiving various body piercings, consuming alcohol, and listening to loud music. Guidelines Mla Research Paper. This stance often challenges the intention of parents, who reared their young with hopes that their offspring would reflect good character and proper behavior. Consequently, rebellious children must endure negative repercussions, often affecting. Beatrix Potter , Peter Rabbit , The Tale of Benjamin Bunny 816 Words | 3 Pages. Paula Barragan Period 2 Ms. Bui 11.01.12 Euthanasia becomes a very important topic and conflict in ‘The Giver ’ as Jonas realizes what . Media. ‘releasing’ really means. What impacts him the most is the fact that his own father is the for an mla research, responsible of essay experience, many newchildren, or newborn children, being ‘released’.

Which leads him, Jonas, to take a really important choice to make the Community realize of what really happens and not just what they know. In our society, euthanasia is a very relevant concept, due. Idea , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 669 Words | 2 Pages. How the book tries to warn us about the importance of guidelines mla research, right of choice, feelings and experience, memories. Guidelines Mla Research Paper. The Giver is abi/inform + dissertations theses a very . Guidelines Mla Research Paper. distinguished novel written by Lois Lawry. It follows the story of a boy through the twelfth year of his life. Jonas?s world was perfect, and thesis, everything was under control.

In his “community ” there was no war, no pain, nor choices. At the guidelines for an mla research paper, time he turned twelve , he was assigned as the new memory receiver and was singled out to receive special training from the giver . So as he undergoes. Emotion , Feeling , Human 604 Words | 2 Pages. Bread Givers The book , Bread Givers is a novel written by argument bans, Anzia Yezierska following the lives of for an mla research, woman who have . to go through struggle because of new tradition verses old tradition. In the book I found that there are several themes within the book Bread Givers . Woman Rights, being one of them, seem to be an issue throughout the book . This book revolves around the lives of woman in 1812 that forged a nation thesis a household on Hester Street in New York City. In the 1920’s times were not easiest for immigrants. In this book. Daughter , English-language films , Family 1148 Words | 3 Pages. ever so greatly over the course of paper, time there are still factors that stand in its way, mainly book banning and the fact that the nation is abi/inform complete & theses text . becoming more and paper, more excepting of the media, fact, and not truly willing to take any action to prevent it what so ever. Though some pieces of literature might have instances of crude and unsettling language, it does not give the community the right to ban them. Mla Research Paper. Say no to the war that, book banning, say no to the man that believes to be above all others, say no to the system that. American Library Association , Book , Censorship 1103 Words | 3 Pages.

The Comparison and Contrast Essay the Book and the Movie. THE COMPARISON AND CONTRAST ESSAY THE BOOK AND THE MOVIE Two weeks ago I finished reading . the book “The Firm” by John Grisham. It was really interesting for me to guidelines for an, read this story because of the unpredictable plot and the bright characters. At that moment I thought that the book had a really fantastic ending. But when I saw the film about the war that forged a nation “The Firm”, I was surprised that the book and the movie could be so different. I was amazed with the last episodes of the movie. Antagonist , Crime , John Grisham 929 Words | 3 Pages. Miss Jane Pittman, Ernest Gaines Go Tell it on guidelines mla research, the Mountain, James Baldwin Black Boy, Richard Wright (memoir) Dystopian/Futuristic/Science Fiction . Ender’s Game, Orson Scott Card Slaughterhouse 5, Kurt Vonnegut Catch-22, Joseph Heller The Giver , Lois Lowry Martian Chronicles, Ray Bradbury Realism/Naturalism/Regionalism The Call of the on smoking, Wild, Jack London White Fang, Jack London O’Pioneers, Willa Cather My Antonia, Willa Cather Maggie, Girl of the paper, Streets, Stephen Crane The Jungle.

American novelists , American short story writers , Ernest Hemingway 494 Words | 2 Pages. 1984 Essay What do you think a normal human being needs to have a good, hearty life? What are the most basic needs that are vital to one’s . survival? According to theses full text, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as air, water, nourishment, and guidelines mla research, sleep. If such needs are not satisfied, then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the complete theses full text, needs basic to one’s bodily functioning.

Abraham Maslow , Big Brother , Dystopia 1788 Words | 4 Pages. Guidelines Mla Research Paper. The Giver - Essay The novel ‘The Giver ’ was written by Lois Lowry. It’s about experience school a boy, Jonas, who lives in a . highly controlled world. The Elders of the community try to make the mla research, community a utopia but in fact they take away human privacy and freedom of choice. They kill people without the individual knowing what is happening to them.

The Elders take away life and what it means to be human. The Elders spy on the community constantly. Surveillance is on every corner and in every home. Part of essay bans, being. Human , Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal 676 Words | 2 Pages. Capitalism, 1865-1900.

New York: Anchor Books , 2010. Paper $17.95. ISBN: 978-0-307-368677-9.. H. Guidelines. W. Brands attended Stanford . University where he earned a bachelor’s degree in history; he then went on to earn at masters and complete + dissertations & text, doctorate in history at for an mla research paper, the University of research, Texas in Austin. In addition to American Colossus, Brands has also written other books about history and biography like the guidelines paper, Man Who Saved the Union and American Dreams. 1812 The War That Forged Thesis. He has also edited books such as The Selected Letters of Theodore. American Civil War , Andrew Carnegie , John D. Rockefeller 849 Words | 3 Pages. “The Book of Negroes is a master piece, daring and impressive in its geographic, historical and human reach, convincing in its narrative art . and detail, necessary for imagining the for an mla research, real beyond the traces left by history.” I completely agree with The Globe and argument essay on smoking bans, Mail’s interpretation of this story. One could almost see the desolate conditions of the slave boats and guidelines for an mla research paper, feel the research essay outline, pain of guidelines for an mla research paper, every person brought into essay high, slavery. Lawrence Hill created a compelling story that depicts the hard ships, emotional turmoil. For An. Africa , African , African people 1281 Words | 4 Pages. love someone whose not loveable compared to someone who is. It embodies a hidden message made by Markus Zusak about love, through the use of Death, Hans, and . Liesel, in media his book about a family, the Hubermanns, taking in a foster child, Liesel Meminger, during the Holocaust in Nazi Germany.

In Zusak’s historical fiction novel The Book Thief, he promotes his theme of guidelines mla research, love is more powerful than anything else in essay on smoking bans the world. Surprisingly, Death, the narrator of the novel, shows the readers all of the love. Death , Foster care , Interpersonal relationship 895 Words | 4 Pages. changed the way i approached my work and things related to me. That’s why this book connected with me from the very beginning. For An Paper. The story of . the book revolves around the story of Mary Jane Ramirez and her workplace and how an accidental visit to a ‘Fish Market’ changed the way an entire department at an office as well she changed their style of that, working at work and improved relationships at home. As in the book the main character Mary – a person good at heart mother of 2 children - after the. Change , Employment , Pike Place Fish Market 1407 Words | 4 Pages. Question: Analyse how an idea is developed in mla research paper texts you have studied. Many meaningful language features and techniques are used by Markus Zusak in the . historical fiction novel; The Book Thief to abi/inform & full, develop the idea of guidelines paper, humanities extremes. Throughout this book these techniques work together to demonstrate the utter distinction between man-kinds potential for both beauty and cruelty. The idea of humanity is developed through specific use of juxtaposition, narrator’s perspective and symbolism.

This. Successful Studies. Evil , Good and evil , Markus Zusak 935 Words | 3 Pages. Aayush Shah 8-C The Giver (Speech) FREEDOM OF THOUGHT… FREEDOM OF SPEECH… FREEDOM OF ACTION… All these necessities for the mental . freedom of a human being were manipulated in the society in guidelines for an the book ‘the Giver ’. Lowry narrates The Giver in third person using a limited omniscient viewpoint in which only Jonas' thoughts and feelings are revealed. Through Jonas' eyes, his community appears to be a utopia — a perfect place — that is self-contained and isolated from research essay outline Elsewhere, every other place. Guidelines. Dystopia , Freedom of speech , Jonas 932 Words | 3 Pages. | The Giver | By: Lois Lowry | | Justice Otterstrom | 2/20/2013 | I thought that being the Receiver was a punishment.

He had to media coursework, . For An Mla Research Paper. know everything from before his time, and he had to live with feelings while no one else had any. Being the Receiver was more like a burden than an honor, even though it was considered an honor to the elders. Case. It was a huge punishment to guidelines, all of the research essay outline, previous receiver’s and the previous givers . Some Evidence to prove that it is a burden. For An Paper. He found that he. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 388 Words | 2 Pages. Essay on 1812 the war, BookHound of the Baskervilles The Hound of the Baskervilles was written by Arthur Conan Doyle in the august 1901,and was published in The Strand Magazine in guidelines for an mla research paper April 1902.This . book is not the argument on smoking bans, only one: it is the third book in the Sherlock Holmes series. Guidelines Mla Research. The genre of this book is detective: all other books from the 1812 the war that forged a nation, Sherlock Holmes Series is written in the same genre. The Hound of the guidelines for an, Baskervilles was listed in the BBC in 2003 as the “best-loved novel”. The action starts in the family house of the Baskervilles, Baskervilles Hall. Arthur Conan Doyle , Jeremy Brett , John Watson 1310 Words | 3 Pages.

? Student Number: 201423787 Course: GradDip Unit: OT501D: Old Testament Foundations Title: What is the theological function of the plague . narratives within the book of Exodus? Word limit: 2000 Word count: 1927 Date due: 16/4/2014 Date submitted: 15/4/2014 Disclaimer: The following essay , of which I have kept a copy, is entirely the work of the undersigned and all sources of ideas and expressions are duly acknowledged in argument essay bans footnotes or endnotes. Signed: Daniel Chieng Date. Guidelines For An Mla Research. Bible , Book of abi/inform complete + dissertations & theses, Exodus , God 2462 Words | 10 Pages. nature. For An Mla Research Paper. “The madness in the fact that the savage and the splendid can exist in one creature, one person and often in one instant.” I enjoyed reading . about Liesel Meminger in the novel The Book Thief by Markus Zusak. Media. Liesel is nine years old and lives in Nazi Germany. In the early chapters of the book we learn that her younger brother has dies, her father is missing ad her communist mother has arranged for her to be adopted by Hans and Rosa Hubermann. It is while Liesel is living in mla research paper the Hubermann’s. Acts of the Apostles , Adolf Hitler , Interpersonal relationship 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Book Analysis Essay - William Penn by John A. Moretta John A. Moretta, a history teacher at the University of Houston, wrote the . book William Penn and the Quaker Legacy which was a biography that told the tale of William Penn but reminded its readers that Penn was a legend and hero according to, . According to Moretta, Penn produced a Founding Father image and to him Penn “shaped the complete text, American creed and ideal” (pg.xi). In my opinion.

Creed , George Fox , Inner light 957 Words | 3 Pages. This book is about a young man who attends a small West Virginian High School. He lives in a house that is located off of the coal mine that . the town rests on. Homer’s dad is the manager of the mine. Homer doesn’t receive much appreciation from his father. Homer sees on television the launch of the satellite sputnik, and after seeing this he is driven to be a part of the space race.

He convinces some of his friends to help him build a rocket. They used terrible materials, and the rocket blew. Coalwood, West Virginia , Cold War , Homer Hickam 905 Words | 3 Pages. killed in mla research paper the attempt. Living conditions were not pleasant, “We walked all day. No water.

No food. No breaks to research essay, pee. If you had to go, you had to it and keep . walking with the for an paper, urine running down your sore legs and burning your broken skin” (116 The Book of Negroes) is what Aminata said of the experience. The slaves had to walk for months until they arrived at a boat to be shipped off to England. Being captured as a slave is successful outsourcing case studies bad enough but Aminata endured even more public humiliation.

Imagine walking. Black people , Embarrassment , Family 1010 Words | 3 Pages.

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Effects of War on Morality and Religion of a Person. Most people in paper, the world have experienced the effects caused by war. Research Essay Outline? War causes negative effects on guidelines for an, religion, moral values, death and argument destruction of properties. The morality of war has become a debatable issue in the modern society. This is because of the adverse effects caused by for an paper, war. Morality in the society is determined by the behavior and character of an individual. For example, society appreciates people having good behaviors as they are viewed as morally right. The society condemns people who have bad behavior as they are not morally right. Morality is made up of several elements like beliefs, values. Morality is important in the society as it determines the character of school members in the community. Guidelines Paper? Religion refers to the belief and worship of high god and any other system of belief and worship.

Various societies have different religions. People value religion much and they fight to guidelines for an mla research, preserve their religion. War has negative effects on + dissertations theses text, morality and religion. It affects morality and religion in for an paper, the society and forged a nation destroys them. This paper analyzes the effect of war on religion and morality of a person. Effects of war on religion Most religions have viewed war negatively (Argyle, 2003).

Need essay sample on Effects of War on Morality and Religion of a Person ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. The religions do not appreciate consequences caused by war like destruction of religion and death. Most people claim that war has no much effect on religion because religion fuel wars (Argyle, 2003). For An Mla Research Paper? This is not true because religion does not support the concept of war as it is morally wrong. Complete & Theses Text? People have associated war with religion as they claim religious leaders preach differences in faith and this leads to war (Argyle, 2003). In contrast war in mla research paper, the society is caused by various aspects. Case Studies? War in the society can be caused by ethnicity, hatred and economic and political factors. War has adverse effects on religion.

War has effects on for an, the church and the individuals. First, war leads to loose of faith held by various believers (Ausenda, 2002). This is because believers are exposed to various incidents that affect their faith. Most believers have strong relationship with God before war, but it weakens with time (Ausenda, 2002). During war time people are killed and other people are made to suffer and essay experience high school get injured. Believers get affected by guidelines for an, the incidents evidenced in war (Ausenda, 2002). For example, believers get traumatized during war activities and they end up loosing their faith. The faith of the 1812 that forged a nation thesis believer declines as people continue to guidelines for an mla research paper, fight. Most people get scared and outline fear to disclose their religion during war time (Argyle, 2003). This leads to decline in faith held by the believer (Ausenda, 2002). A recent research on effect of war on religion reveals that believer’s faith weakens as one is continuously exposed to war (Ausenda, 2002).

It also weakens when one looses loved ones during war time. Another effect of war is that believers loose religious beliefs and values. Most people forget religious teaching during war (Ausenda, 2002). This is because they want to revenge and kill. Most communities will always put aside religious beliefs and guidelines mla research paper values during war and continue to 1812 the war that a nation, fight (Argyle, 2003). This affects other believers who are close to the victims affected.

It also affects religious teaching as people do not follow what is taught by various religions (Ausenda, 2002). In addition, war leads to discrimination among religious leaders and churches (Ausenda, 2002). For An Mla Research? Most researchers argue that, the church is the major cause of war. This is because various religious groups differ in terms of beliefs (Ausenda, 2002). Different religions have different teaching that believers follow (Meriman, 2007). Religion opposes war like the French war.

The French war was a series of wars that took place in coursework, France for almost 36 years. For An Mla Research? The war involved various political groups (Meriman, 2007). Believers in the catholic and protestant churches fought hard to control the effects of war (Ausenda, 2002). The French war led to discrimination among believers. The Catholics did not want to be associated with protestant beliefs. Also, the war leads to destruction of societal norms and religious norms in the society. Thus, war leads to discrimination of various groups in the society. The discrimination can be in on smoking bans, different forms (Ausenda, 2002). It can be ethnicity, race, religious and social discrimination. Countries that had war have experienced various forms of discrimination.

For example, French experienced discrimination and destruction of social values after the war. Moreover, war leads to separation of guidelines for an religious groups (Ausenda, 2002). Argument Essay? This is because religious groups differ in religious issues and other social issues. Guidelines? The differences affect the development of the church and believers (Ausenda, 2002). For example, many churches have split into different religious groups. The process affects the development of religious activities in the church. This is successful studies because believers have different views and paper they no longer follow the teachings. 1812 That Thesis? This affects the religion of the person negatively. It can lead to confusion in guidelines, the church and lose of religious beliefs (Ausenda, 2002). Effects of war on morality The morality of war has become a hot topic in the modern world (Gert, 2005). This is because most people question the morality of war (Gert, 2005).

Some nation in the modern society and ancient nations have viewed war as noble and as a form of defense. Most people in essay high school, the modern society see war undesirable and morally problematic. Several theories have been established to judge the morality of war (Gert, 2005). Some of the theories support use of war. The authors of the theories consider war to be morally upright as people use it to defend them selves, and acquire economic benefits. They do not consider the effect war has on the morality of the participants, and the society. For example, just theory supports use of for an paper war to defend the society or country. Other people believe that war is not morally right and people should not fight.

People should not fight to defend their country or society, but they should exercise peace when solving disputes (Gert, 2005). War has adverse effects on forged, a person’s personality. Morality means a persons conduct (Gert, 2005). Societies have different moral values. Most societies appreciate people who have good behaviors. The society condemns people who have bad behaviors and guidelines paper as they affect the society negatively (Gert, 2005). War affects the morality of a person negatively. It affects the morality of people who fight during war and the society in research essay outline, general. War does more harm to guidelines paper, the moral of people in the society than property and other valuables.

The moral evil of war is suffered by people participating in the war and people n the society experiencing the war (Gert, 2005). Most researchers have carried out research to determine if war is moral or not. Most researchers argue that war is not moral because of the destruction it causes to property, lives and outsourcing moral values. Most people do not support use of war to for an mla research, settle disputes (Gert, 2005). Media Coursework? Christians and other people support pacifism. For An Mla Research Paper? Pacifism is the opposition to use of war to settle disputes. They encourage people to use peaceful means to argument essay bans, settle disputes. This is because of the adverse effects caused by guidelines for an paper, war like death, destruction of media coursework property, destruction of moral characters and religion. Christians believe that war is guidelines for an paper not ethical or it is not morally right (Gert, 2005). Experience High School? War affects the morality of mla research paper a person because it encourages killing, destruction and suffering (Gert, 2005).

There are no peaceful wars in the world. Most wars have negative effects to the society. Many people have lost lives, property because of war. Others have become traumatized and injured because of war (Gert, 2005). The society considers war to be immoral as it affects the morality of the soldiers and the community (Gert, 2005). First, war forces people to change their behavior. Research Essay? This is mainly among soldiers. People who have participated in war activities have great memories (Gert, 2005). Guidelines Mla Research? The memories make it difficulty to the war that thesis, live normal life. People adopt various lifestyles that influence their behavior so as to keep off the memories. This makes it hard for someone to behave well (Gert, 2005).

Also, war affects the morality of a person as it causes discrimination. War leads to mla research, discrimination of various groups in the society (Gert, 2005). Religious group, social groups or ethnic groups are discriminated as a result of war. This affects people living in the society as they change their moral values. People in the society will always want to revenge (Gert, 2005). This concept creates hatred in the community. According to a research carried out to essay, determine the effects of war, most people who have experienced war activities and guidelines paper participants of war will always want to revenge.

This is because the victims of essay experience high war are psychologically disturbed and traumatized (Gert, 2005). Most victims suffer from post traumatic depression and for an disorders and find it hard to forgive the bans perpetrators (Coady, 2008). The victims only think of revenge. The act of revenging affects the moral values of the victims and other people in the society (Coady, 2008). The victims of war are always vengeful because of the traumatization and brutalization they faced in the war.

This makes it easy for the victims to bring another cycle of war as they want to revenge. The victims do not care the effect of the war on their morality and the morality of other people (Coady, 2008). The victims of war believe that revenging is the only way they will get social justice. They develop various vices like hatred, anger and start behaving awkwardly (Coady, 2008). War has adverse effects on the morality of a person as it causes destruction of character. For example, Jewish survivors of the Nazi genocide hated Germans because of brutalization and guidelines mla research paper traumatization they faced. The Jews developed anger and hatred towards the Germans and wanted to revenge (Coady, 2008). Children affected by war are always brutalized (Coady, 2008). War has negative implications on children moral norms and they end up growing being immoral (Coady, 2008).

Many children who have been brutalized during ware times end up being in human in the society. This is because of the pain the children undergo. The children find it difficulty to cope with other people in the society and they end up living in fear (Coady, 2008). Others withdraw completely from the society as a result of depression and essay experience high school mental disorders. Some of the children indulge in irresponsible behaviors like criminal activities and immorality as they loose their moral principles (Coady, 2008). According to report released by United Nations children fund, children affected by war suffer psychologically and for an paper loose moral values.

The children are referred to as lost generation in successful studies, the society. Thus, war has adverse effects than the benefits people associate with it (Coady, 2008). Most victims of war find it hard to heal or recover from trauma experiences (Coady, 2008). This is because the victims find it difficulty to come to terms with the past and accept what happened. They always suffer internally (Coady, 2008). The victims of war are supposed to be counseled frequently so as to relieve the trauma. This makes it easy for the victims to accept what happened and regain moral values.

Most victims always feel betrayed after war activities (Coady, 2008). The victims find it hard to mla research, cope with normal life. Media Coursework? War generates moral knowledge that makes the victim to question about the world and their values and guidelines mla research paper proprieties (Coady, 2008). This is because victims of war always carry biter knowledge that no limit that exists and essay high school any one can suffer the way they suffered. Questions like why, why me are always part and for an mla research paper parcel of victims of war and d they affect the moral values of the person. The traumatic experiences make it hard for people to coexist in the society. Victims of war struggle to outsourcing studies, regain moral values and heal from effects of war (Coady, 2008). Most soldiers engage in illegal activities during war (Coady, 2008). They kill people in the society. War forces soldiers to change moral values like honesty, respect for life and crime to murder and for an paper other vices. The moral values they acquire are not inline with the society (Coady, 2008).

The society does not appreciate killing, dishonesty and destruction of property. Thus, the participants are considered immoral and the society condemns them. The soldiers do not realize whether they are acting against their moral principles (Coady, 2008). In addition, the participant looses their integrity and people in the society consider their moral values obscured (Coady, 2008). Abi/inform Complete + Dissertations & Theses Full? He also loses the religious purity and honor accorded by the society. Guidelines? This is because he causes death of fellows men in essay on smoking bans, the society and destruction of the property. The effect of war makes it dificuity for participants of the war to retain their moral principles even after the war (Coady, 2008).

This is because the person has the same spirit to kill over and over. This makes it difficulty for the participants to coexist with other members of the society. Another way through which war affects morality is through profession (Coady, 2008). War affects the profession of for an many participants. This is because the participants are employed to work at war times (Coady, 2008). After destruction of property and loose of life, participants loose dignity and research outline respect from the society and their profession. Most people in the society do not appreciate the professions held by various people in the society. Guidelines Mla Research? Thus, war affects the person morality negatively (Coady, 2008). Complete &? People who know the moral law of God do not appreciate war (Coady, 2008). Guidelines? War has more effects on the morals of a person as it deprives victims of war happiness and instead makes them have hatred and are always resentful (Coady, 2008).

Hatred and resentment are vices that are not allowed by the moral law of God. War always leads to more resentment as it has more evil. War forces victim of war to retaliate and revenge which is against the Christian principles and morals of the society. Christianity does not encourage the spirit of resentment as it is not morally right (Coady, 2008). But, victims of war end up being more resentful and lack happiness.

This is because war promotes the spirit of complete + dissertations full resentfulness (Coady, 2008). War activates the vices like hatred, resentful and killing. This makes it difficulty for guidelines for an mla research, people to live in abi/inform complete theses full, peace and happiness as it causes more harm than benefit. IT causes destruction of property and death of members of the society. It is hard for Christianity to flourish under the circumstances of war. The more a person is exposed to war, the more his religion diminishes (Coady, 2008). Countries experiencing war frequently do not have strong religious groups and people always fear to expresses their faith. This causes degradation of religious values and moral principles of the Christians. Religion helps build the moral principles in the society. Guidelines For An Mla Research? It teaches people how to live together and how to behave (Coady, 2008). Lack of religion in the society leads to coursework, high rates of immorality as people have no moral principles.

War and Christianity do not work together. Vices resulting from war activities are contagious. This is paper because they can be transferred from one person to another person in the society (Coady, 2008). For example, people who develop hatred and become vengeful during war times are likely to transfer the vices to other members in the society. The vices affect the moral principles of the person and moral principles of other people in abi/inform + dissertations theses full, the society.

This increases immorality in the society (Coady, 2008). Guidelines For An? War accumulates immorality and crime in the society which have harmful effects as they demoralize the public (Coady, 2008). War affects the moral development of children. This is because children ignore moral values that are acceptable in the society. For example, children ignore moral values like love. This is common among children living in argument bans, war zones (Coady, 2008). This was evidenced in mla research paper, a study carried out to 1812 forged, research moral development of Columbian children living in war zones. According to the study carried out by researchers at the University of Utah, the children showed an understanding that hurting and stealing is wrong (Coady, 2008). But, the children considered revenge as important . The children accepted that it is important to steal or hurt others so as to revenge.

Teenagers were more affected than other children in the population. War affected moral development of the children as they were exposed to traumatization and brutalization (Coady, 2008). Children in more than 50 countries in the world grow up in the amidst of for an mla research paper armed conflicts and the experience of argument essay on smoking bans war activities. In Colombia, more than 2 million children have been displaced from guidelines paper, their homes (Zupan, 2004). The conflicts in the region have affected the media coursework children moral knowledge as they do not know what is wrong and what is right. According to the study, the children had clear understanding of what is wrong and right before the war (Zupan, 2004).

But, the knowledge they had changed after the war. The children accepted that it is important to love other people and promote justice in the society. But, they were unable to do so because of the defects of war. Guidelines For An? The children learned how to survive in outsourcing studies, war zone by revenging. Guidelines For An Mla Research Paper? Others survived in essay experience high school, the area through stealing and hurting others (Zupan, 2004). The children were displaced and they could not learn moral values. The situations created by war activities forced the teenagers to breach moral principles they have acquired before the war (Zupan, 2004). The study showed that war zones and displacement of children presents youths with opportunities to reflect on intrinsic features of activities that harm other people.

War activities create potential vulnerabilities in children’s moral lives (Zupan, 2004). This forces children to lack moral guidance and children become ignorant and vengeful. This causes more cycles of violence in the region. The children grow up having moral principles that are not acceptable in the society. Some of the children indulge in criminal activities and guidelines paper immoralities as they have wrong moral principles. High? Hence, war has more effects on the moral development of young children (Zupan, 2004). Conclusion Most people do not support war as it has adverse effects like death, destruction of religions and moral principles in the society. War has more effects on human morals, religion and guidelines for an mla research life than property or zany thing else. Researchers have developed theories to explain whether war is moral or not. For example, the just theory supports war as the successful outsourcing studies researchers assumed the benefits of guidelines mla research paper war are more than the consequences.

Other researchers do not think that war is morally right. This is because it has more adverse effects to human beings than benefits. For example, pacifism argues that people should use peace methods to solve conflicts. The War Forged Thesis? War has adverse effects on religion. This is because victims of war are exposed to traumatization and brutalization. This affects the religious faith they have. The more people continue to be exposed to war activities, the more they loose their religion. People find it hard to cope with what happened and they turn away from religious activities.

In addition, war leads to destruction of for an mla research paper religion. This is because religion cannot survive in war zone and people fear to expresses their faith. This leads to coursework, break up of churches and religions can also diminish. Moreover, war leads to development of ices that are against guidelines religious activities. For exampled, people develop hatred, become vengeful. People will always want to revenge and successful case studies discrimination becomes common in the society. For An Mla Research Paper? War has adverse effects on morality of a person.

It leads to destruction of moral [principles. Victims of argument war will always want to revenge and cause more violence. Mla Research? This destroys moral principles of a person. Also, war makes someone to discriminate and hate other people in the society. This is because of traumatization and brutalization, the person has undergone. Victims of war will always involve themselves in activities which are against the moral principles of the society liked crimes and immorality. Further, war affects the moral development of children. Children living in war zones develop moral principles that are not inline with societal morals principles.

Children become vengeful, hateful and involve themselves in criminal activities. Thus, war has more harm than benefit on the moral principles and religion of a person.

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What is the capacity of short term memory? Short-term memory is the memory for a stimulus that lasts for a short while (Carlson, 2001). Guidelines For An Mla Research Paper? In practical terms visual short-term memory is often used for a comparative purpose when one cannot look in two places at once but wish to compare two or more possibilities. Tuholski and colleagues refer to short-term memory as being the concomitant processing and storage of information (Tuholski, Engle, Baylis, 2001). They also highlight the fact that cognitive ability can often be adversely affected by working memory capacity. It is particularly important to essay bans be clear on paper the normal capacity of short term memory as, without a proper understanding of the intact brain’s functioning it is difficult to assess whether an individual has a deficit in ability (Parkin, 1996). This review outlines George Miller’s historical view of short-term memory capacity and how it can be affected, before bringing the school, research up to guidelines date and illustrating a selection of ways of measuring short-term memory capacity. The historical view of short-term memory capacity. The span of absolute judgement is defined as the limit to the accuracy with which one can identify the magnitude of a unidimensional stimulus variable (Miller, 1956), with this limit or span traditionally being around 7 + 2. Miller cites Hayes memory span experiment as evidence for his limiting span. In this participants had to recall information read aloud to them and results clearly showed that there was a normal upper limit of 9 when binary items were used.

This was despite the constant information hypothesis, which has suggested that the span should be long if each presented item contained little information (Miller, 1956). The conclusion from Hayes and Pollack’s experiments (see figure 1) was that the argument, amount of information transmitted increases in a linear fashion along with the amount of information per unit input (Miller, 1956). Figure 1. Measurements of memory for information sources of different types and bit quotients, compared to guidelines expected results for constant information. Results from research outline Hayes (left) and Pollack (right) cited by guidelines mla research paper, (Miller, 1956) Miller refers to a ‘bit’ of information as ‘the amount of information needed to make a decision between two equally likely alternatives’. Thus a simple either or decision requires one bit of information; with more required for more complex decisions, along a binary pathway (Miller, 1956). Media Coursework? Decimal digits are worth 3.3 bits apiece, meaning that a 7-digit phone number (that which is easily remembered) would involve 23 bits of information. However an apparent contradiction to this is the fact that, if an English word is worth around 10 bits and only 23 bits could be remembered then only 2-3 words could be remembered at guidelines for an mla research, any one time, obviously incorrect.

The limiting span can better be understood in terms of the assimilation of abi/inform complete + dissertations & bits into chunks. Miller distinguishes between bits and chunks of information, the distinction being that a chunk is made up of guidelines paper multiple bits of information. It is interesting to note that whilst there is abi/inform full, a finite capacity to remember chunks of mla research paper information, the research outline, amount of bits in each of for an paper those chunks can vary widely (Miller, 1956). However it is not a simple case of being able to remember large chunks immediately, rather that as each bit becomes more familiar, it can be assimilated into a chunk, which is then remembered itself. Recoding is the process by argument essay on smoking, which individual bits are ‘recoded’ and assigned to chunks. Thus the conclusions that can be drawn from for an mla research paper Miller’s original exposition is that, whilst there is an successful studies accepted limit to the number of chunks of information that can be stored in immediate (short-term) memory, the amount of for an mla research information within each of those chunks is able to outline be quite high, without adversely affecting the recall of the same number of chunks. The modern view of short-term memory capacity. Millers magic number 7+2 has been more recently redefined to the magic number 4+1 (Cowan, 2001). The challenge has come from results such as those from Chen and Cowan, in which the predicted results from an guidelines paper experiment were that immediate serial recall of the war that forged a nation absolute numbers of singleton words would be the same as the number of chunks of learned pair words. However in fact it was found that the same number of pre-exposed singleton words was recalled as the number of words within learned pairs - eg 8 words (presented as 8 singletons or 4 learned pairs). However 6 learned pairs could be recalled as successfully as 6 pre-exposed singleton words (Chen Cowan, 2005).

This suggested a different mechanism for guidelines, recall depending on the circumstances. Cowan refers to the maximum number of chunks that can be recalled as the memory storage capacity (Cowan, 2001). It is noted that the number of chunks can be affected by long-term memory information, as indicated by Miller in terms of recoding - with additional information to enable this recoding coming from long-term memory. Factors affecting apparent short-term memory. The propensity to use rehearsal and memory aids is a serious complication in accurately measuring the capacity of short-term memory. Indeed many of the studies ostentatiously measuring short-term memory capacity have been argued to be actually measuring the ability to rehearse and access long-term memory stores (Cowan, 2001). Given that recoding involves rehearsal and the use of long-term memory formation, anything that prevents or influences these will obviously affect the ability to recode successfully (Cowan, 2001). Short-term memory capacity may be limited when information overload precludes recoding (Cowan, 2001). For instance, if attention is directed away from the target stimulus during presentation there is too much information being processed to attend properly to the target stimulus.

Therefore fewer items would be remembered as they would have been replaced by information from this alternate direction. Similarly, but actually distinguished quite definitively by complete + dissertations theses, Cowan, are techniques such as the requirement to guidelines mla research paper repeat a separate word during the target stimulus presentation, which acts to prevent rehearsal. Altering stimulus frequency and outsourcing case studies format. It has been found that, if a word list contains words of long and short length words, recall is better for the length that occurs least frequently, thus is more individually distinct (Chen Cowan, 2005). Guidelines For An? Similarly the word length effect indicates that memory span is higher for experience high, words with a shorter spoken duration; syllable length varying as long as the mla research, spoken duration remains relatively constant (Parkin, 1996).

This is similar to Miller’s chunking of complete theses information, if one were to assume that the guidelines for an mla research, spoken duration was a chunk of information and the syllable length was the bit of information. Associations between components of information. Associations between the pieces of information presented can influence capacity. Cowan illustrates this using the letter sequence fbicbsibmirs which on first glance looks like a meaningless string that would require memory of 12 separate bits of information. However, on closer examination it can be seen that there are in fact 4 separate 3 letter chunks, namely ‘fbi, ‘cbs’, ‘ibm’ and ‘irs’. Now, if these had been random letter strings with no associated meaning there would be little chunk, or indeed likelihood of chunking the letters. However it is suggested that the argument essay, well known acronyms of guidelines for an mla research governmental and industry organisations considerably aids recoding, thus memory.

The conclusion made is that chunking, thus information recall, is outsourcing case, aided if there are strong long-term memory associations within chunks, but minimal associations between chunks (Cowan, 2001). This enables each chunk to be remembered separately without overlap to another chunk. Short-term memory has traditionally be assumed to be time limited, in that information is only able to stay in the memory store for a specific time. Guidelines Mla Research? However this assertion has been challenged and instead a form of information replacement has been suggested, whereby a finite capacity to short-term memory ensures that the entry of a new piece of information displaces an older one (Cowan, 2001). Methods of research outline measuring the capacity of short-term memory.

There are a variety of guidelines for an mla research paper methods used to measure the capacity of short-term memory. These include enumeration, whole report and on smoking bans alphanumeric span tasks (taken to have a 4 chunk upper limit), and recall of guidelines for an mla research visual stimuli, multi-object tracking and repetition priming (all argued to show an upper limit of less than 4) (Avons, Ward, Russo, 2001). The following section outlines a brief methodology of short-term memory measurement for selected experiment types, along with a summary of results thus far obtained. Enumeration tasks involve presenting a participant with n objects to count, and measuring the reaction time for media coursework, each number. It is guidelines mla research paper, argued that the smaller the working memory capacity, the steeper the reaction time slopes would be (Tuholski et al., 2001). As can be seen from figure 2 below; using lines as the object to count; the essay school, reaction time is relatively constant until more than 4 lines are presented, at which point reaction time increases sharply. This indicates that 4 lines is the easy upper limit in terms of this particular version of short-term memory. The authors conclude that it is the controlled processing element of mla research paper counting that limits the working memory span. This has been described as subitizing, in essay bans, which a few items can be readily and rapidly attended, but more items require a steep increase in for an paper, both reaction time and overall time required to attend to the items (Cowan, 2001).

Figure 2. An example of results obtained from an media coursework enumeration task (adapted from (Tuholski et al., 2001) It could be argued, however, that enumeration isn’t measuring short-term memory as much as counting ability. Further it has been indicated that enumeration is invariably only related to individuated items (Cowan, 2001), eg bits rather than chunks, so it is not clear what results would occur if it were not. Whole report procedures involve recalling all possible stimuli from an guidelines for an array presented. This contrasts to partial report procedures, in media, which only guidelines for an mla research specific stimuli need to research essay outline be recalled, usually in response to guidelines for an paper a specific cue. Cowan reports results indicating that short-term memory capacity is 4 for whole report procedures and links this to successful case sensory memory (Cowan, 2001). Figure 3 below shows Cowan’s suggested nested information procedure for whole report.

In this any and all information is elevated from the activated long-term memory store into the focus of attention until this latter is full (Cowan, 2001). This contrasts to for an partial report measures; in which only coursework cued items enter the focus of attention. Figure 3. Processing in whole report procedures (Cowan, 2001) Multi-object tracking is guidelines paper, carried out using flashing dots on a computer screen. Participants are required to identify which of the finally presented dots have flashed at the start of the procedure (a in figure 4), having watched the dots move around the screen (b in figure 4 below). Figure 4. An example of the dots used in successful studies, a multi object tracking procedure (Cavanagh Alvarez, 2005) Repetition priming involves the presentation of a series of words and nonwords, which includes repetition of for an paper words with a variable number of other items intervening. The repeated word is said to be primed and the specific measure is the reaction time to research this repeated word.

It has been found that up to 4 items can be reliably recognised in guidelines, this way (Cowan, 2001) (see figure 5 below). McKone argues that repetition priming is an accurate measure of short-term memory capacity as the long lists of words prevent rehearsal, as does the inclusion of essay bans nonwords (McKone, 2000). Indeed she goes on to explain that capacity, as measured by primed repetition is related to the limited nature of the focus of attention. Figure 5. The reaction time and guidelines for an paper number of high school words recognised from primed (old) words in a repetition priming experiment (McKone, 2000) There is still much debate about the capacity of short-term memory and the accuracy of measuring it. It is for an mla research paper, difficult to 1812 forged a nation thesis separate genuine short-term memory capacity from the more working memory capacity that is paper, affected by essay on smoking, rehearsal.

Whilst researchers may argue that they have managed to remove all rehearsal (probably the guidelines for an, most crucial thing affecting short-term memory capacity) that cannot be definitively proven as humans can attend to more than one stimulus at any one time. Nevertheless whilst Miller’s original work is still seminal in the area of short-term memory capacity it is true to essay on smoking bans say that his conclusions of 7 + 2 has now been superseded to 4 + 1. Avons, S. Guidelines Mla Research Paper? E., Ward, G., Russo, R. (2001). The dangers of taking capacity limits too literally. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 114-115. Carlson, N. 1812 The War Forged Thesis? (2001). For An? Learning and memory: Basic mechanisms. Research Essay Outline? Physiology of guidelines behaviour (7th ed.) (pp. 423-465).

Boston: Allyn and essay high Bacon. Cavanagh, P., Alvarez, G. Guidelines For An Mla Research? A. Outline? (2005). Tracking multiple targets with multifocal attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(7), 349-354. Chen, Z., Cowan, N. (2005). Guidelines For An Mla Research? Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249. Argument On Smoking? Cowan, N. Guidelines? (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory : A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 87-114; discussion 114-85.

Delvenne, J. F. (2005). The capacity of visual short-term memory within and between hemifields. Cognition, 96(3), B79-88. Green, C. S., Bavelier, D. (2005). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: The case of action video game players. [Electronic version].

Cognition, in press, 1-29. McKone, E. (2000). Complete + Dissertations & Theses Full? Capacity limits in continuous old-new recognition and in short-term implicit memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 24(1), 130-131. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97. Parkin, A. J. (1996).

Spoken language impairments. In A. J. Mla Research? Parkin (Ed.), Explorations in cognitive neuropsychology (1st ed.) (pp. 129-153). Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press. Tuholski, S. W., Engle, R. W., Baylis, G. School? C. Paper? (2001). Individual differences in working memory capacity and enumeration. Memory Cognition, 29(3), 484-492. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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