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Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy Essay. Hundreds of essay, philosophers existed thousands of narrative essay different, years ago. It was a time when the only leisure you could probably do was think, theorize, analyze and discover things. Obviously, two thousand years can change the habit of people and these days, thinking would take a lot of campaign essay, effort. The discovery of new things never stop as people have that urge to essay moving continue improves lives. Literacy! In history and philosophy classes, great thinkers and philosophers were often studied. It is pretty amazing to read their works and come up with such incredible thoughts at marketing mix essay paper that time. Often, they talk about leadership and politics. It was a time when countries are still developed and lands are yet to essay be discovered so a great leadership was very important.
Although we would still analyze and review the philosophers’ works, more often their teachings cannot be applied to the current times. Friends Vs Enemies Essay! Sometimes change does not only involve technology and advancement, it can also apply to leadership and certain philosophical views. A great factor would involve the changing times. The lifestyle and the culture of the people are much different thousands of years ago. It was a time that women were limited to do domestic chores. Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, wrote about what they of women during that time. It was probably a time when the role of women in literacy, the society is not defined. Of course, women nowadays are powerful and moving different country, strong. They have created their mark in the society and gender bias in a lot of major industries is non-existent. That is campaign essay, why a lot of rules and laws cannot be applied to the world today.
However, there are still some teachings that can be used up to now. These are the teachings that involve a great perspective in life. Sometimes, an illustrious perspective on essay moving country, life makes a person great. Anyway, the brain is the most powerful organ that is why the mind should take control of one’s lives. Teachings about life are very important that is why some philosophers and great thinkers are idolized and essay, people formed a religion to teaching to children continue preaching their teachings. One of the literacy campaign, members of the ap european dbq essay questions, long list of philosophers is Boethius. Although not as familiar as Aristotle and Plato, Anicius Manlius Severinus is the real name of this Roman philosopher but he was more famously known as Boethius.
Boethius was born from a wealthy and educated family and like any other kids during that time; he studied poetry, mathematics and philosophy. Theodoric, the Gothic King ruling from Italy to Rome, appointed him court minister. Soon, his two sons became court ministers as well. He was a bold and brave man, with thoughts envied by a lot of people. His boldness is campaign essay, what brought him down as he became the object of vengeance of those oppressed. Boethius was known to check in the oppressions of some leaders. He was then accused of treason and was stripped of moving different country, his dignities. In 524, he was executed in literacy campaign, Pavia.
While in prison, Boethius immersed himself in writing and there he wrote his greatest work. His masterpiece, The Consolation of Philosophy, talks about random thoughts about nature, justice and evil doings. The Consolation of coy mistress essay, Philosophy is campaign, a work mixed of prose and critical skills, verse. It is essay, a copy of teaching critical thinking skills, Boethius conversation with Philosophy during the lonely years of the prisoners’ life. The work was theistic overall but it did not indicate whether the writer was Christian or not. Literacy Essay! In the Consolation of Philosophy, Philosophy showed Boethius how uncertain earthly fortune is and there is nothing more secure than virtue. Boethius was the last great Roman writer who translated Aristotle’s work. His translations were the sole means of essay, studying Greek philosophy for a long time. His manuals on geometry, music, philosophy, arithmetic and astronomy were used in medieval schools. It may seem that Boethius may be having apparitions in his prison, but these visions came with a great message and a deeper insight. Boethius saw the reason behind his imprisonment and his conversations with Philosophy ended his misery and opened his eyes to better things, better perception.
There was more to a great fortune and earthly things. Literacy Campaign! It was probably some of the great things that Philosophy advised him that can still be applied up to the modern times. The first part of the vs enemies essay, book opens with Boethius having some afternoon thinking and writing when all of a sudden a woman appears in front of her. He described the woman as very beautiful and having a very powerful presence. He distinctively described her dress having embroidered the Greek letter Pi at the bottom and on the top hem, Theta. Literacy Campaign Essay! There was a ladder in between the two letters. She was holding books to her right hand and a scepter in the left. She was the Muse of narrative essay different country, Poetry. Boethius was currently having one of literacy campaign, his many melancholy moments. Tears were trickling down Boethius’ eyes when the coy mistress, Muse of Poetry became angry.
She was questioning the existence of sluts in Boethius’ place. She says that they only provide him temporary happiness that will not help him in his condition but instead will worsen it. The Muse of Poetry then pushed away the campaign, girls and they left in dismay. Questions! Boethius was teary-eyed as they left but eventually the literacy essay, Muse will explain why she did such thing (O’Donnell 21). The first part of the book shows how deserted Boethius feelings was in essay, the prison that he tries to literacy enjoy his self from getting temporary happiness. Apparitions or not, the Muse of Poetry shooed away the cause of all these but Boethius couldn’t help but feel terrible of her act he even questioned her authority. This lesson can still be applied to modern times. Often, when people have problems they are pushed to do band-aid solutions that will give them a short term solution to their problem. It is such an mix essay, emotional thing to do that people do not even think of the long term effect or even the long term solution to their problem. A concrete example would be poverty.
It is a sad fact that poor people are often pushed to do the bad thing. When a person is literacy essay, desperate to get food, he often steals. This solution just makes things more complicated as that person ends up ruining his life by spending it in jail. It is one of the many things that emotions take over and the mind stays behind. People often think of coy mistress essay, short-term solutions to their problems without considering the long-term consequences of essay, these short-term solutions.
The next stanza talks about coy mistress how the Muse of Poetry consoled Boethius grieving soul. It was very well written with descriptions of how miserable Boethius has been. She assured Boethius that everything was going to be okay and that it was a time of campaign, healing not grieving. The Muse narrated how he brought up Boethius—being the great man that he is now. And although his situation may seem to be not bright, these too shall pass for the Muse is there to protect him and assure him that his virtues will prevail in critical skills, this hardship (O’Donnell 24). This stanza was definitely was of the most touching part of the book. Really, this was the consolation of philosophy and one can’t help but feel for Boethius suffering. Campaign Essay! He was deprived of the life he deserved yet his imprisonment didn’t stop him from world criteria writing wonderful works.
The second stanza also hints on the probable religion of the Philosopher—Christianity. The Muse somehow reminds me of Mother Mary and how she would protect her son from danger. Literacy Essay! It also signifies that the philosopher believes in a supernatural being that is more powerful than the earthly soul. Like any other human being, Boethius was going through probably the marketing mix essay, toughest battle in his life. Essay! And every human goes through that. No matter how driven or optimistic we are in our lives, there will always come a point that we want to give up. What the Muse was trying to friends vs enemies communicate was that Boethius was born and campaign essay, made greater than his problems.
And that does not exempt us. This made be theistic, but God won’t give us a problem that we could not bear. It is just normal that we feel like giving up at times especially when all hope’s lost but all we have to do is to stick to coy mistress that goal and campaign essay, the universe will conspire to make life better for us. The next stanza talks about how the night ended and the day started with Boethius describing his physician examining him. The physician turned out to be Philosophy and she narrated how she has been with Boethius all along. She narrated how she started with Plato and essay, Socrates and how she has turned out to be what she is essay, now. World Literature! She explained to Boethius how she has been taking care of him all throughout his life. The next stanza narrates his conversation with Philosophy. She tested him of the essay, things he knew and welcomed him of her questions. The first thing that Philosophy asked him was if believed that life is full of history dbq essay questions, chances. And he bluntly answered that God governs his creations and everything happens for a reason and he will never abandon His creation.
The Philosophy then asked him why he was in such grief when he believes that God knows the best for him. By then, the writer was dumbstruck for he did not know the answer. The Philosophy knew something was missing and she was right. Boethius soon confessed that he was overpowered by grief. He knew the campaign essay, answer but he was just miserable to realize that the answer was just right in front of marketing mix essay, him. Philosophy then declared that the reason of his sickness is his grief and it was he who created all of those (O’Donnell 28). The following lines were so powerful that one cannot help but relate to Boethius’ situation. Pretty sure every one has gone through that pain. It was a feeling of emptiness and pity.
It was as if the campaign essay, world has gone against us and everything is so not going our way. Coy Mistress Essay! At the back of our minds, we know that something great is literacy, lurking around. We just have to teaching be patient as good things come to those who wait. It was also just a matter of believing and campaign, working for whatever it that we want. It was a matter of realizing that we are in control of our lives—through God’s guidance that is. In general, the teachings of coy mistress, Philosophy can definitely still be applied to modern times. We all go through trials no matter what time or age we may be. Literacy! It is just a matter of perspective.
And although Boethius didn’t have any material thing left for him, it was his virtue that was more important than anything else. Moving Different! And that applies to all of campaign essay, us as well. Work Cited O’Donell, J. Life of Boethius. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Pages, 1996. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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How Laissez-Faire Made Sweden Rich. Sweden often gets held up as an example of how socialism can work better than markets. But, as Norberg shows, Sweden’s history in fact points to the opposite essay conclusion. Once upon a time I got interested in theories of economic development because I had studied a low-income country, poorer than Congo, with life expectancy half as long and infant mortality three times as high as the mix essay paper average developing country. That country is my own country, Sweden—less than 150 years ago. At that time Sweden was incredibly poor—and hungry. When there was a crop failure, my ancestors in northern Sweden, in Angermanland, had to mix bark into the bread because they were short of flour. Life in towns and cities was no easier. Overcrowding and a lack of health services, sanitation, and refuse disposal claimed lives every day. Well into the twentieth century, an ordinary Swedish working-class family with five children might have to literacy essay, live in one room and ib english world criteria, a kitchen, which doubled as a dining room and campaign essay, bedroom. Many people lodged with other families.
Housing statistics from Stockholm show that in 1900, as many as 1,400 people could live in friends vs enemies essay, a building consisting of 200 one-room flats. In conditions like these it is little wonder that disease was rife. People had large numbers of children not only for lack of contraception, but also because of the risk that not many would survive for literacy, long. As Vilhelm Moberg, our greatest author, observed when he wrote a history of the Swedish people: “Of all the wondrous adventures of the Swedish people, none is more remarkable and ap european history dbq essay questions, wonderful than this: that it survived all of them.” 1. But in one century, everything was changed. Sweden had the fastest economic and social development that its people had ever experienced, and one of the fastest the world had ever seen. Between 1850 and 1950 the average Swedish income multiplied eightfold, while population doubled. Infant mortality fell from 15 to literacy campaign, 2 per cent, and average life expectancy rose an incredible 28 years. A poor peasant nation had become one of the world’s richest countries. Many people abroad think that this was the triumph of the questions Swedish Social Democratic Party, which somehow found the perfect middle way, managing to literacy campaign, tax, spend, and regulate Sweden into a more equitable distribution of wealth—without hurting its productive capacity. And so Sweden—a small country of nine million inhabitants in the north of Europe—became a source of coy mistress inspiration for people around the world who believe in government-led development and distribution.
But there is something wrong with this interpretation. In 1950, when Sweden was known worldwide as the great success story, taxes in Sweden were lower and the public sector smaller than in the rest of Europe and the United States. It was not until then that Swedish politicians started levying taxes and disbursing handouts on a large scale, that is, redistributing the wealth that businesses and workers had already created. Sweden’s biggest social and economic successes took place when Sweden had a laissez-faire economy, and widely distributed wealth preceded the literacy campaign essay welfare state. This is the story about how that happened. Friends Vs Enemies Essay? 2 It is a story that must be learned by countries that want to be where Sweden is today, because if they are to accomplish that feat, they must do what Sweden did back then, not what an already-rich Sweden does now. In 1763 Anders Chydenius, a young priest from Osterbotten in literacy campaign, Finland (then part of Sweden), sat down to write his contribution to an essay contest. The question he would answer was the most important in Sweden at the time: “Why do so many people leave Sweden?” Emigration had increased and coy mistress essay, was seen as a big problem.
The common interpretation was that people were lazy and greedy, and instead of assuming responsibility and working hard, they were tempted by promises of an literacy essay, easier life abroad. Chydenius’s response was the opposite. There is nothing wrong with emigration, he wrote. The problem is the oppressive and corrupt system that makes it impossible for people to stay in teaching thinking to children, Sweden and build a good life there. In detailing all the essay abuses, regulations, and taxes that destroyed opportunity, Chydenius outlined a radical laissez-faire critique of the Swedish government. He showed that privileges, license requirements, and trade prohibitions protected a small lazy aristocracy and stopped hard-working people from making their own luck. High taxes confiscated whatever they managed to create; a corrupt justice system made it impossible for them to win against the powerful; and restrictions on the press made it illegal for them to complain about it. “Fatherland without freedom and merit is a big word with little meaning,” he pointed out. Chydenius was a modern priest, steeped in Enlightenment ideas. He spread science and medicine to the region and helped farmers to improve agricultural production with modern methods. He was also familiar with the French Physiocrats’ economic ideas.
But most of all his firsthand experience of the suffering of the people accounts for his political and economic worldview. Others thought the poor were lazy and hopeless, at best the object of their pity. Chydenius turned this perspective on its head: The poor are intelligent and hard working—they had to be to survive in such a harsh geographical and economic climate. The problem was that they had to devote most of that energy and hard work to avoiding regulations, taxes, and corruption. Therefore one thing he struggled persistently against was class legislation, which forced the history questions poor to work for the aristocrats and big farmers, and prevented them from changing employer or negotiate over wages.
Chydenius looked at particular cases of oppression, extending this belief in human liberty to new areas and universalizing it to create a consistently libertarian system of literacy essay ideas. Mix Essay? He wanted a minimal state that guaranteed the “security of our lives and properties,” with its only task to literacy campaign, being prevention of “foreign violence and domestic oppression.” Apart from world essay that, the government shouldn’t intervene. The size of government and campaign essay, taxes should be drastically reduced. Markets and trade should be completely free. He opposed subsidies even to economic sectors that he appreciated himself, like farming and world essay criteria, fishing. According to Chydenius, even government had to abide by the Seventh Commandment—not to steal. Farmers should be given complete property rights to their land, and even the literacy essay poorest peasants should be given control of their own labor. The country should open its borders and marketing mix essay, allow people to move freely to and from Sweden/Finland.
People should be free to discuss ideas and make up their own minds. Even in matters of religion, he thought that the government should be liberal and give the literacy same rights to all beliefs. Marketing? “I speak exclusively for campaign, the small, but blessed word, freedom ,” he concluded. 3. What made Chydenius a pivotal figure in Swedish political history was that he was an history questions, activist and campaign, not just a theoretician. His defense of local farmers’ right to trade freely made him popular, and his region’s priests elected him to parliament. In 1765-66 he traveled to Stockholm, where he made a lasting mark on his country. This came during a brief period when Sweden had a weak monarch and a strong parliament. In 1765 the anti-Russian “hat party” lost power to the “caps,” who were a bit more interested in peace and restraint in world criteria, government spending, but had no coherent ideology. Chydenius was about to give them one. (The mercantilist, pro-war camp in parliament derided their opponents as “nightcaps”, and in campaign, contrast they started calling themselves “hats”. The names stuck.) Because of his political talent and several well-formulated pamphlets that he published while in parliament, Chydenius became a leader for the non-aristocratic wing of the cap party.
This led to successful parliamentary votes for teaching skills to children, trade liberalization, reduced subsidies, and lower taxes. Most important, Chydenius managed to win support for a freedom-of-the-press statute, abolishing censorship in Sweden. Literacy Campaign? As a result, the literature essay criteria authorities’ decisions and literacy campaign, documents were made public. Essay Different Country? That was unique to the world in 1766, and Sweden earned a reputation for being a country where debate was free. One pamphlet that Chydenius published was more important than the others. The National Gain was a short but forceful argument for economic freedom. Chydenius explained why a free market is self-regulating because the profit motive and the price mechanism keep us all in check and stimulates us to literacy campaign, help others by producing the kind of goods and services they want most: [E]very individual spontaneously tries to find the place and the trade in which he can best increase National gain, if laws do not prevent him from doing so.
Every man seeks his own gain. This inclination is so natural and necessary that all Communities in the world are founded upon it. Ap European History? Otherwise Laws, punishments and rewards would not exist and mankind would soon perish altogether. The work that has the greatest value is literacy always best paid, and what is best paid is most sought after.… This conception of the National gain, however hard it may seem to friends vs enemies essay, be on literacy, our new enterprises, is nevertheless the simplest and easiest in itself. It gives liberty to all lawful trades, though not at the expense of the others.
It protects the essay poorest business and encourages diligence and literacy essay, free trade. It weighs everybody in the same scales, and gain is the right measure that shows who should have the preference. It relieves the Government from thousands of uneasy worries, Statutes and history dbq essay questions, supervisions, when private and National gain merge into one interest, and the harmful selfishness, which always tries to cloak itself beneath the Statutes, can then most surely be controlled by mutual competition. It allows a Swede to literacy, exercise the dearest and greatest right in Nature the Almighty has given him as man, i.e. to support himself in the sweat of his brow in whatever way he thinks best. It snatches away the pillow of laziness from the arms of those who, thanks to their Privileges, can now safely sleep away two-thirds of their time. All expedients to live without work will be removed and none but the diligent can become well-off. It makes a desirable reduction in essay, our Lawsuits.
The numerous Statutes, their explanations, exceptions and applications, which fetter trades in one way or another, will then be unnecessary and grow silent, and when the Law is annulled, its breach will amount to nothing. Literacy Campaign? 4. On these simple observations of the power of the price mechanism and the self-regulation of the free market, Chydenius built his worldview of economic liberalism. It was the invisible hand 11 years before The Wealth of friends Nations , and Chydenius has indeed been called “the Nordic Adam Smith.” According to Eli Heckscher, one of campaign essay Sweden’s most famous economists in the 20th century, the pamphlet would probably have gained an impressive international reputation if it had been translated into a major language at essay that time. Chydenius’s radicalism alienated the nobility within his own party, and he was actually thrown out of parliament by the party because he criticized their monetary policies openly.
But his influence continued to grow, partly because the monetary policies led to a crisis, just as he had warned. Several of the most important figures in literacy, the cultural elite, who were close to the King Gustaf III, were heavily influenced by Chydenius’s thoughts. That goes for Nils von Rosenstein, an enlightenment proponent who led the Swedish Academy; and marketing mix essay paper, the famous poet Johan Henrik Kellgren, who attacked religious mysticism and conservatives in literacy, his plays and poems, and explained why the marketing mix essay market should be liberalized in economic essays. Literacy Essay? Von Rosenstein and Kellgren even started an organization, with themselves as the only members, to mock the occult and superstitious organizations of world literature criteria late 18th-century Sweden. It was called “Pro sensu communi” (For Common Sense) and observed August 29 as a holiday—John Locke’s birthday. Literacy Campaign? Their view was that human beings were rational creatures who need to think for themselves to understand the world and decide how to live; therefore coercion should be abolished since it forces us to act against history dbq essay questions, our own rational conclusions. The king himself signed a freedom-of-religion bill, drafted by literacy, Chydenius, that gave Jews the right to settle in Sweden. Friends Vs Enemies? He also gave farmers more control over their land and liberalized agricultural trade. But the king also ended the era of campaign essay strong parliament and centralized power in himself. Friends Vs Enemies Essay? After he was murdered in 1792 by a strange conspiracy between nobles’ who fought for their privileges and some who were inspired by the French Revolution, his son, Gustaf IV Adolf, used these powers to censor political debate and literacy campaign, suspend parliament.
But liberal ideas weren’t dead. Georg Adlersparre, an officer who called his belief in personal freedom and property rights “liberal” as early as 1804, published a controversial enlightenment magazine called Readings on Mixed Subjects . And it was mixed, indeed. Poems and philosophical studies were published next to teaching critical to children, articles about the need to literacy essay, liberalize the moving alcohol industry and the first Swedish translation of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations . Adlersparre added footnotes to literacy, explain how Smith’s ideas could be implemented in coy mistress essay, Sweden. When the campaign essay king’s policies led the country to stagnation and conflicts with Russia, Denmark, and France, Swedes grew increasingly hostile to his rule. Taxation and inflation put even heavier burdens on essay, the people. Literacy Essay? In late 1808 the Swedish military had to abandon the eastern half of the critical to children country—Finland—to attacking Russian troops. Literacy Campaign? The resentment against the king who couldn’t wage war but refused to coy mistress, make peace grew even in military circles.
At that time, Adlersparre, who now led the Swedish western army, published a proclamation saying that military conflict and political oppression were about to destroy Sweden. It was a revolutionary manifesto: To save the country, the army should move against literacy essay, the king. Adlersparre and his troops began a popular march toward Stockholm. The king decided to flee southwards, but was arrested by people within the Stockholm bureaucracy. To make sure that this also led to real political changes, Adlersparre continued the march and the army occupied Stockholm until a new parliament was assembled and reforms began to be implemented. This was the Revolution of 1809—the only violent revolution in Sweden’s modern history, and it was initiated by ap european history dbq essay questions, a liberal officer and publisher inspired by Adam Smith. The path to freedom would not be as straight as the liberals hoped at campaign the time. Thinking? The parliament restored freedom of the press, carried through some economic reforms, and reduced the aristocracy’s privileges. But the liberals, now united in literacy campaign essay, the Liberal Party, were disappointed—and even more so when Sweden got a new king. Always eager to make friends with the strongest powers around, the marketing mix essay Swedish Parliament chose one of Napoleon’s generals, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (soon to be Carl XIV Johan), as the new king.
He surprised everybody by making peace with Russia (he abandoned Finland but took Norway from Denmark) and also by being hostile to enlightenment ideals and further reforms. Literacy Campaign Essay? The liberals were once again in opposition. Teaching To Children? However, the fact that the revolution had restored Chydenius’s free-speech statute meant that debate was relatively free and essay, that a genuine liberal movement could be formed. Influences from friends essay France and England continued to build support for libertarian ideas in the early 19th century. Literacy Campaign Essay? Land reforms had given farmers property rights to their land. Coy Mistress Essay? Agricultural production grew more efficient, while many people had to leave the land. The unemployed and the poor moved to the cities, only to find that the industries with the potential to grow and provide jobs were stopped by antiquated policies. Local guilds controlled the urban professions and made all decisions about who had the literacy campaign essay right to work and what to produce of which quality and at what price.
Rules and regulations stopped the iron and forest industries from narrative essay country expanding, and a lot of imports and some exports were simply forbidden. As a result, opposition to economic controls grew by literacy, the day. A growing group among the nobles also began to see the problem with a society built on privileges and hierarchies. At the ap european dbq essay same time, a middle class began to emerge. Farmers who grew richer with increased production, urban merchants who began to make some progress, and civil servants who were neither nobles nor merchants did not feel at campaign essay home in the old structure or in the corporatist parliament with its four estates: nobles, priests, merchants, and farmers.
Members of these groups had capital, but weren’t allowed to invest it freely. They had ideas, but weren’t free to implement them. These groups began to find one another in the early 19th century. And the man who made it happen was a tall, young, red-haired radical newspaperman, Lars Johan Hierta. Hierta was a successful businessman, always fascinated by the latest technologies, and in narrative essay country, the end he became one of the richest men in Sweden because of his business ventures. He was also a politician, always trying to build an opposition alliance in the parliament. Literacy Campaign Essay? But most important, in 1830 he founded Aftonbladet (the Evening Paper), the friends first modern Swedish newspaper, a bastion of Swedish laissez-faire liberalism and the first publication to attack not just abuses of power, but political power as such.
Hierta launched Aftonbladet with the campaign essay last of his money—had it failed he would have been ruined. But it was a stunning success. The revolutionary Adlersparre was the marketing mix essay first supporter and sponsor. It was the first Swedish newspaper to combine news and advertising, and as an evening paper, it could report on the news that arrived with the literacy campaign morning mail. Because of Hierta’s sense of humor, the ap european history dbq essay questions paper was satirical and fun to read amidst all the serious criticism. In Aftonbladet , the growing middle class could read the first real “social reports” on literacy essay, how the ib english literature criteria country was doing: the destitution in rural areas, the horrible conditions in the crowded urban centers. But they could also read about the solutions—liberalization and industrialization. Aftonbladet pointed to more liberal countries as positive examples: Norway, England, France and the United States. Campaign? On his wall, Hierta had a copy of Trumbull’s painting of the signing of the American Declaration of Independence—a declaration Hierta called “the most beautiful truth and foundation for a society”. With his urban enlightenment-liberalism, Hierta became the voice for the emerging middle class. His first proposal in parliament—dealing with public drinking—says a lot about his worldview.
At that time it was illegal to be drunk in public. Hierta thought that this was class legislation, since only the poor were ever caught by the police. He argued that being drunk shouldn’t be illegal as long as the drinker threatened no one’s life or property. Hierta’s political career was dedicated to extending that libertarian principle to new spheres. He believed in total freedom of speech, the general franchise, and equal rights for teaching, women. His basic principle was that no group should be allowed to “take money out of others’ pockets,” and he always tried to reign in government spending. He thought that everybody should be free to start a business, including a bank, and to trade without barriers.
This phrase about not taking money out of other people’s pockets was often repeated in liberal circles. Chydenius had a similar expression : No one should be allowed to stand on the shoulders of others. It summed up the liberal ideology’s central point—equality before the law, government should not take sides. All privileges that guaranteed or denied certain people a position or trade should be abolished. Everybody should have the same rights and should be treated the same. This also set a natural limit to the kind of government intervention they could accept.
Anything that benefited a group at the expense of others was ruled out. The government should instead deal with the kinds of public goods that benefited the entire society. Law and order was something everybody agreed upon. Most liberals also thought that the government should provide basic education, saying that this was something that benefited the entire society. Some infrastructure was also included. Some liberals (though not Hierta’s radical liberals) supported a government-financed national railway system. But even those who did so said that this was only because it benefited the entire country; the local train routes that benefited particular regions or cities should be financed and built privately. Hierta’s liberalism was founded on natural rights espoused by John Locke and the French and literacy campaign, American revolutions, but he frequently combined this approach with utilitarian arguments from different Jeremy Bentham and the classical economists. Literacy? Authors who combined those two traditions, like the French economist Frederic Bastiat and narrative moving different, Richard Cobden and literacy, John Bright of the Manchester School, were especially popular with Hierta, and marketing paper, he introduced their ideas in Aftonbladet . Swedish liberalism is distinctive in that it brought together different traditions and ideas rather than following one line of thought all the way. (Some would argue that this is characteristic of the Swedish mentality.)
The Swedish variety was a sort of “harmony liberalism” that claimed that the clash between different groups was really an illusion. All groups and classes could make progress together as long as privileges were abolished and people were allowed to literacy campaign, make a living and ap european history questions, a profit only by serving one another in the free market. This was the political version of the Enlightenment idea of progress, and it got help from classical economics. When Adam Smith explained that it is not from the essay benevolence of the butcher that we expect cheap and good meat, but from his self-interest, it was more than an economic statement; it was a worldview, a way of ap european history dbq essay saying that the literacy campaign butcher is not my enemy. If all trade were voluntary we wouldn’t enter any deal unless both parties expected to benefit. Together, we can make progress and improve the world.
Swedish liberals had this optimistic view of how to deal with social problems. The old safety nets of the guilds had only given security to ib english, a small group of people. Literacy? When they were abolished, the liberals wanted to see self-help groups in which workers and families voluntarily organized education and mix essay paper, savings for sickness, unemployment, and pension funds. That would not merely help people materially, but also develop a sense of responsibility and an ability to campaign, manage one’s own affairs. Other opposition newspapers could be threatened or bought into silence, but the essay regime understood that Aftonbladet was something different, a potential leader of the formerly dispersed opposition forces. In the parliament farmers and merchants used arguments from Aftonbladet to push for reform. As a result, in 1835 the essay government used an old law from the last war to shut it down. But with the teaching thinking help of other individuals, Hierta had acquired permission to start more newspapers, so when Aftonbladet closed, he simply opened The New Aftonbladet . Literacy Campaign Essay? And when that was shut down, he created The Newer Aftonbladet . That was followed by The Fourth Aftonbladet , the essay fifth, the sixth, and so on. The episode gave Aftonbladet a huge boost, and Hierta became a celebrity and a hero to many. Literacy Campaign Essay? The hard conservatives said that the only way to beat him was to strike down hard and outlaw new papers, but the government didn’t dare to ap european dbq essay questions, do that in the light of Hierta’s popularity.
After more than three years of cat-and-mouse games, Hierta threatened to publish a new paper if the present one was closed down. Fearing a violent reaction from the public, the government silently dropped the old law without even a decision in parliament. Freedom of the literacy campaign essay press was reinstated, and everybody could see that the government could be beaten. Step by friends vs enemies, step, the strength of the opposition grew. It got support from literacy campaign essay popular poets and authors like C. J. L. Marketing Paper? Almqvist, who also wrote aggressive liberal articles for campaign essay, Aftonbladet ; Fredrika Bremer, who explained that Jesus was the first liberal, since he was in favor of individual rights; and essay criteria, E. G. Geijer, the famous conservative who abandoned his friends in 1838, explaining that the modern world, with its trade, industrialization, and open debate, seemed like a miracle, which through more democracy and freer markets could be brought to everybody. Campaign Essay? Authors like Bremer and Geijer introduced religious values into ap european dbq essay questions, Swedish liberalism. In contrast, people like Hierta were atheists who didn’t speak up much for literacy, freedom of religion since they thought that it was mostly superstition.
The next generation of liberals saw freedom of religion as one of the thinking to children most important reforms. Libertarian views were always strong among the farmers in parliament. In fighting for a more democratic system, secure property rights to the land, and literacy essay, the freedom to trade, they naturally ended up on the liberal side. For a time, opponents called the majority in the farmer’s estate “the political economists,” accusing them of being more interested in theoretical economic liberalism than practical politics. In the merchant estate the vs enemies essay picture was mixed. A new group of literacy businessmen who wanted economic freedom to compete and to create challenged the old establishment, which wanted to protect their trades from friends vs enemies competition. As time went by, the new group grew and literacy essay, soon controlled of the estate. The nobles and the priests most often rejected proposals for liberalization, and so the estate votes were often 2-2, blocking reforms. Vs Enemies? But among the nobles the literacy essay mood was also beginning to change. A group of “moderate liberals” got more influence as opinion in the country shifted and as Swedes learned about the positive results from industrialization in other countries.
Slowly but steadily, liberal majorities were formed to abolish trade prohibitions and to allow new industries to open. The moderate liberals—“the gray”—became even more influential after 1848. Thinking Skills To Children? The revolution in France scared the king, Oscar I, and the nobility. It helped them to understand that the problems of development were pressing and that something had to campaign, be done to avoid a revolution in Sweden as well. But at all cost they wanted to avoid radical laissez-faire solutions and also the new emerging socialism. They found their solution in the moderate liberals, who believed in liberalization to modernize the country, but they advocated reform not revolution and were not hostile to the king as such. In 1848 their most promising member of parliament, the young Johan August Gripenstedt, was appointed a minister without portfolio. An aristocratic lieutenant, always dressed in a black coat with a white scarf, Gripenstedt was principled when it came to goals, but an opportunist when it came to the means. He had been to France and discovered Bastiat’s ideas, which became an important influence in his struggle for free trade and free markets.
He was completely steeped in the tradition of harmony liberalism, and believed in the broad liberal program of female emancipation, religious freedom, and a more democratic parliament. But he was a tactician. Ap European History Questions? When the climate shifted in literacy, a conservative direction, he didn’t press for moving different, his ideas and didn’t complain publicly when liberal friends were forced to leave government. But Gripenstedt was biding his time. He was a skilled politician, who knew how to campaign essay, build alliances and deal with difficult events. He made himself indispensible for the government and the king, and the stronger the liberal movement grew, the more important it was for the establishment to have a strong liberal politician in the government. Furthermore, the king also favored Gripenstedt’s proposal for a government railway network in Sweden, which many liberals opposed.
In 1856 the friends vs enemies essay next king, Karl XV, promoted Gripenstedt minister of finance. The liberals worked on two fronts. Literacy Campaign? In government Gripenstedt pushed reforms whenever he had a chance. He also opposed the king, promoted his own ideas, and thwarted royal plans for military adventures abroad. The stronger Gripenstedt got, the more risks he could take. He had strong support from the popular Handelstidningen (the Trade paper) in Gothenburg under the effective editorship of ap european history dbq essay questions S. A. Hedlund. At the same time, outside government, Hierta and the more radical liberals constantly pushed for more and complained that Gripenstedt and the government didn’t liberalize further. That gave Gripenstedt more room to maneuver, using the literacy threat from outside as an argument against narrative different country, the king and the more conservative forces in government. Essay? Mild reforms led to an improved economy and more jobs, which led to acceptance of vs enemies essay more reforms.
Soon the government also had a moderate liberal prime minister, Louise de Geer. Together de Geer and Gripenstedt oversaw dramatic changes in Swedish politics, thanks to their skills and the outside pressure. It is no exaggeration to say that Sweden experienced a nonviolent liberal revolution between 1840 and 1865. Literacy Campaign? The guild system was abolished, and teaching critical, anybody could now start a business and compete freely. The regulations that had stopped the development of the timber and iron industries were lifted. Sweden got a joint-stock company law as early as 1848. Essay? Banks were allowed and interest rates were deregulated.
Free immigration and emigration were instituted (and more than one million Swedes soon left for America). The old schools that had the mission of making priests or civil servants of the elite’s children were replaced by a practical education for everyone. Freedom of the press and religion were dramatically expanded. Women won the rights to own and inherit property, get an education, and make a career. And just before Gripenstedt had to leave the government because of health problems (probably malaria), he assured that his reforms would be long-lived. Essay? After the free traders had managed to abolish the trade prohibitions and lower the tariffs dramatically, Gripenstedt arranged for Sweden to join the campaign essay free-trade treaty between France and Great Britain in 1865—a treaty with a most-favored-nation clause, which gave each participant maximum access to the others’ markets. Trade barriers all over Europe fell. Narrative Moving Different Country? Gripenstedt was also instrumental in abolishing the old parliament based on the four estates and creating a new, more democratic parliament. When Gripenstedt left the government, his critics said he was a coward who got out just when people would begin to see the destructive consequences of his liberal policies.
They predicted that foreign competitors would ruin Swedish industry and that without government control of literacy campaign essay business, there would be enormous problems with quality and coordination. When people in rural areas were allowed to open shops, the narrative essay moving different country critics of liberalism said, the cities would be doomed because farmers would have no reason to essay, go there buy things. Rarely has a forecast been so embarrassingly wrong. Two hundred years after Chydenius’s first public appearance, Sweden was one of the richest countries on marketing mix essay paper, the planet, and the moment Gripenstedt stepped down was the precise moment when this economic transformation got going. The real earnings of literacy campaign essay male industrial workers increased by around 25 percent per decade between 1860 and 1910, and life expectancy increased by 12 years. In total the history dbq essay real earnings increased by literacy campaign, 170 percent in those fifty years, much faster than the 110 percent in teaching, the next fifty years. And as late as the turn of the century, central public expenditure in essay, Sweden was around 6 percent of friends vs enemies national income. Literacy Campaign? 5. Liberalism had transformed Sweden completely. A society that used to be rigorously controlled—in which all occupations were thoroughly regulated and trade with other countries was practically forbidden—suddenly opened the floodgates of creativity that had been pent up for centuries.
Creativity was now rewarded, not penalized. Open markets and a minimum of narrative essay different regulations meant that capital could flow to the best ideas and that companies were free to hire and fire. The old trades were mechanized, and Sweden could now export what it did best to Britain and other countries in exchange for imports that Sweden couldn’t produce as well. Farmers who had acquired title to their land started investing in better, more efficient agriculture. The forest industry, which could now export its output, turned its timber—“green gold”—into sawn timber goods and campaign essay, pulp. The mills, now deregulated, made iron and steel out marketing of the ore that generations of people had merely walked on. Craftsmen, liberated from the ancient guild system, began competing by means of new solutions, new goods, new designs, and lower prices. Production was electrified in factories that could now mass-produce goods that even the literacy campaign essay poor could afford. When banks and corporations were permitted, capital was channeled to skills to children, the most efficient producers, and Swedes started to invest in new machinery and literacy campaign essay, methods capable of producing more and better goods.
This laissez-faire epoch was a good environment for creators and entrepreneurs. It engendered one of the loveliest words in the Swedish language: snilleindustrierna —the “genius industries,” meaning businesses founded on an ingenious invention, or the teaching thinking development of one, producing on a massive scale and largely for campaign essay, export. Once the narrative essay moving way was clear for essay, borrowing, hiring, producing, and selling, the road from idea to idea-based enterprise, from genius to genius industry, became very short. In certain cases industries were established by polymaths who were both inventors and essay criteria, captains of industry. Campaign Essay? They succeeded both in creating something new and getting it to consumers. Lars Magnus Ericsson invented an questions, automatic telephone exchange and founded L. M. Ericsson. Sven Wingquist invented the self-regulating ball bearing and created SKF.
Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and built up Nitroglycerin AB (later Dyno Nobel), and Gustaf Dalen invented a flashing apparatus for lighthouses and founded AGA. Some entrepreneurs commercialized other people’s inventions: Axel Wenner-Gren, for example, built up Electrolux by introducing vacuum cleaners and refrigerators into Swedish homes. It was at this stage that the wheels began to spin on which Sweden rolled into the future. One success came hard on the heels of another. The country now had growth and campaign essay, could do more. Running water and sewerage were installed in people’s homes, and streets and homes were fitted with electric lighting. In 1857 Gripenstedt gave two dramatic speeches explaining that with free markets, access to foreign markets, and modern infrastructure, Sweden, one of the poorest European countries, could become one of the richest.
He was ridiculed by the opponents, who called the speeches naive “flower paintings.” But Gripenstedt had the last laugh. As noted, between 1850 and critical thinking to children, 1950, Swedish income per capita increased eightfold, as the population doubled. Infant mortality fell from 15 to 2 percent, and life expectancy increased by a whopping 28 years. 6. The liberal movement had succeeded, but it was about to fall victim to campaign essay, its own success. In January 1867, with a new, more democratic parliament without a division into estates, liberalism seemed triumphant. Lars Johan Hierta, the questions oldest member of parliament, delivered the welcome speech in which he celebrated the reforms and warned the literacy essay members not to come up with new ideas on how to take money from the marketing paper people. One commentator said: “Now there are no parties.
Everybody is literacy campaign essay a liberal nowadays.” 7. But in coy mistress, a way, this posed problems for classical liberals. Literacy? It seemed as though they had finished their agenda. The coalition that had brought the ideas to triumph now had other interests. Essay? This could be seen in the new parties that were formed in parliament. People around the old liberal government started a Ministerial Party, with the literacy essay goal of defending the narrative essay different country reforms but not to go much further. A smaller group started the Neoliberal Party, which was economically liberal and literacy essay, wanted to go extend their principles to essay moving different, cultural and literacy campaign, political issues, including more rights for essay moving different country, women, more extensive rule of law, and more democracy. The dominant new party was the Rural Men’s Party, a party for essay, farmers that had liberal elements and wanted to friends, reduce taxes and give more power to those outside the Stockholm establishment. Ominously, the liberals split up among all those parties. Gripenstedt and literacy campaign essay, moderate liberals joined the essay Ministerial Party.
For a while Hierta and the radical liberals joined the Neoliberal Party, and Hedlund and many liberals from outside Stockholm joined the literacy essay Rural Party. Moving Different? This meant that all parties were influenced by liberalism, and a liberal government still called the shots—but it also meant that liberalism was no longer one coherent, effective force working for one common goal. When the liberals and free traders lost a long and aggressive campaign on tariffs on grain in the late 1880s, and a new conservative government was formed, new political alternatives emerged. Economically, the tariffs didn’t mean much. They were not adjusted for inflation and literacy campaign, so became smaller every year in real terms, and marketing mix essay paper, the continued reduction in transport costs more than offset the literacy campaign essay loss from the tariffs.
Sweden’s exports and imports continued to grow every year. But the tariffs had more serious political consequences. The problem was that harmony liberalism broke down when one side began to take money out of the pockets of other groups. Everybody then had an interest in trying to get rewards and dbq essay questions, privileges for himself. Whoever remained a liberal and wanted a neutral state would see his pockets picked by others. A recent commentator explained that “After the victory for campaign essay, protectionism, the parliament was drowned by a wave of suggestions that had in essay, common that they all wanted the government to be active both here and literacy campaign essay, there.” 8. The liberal movement began to change as a result. The natural sympathy of many was with the poor and the workers. Now that the government had betrayed them by increasing the cost of their bread, they must strike back. Ib English Criteria? It now seemed more important to extend the franchise since the people wanted free trade, but had lost in an undemocratic parliament.
Some liberals, however, drew another conclusion: Since the government benefited producers with tariffs, it was now time for a counterattack on literacy, behalf of consumers. Some wanted to import Bismarck’s social-security ideas and became “social liberals.” At the same time, the conservative alternative, which had been seen as dead for moving, more than 20 years, was reborn in a more modern, pro-business, pro-tariff version. Where it had once said that only a strong and interventionist government could stop development, now it was said that only such a government could create rapid development. But the essay strongest new force was the coy mistress essay socialists, and interestingly they were organized on a free-trade platform. Literacy Essay? In 1889 the Social Democratic Party was founded, and vs enemies essay, one of campaign its demands was “No to hunger tariffs.” It complained that the elite had called on the government to destroy equality before the law by essay moving different, helping business and campaign, farms, and ib english literature, therefore the workers shouldn’t be content with just waiting for the rewards of economic growth. They should also ask the government to step in on their side. These diverse interests meant that, on literacy, the whole, the liberal system lived on. Conservatives and social liberals fought for private property and fiscal discipline, and vs enemies, they collaborated to steer Sweden clear away from socialism.
And when the Social Democrats got power in 1932, they quickly abandoned their plans to socialize business. Campaign? Their leaders thought that an increase in production was essential to pay for their reform programs and ib english literature criteria, became impressed with the liberal economy’s ability to deliver. They were also heavily influenced by a generation of independent liberal economists like Gustaf Cassel and Eli Heckscher, who considered Anders Chydenius an intellectual forefather. Interestingly, a few prominent Social Democrats were actually among the most consistent economic liberals and free traders in Sweden. More than other countries, Sweden held on to free trade, which was necessary for a small economy dependent on both imports and exports. The Social Democrats and the trade unions allowed old sectors like farming, shipping, and textiles to pass away as long as new jobs were created. They settled for a more cautious policy of keeping the essay market free to create wealth, allowing the process of thinking skills creative destruction to do its work, and only later distribute (a growing) part of that wealth. They knew that a party of class struggle wouldn’t be able to hold on to power in Sweden. Literacy Campaign? Instead, they created social-security systems that gave the most pension, unemployment, paternal-leave, and sick-leave benefits to those with high wages.
Most benefits were proportional to the amount paid in, so the essay different country wealthy middle class would have an interest in literacy campaign, supporting the system. Regulations were adapted to narrative different, benefit the biggest industries—for example, as labor regulations were introduced, exceptions could be made as long as the trade unions agreed, which they often did when it came to the biggest export businesses. In collective-bargaining agreements, wages were made more equal for big modern export-oriented companies and small less-productive companies, imposing a relatively greater burden on the small ones. Campaign? When taxes were raised they were often on consumption and hence regressive so as not to interfere with the teaching critical thinking to children incentives to produce. It began as a cautious policy. In 1950 Sweden was one of the richest countries in the world. The total tax burden was still just 19 percent of GDP—lower than in literacy campaign, the United States and in history dbq essay questions, other European countries. Literacy? It did not surpass 30 percent until 1965.
It was an open economy with a small government that produced these amazing results, with a little help from having stayed out of two world wars. In his history of economic policy in marketing paper, Sweden, economist Johan Myhrman concludes that despite a growth in government, these policies continued: Under this period (1950-70) Sweden had a liberal trade policy, which meant low tariffs and literacy essay, a benevolent attitude to business, for example with a tax policy that admitted very generous deductions for capital costs. 9. Yes, Sweden today has another reputation. But that came later. In the friends vs enemies 1970s, with coffers filled by big business and heads filled with ideas from the international turn to the left, the literacy Social Democrats began to vs enemies essay, expand social assistance and regulate the labor market.
Public spending almost doubled between 1960 and 1980, rising from 31 percent to essay, 60 percent of GDP, and high taxes accompanied them. For a while Social Democrats could travel the world and mix essay paper, talk about how they were able to have both big government and essay, high incomes—but only for a time, because this was also the literature essay moment when the model began to campaign, run into problems. The average growth rate was halved to 2 percent in the 1970s, declining further in the 1980s, and that was before the big crisis in the 1990s. Teaching Skills To Children? The currency had to be devalued five times to literacy campaign, keep industry competitive, by a total of 45 percent. In 1990, the year before a serious economic crisis in Sweden, private enterprise had not created a single net job since 1950, but the public sector had increased by more than a million employees. While the teaching critical thinking to children knowledge and service economy made it more important to invest in literacy campaign essay, human capital, high marginal tax rates on personal income reduced individuals’ incentives to invest in their education and skills. Generous benefits for ap european dbq essay questions, those not working eroded the work ethic, and a country with one of the healthiest populations became one of the countries with most people off sick from work. The alliance among big government, big business, and literacy essay, big labor made Sweden less flexible. Encouraging investments in big industry worked well, as long as there was little need for essay, innovation. Once that changed, the system ran into campaign essay, trouble and vs enemies, the lack of growing small- and medium-sized businesses became a real problem. The companies that did exist didn’t grow, partly because of the risks and costs of rules that prevented the firing of literacy essay workers.
The most important Swedish companies are still those that were born during the teaching skills laissez-faire period before the First World War. In 2000 just one of the 50 biggest Swedish companies was founded after 1970. Meanwhile, services that could have become new private growth sectors, like education and literacy, health care, were monopolized and financed by the government. From 1975 to 2000, while per-capita income grew by 72 percent in the United States and narrative essay moving country, 64 percent in Western Europe, Sweden’s grew by literacy campaign, no more than 43 percent. In 1970 Sweden was the fourth richest country in marketing mix essay paper, the OECD’s ranking by per-capita income. In 2000 Sweden had fallen to literacy essay, 14th. As the Social Democratic finance minister Bosse Ringholm explained in 2002: If Sweden would have had the same growth rates as the OECD average since 1970, our common resources would have been so much bigger that it would be the equivalent of 20,000 SEK [$2,700] more per household per month. It was not socialist policies that turned Sweden into one of the world’s richest countries.
When Sweden got rich, it had one of the most open and deregulated economies in history dbq essay questions, the world, and taxes were lower than in the United States and most other western countries. The Social Democrats kept most of those policies intact until the 1970s, when they thought that those excellent foundations—unprecedented wealth, a strong work ethic, an educated work force, world-class exports industries, and a relatively honest bureaucracy—were so stable that the government could tax and spend and build a generous cradle-to-grave welfare state on them. They couldn’t. At least not without costs. Because that welfare state began to essay, erode the conditions that had made the model viable in the first place. And the fourth richest country became the 14th richest within three decades.
Things have looked up a bit since for this small Nordic country. In the 1990s Sweden had another important reform period in response to sluggish growth and a severe banking crisis. Both Social Democrats and center-right parties contributed when marginal tax rates were reduced; markets for finance, electricity, telecom, and media were deregulated; the central bank was made independent; the pension system was reformed partly with personal accounts; private providers in health care and elderly care were welcomed; and a school voucher system was introduced. During the last few years, Swedish governments have reduced taxes substantially, from world literature criteria 52 to 44 percent of GDP, and abolished taxes on essay, gifts, inheritance, wealth, and housing. Sweden has yet again increased exports, created private-sector jobs, and essay, seen economic progress that has outpaced the rest of Europe. Sweden has managed the financial crisis much better than most other countries, and campaign, public debt is around 30 percent of GDP. But that’s another story—though not entirely, because present-day Swedish liberalization and liberalizers have often been inspired by the history of Swedish individuals, reforms accomplished 150 years ago, and ap european dbq essay questions, the unprecedented prosperity that they produced. A statue of Lars Johan Hierta has been erected in central Stockholm and a Social Democratic speaker of parliament has proclaimed Anders Chydenius one of the greatest pioneers in the history of the Swedish parliament. Literacy Campaign? On the wall of marketing mix essay Finance Minister Anders Borg’s office hangs a portraits of Gripenstedt and Chydenius—“the father of Swedish wealth,” according to literacy campaign, Borg.
When Sweden liberalizes again, it will be going back to the future. That background—and that future—are the most important lessons from Sweden to the rest of the world. As Anders Chydenius wrote almost 250 years ago, in the essay contest entry that got Swedish liberalism off to an impressive start: “That which our time tramples on, posterity will pick up, and that which is now called boldness will be honored in the name of truth.” This essay was syndicated by AtlasOne, a project of the Atlas Network. Vilhelm Moberg, Min svenska historia , 1971, p. 72. ? For the whole background, see my history of Swedish liberalism, Den svenska liberalismens historia , Timbro, 1998. ? A collection of his most important essays have recently been published as Anders Chydenius, Anticipating the Wealth of Nations (ed. Maren Jonasson Pertti Hyttinen. Routledge, 2011). ? Anders Chydenius: The National Gain , London: Ernest Benn Limited 1931. Translator unknown. http://www.chydenius.net/historia/teokset/e kansallinen koko.asp ? Mauricio Rojas, “Sweden After the Swedish Model,” Timbro, 2005, p. Friends Vs Enemies Essay? 17. ? Anders Johnson: Entreprenorerna : Sveriges vag till valstand . Stockholm: Svenskt Naringsliv, 2002. ? Gudmar Hasselberg: Rudolf Wall – Dagens Nyheters skapare . Stockholm: Bonniers, 1945, p. Essay? 232. ? Svenbjorn Kilandet: Den nya staten och den gamla . Stockholm: Almqvist Wiksell International, 1991, p. 205 ? Johan Myhrman, Hur Sverige blev rikt . SNS, 1994, p. 160. ? Johan Norberg is a lecturer, documentary filmmaker, and the author of several books, including the award-winning In Defense of Global Capitalism , which was translated into around 25 languages. Essay? His most recent book is Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to literacy essay, the Future (2016). He is also a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute.
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The 95 Theses of Martin Luther (1517) Dennis Bratcher, ed. Martin Luther was a German priest whose disillusionment with the abuses of the 16th century Roman Catholic Church sparked the Reformation. He was born in 1483. At the encouragement of his father, he was determined to become a lawyer.
However, in 1507 after nearly being struck by literacy campaign, lightening, he decided to become a monk. He entered a monastery in 1505 and was ordained a priest in 1507. Luther was assigned to teach at the University of Wittenberg in 1508, where he would spend his entire career. Always an avid student, he earned his doctorate in theology four years later. In 1510 he visited Rome and was appalled by the behavior of church officials and the sale of indulgences. In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission of the physical and temporal punishment for vs enemies sins that is endured in Purgatory after death, even though the campaign legal guilt has been pardoned by ib english, absolution. In Luther’s era, indulgences were being sold by the Church to campaign, raise money for refurbishing the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome. Friends Essay! The slogan attributed to the Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized the sale of indulgences: As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs. (see Thesis 27). In light of his discouragement with the Church, as Luther studied and literacy campaign essay, lectured on Psalms, Hebrews, and Romans he came to new insights about repentance, salvation, and the role of faith.
Especially from his study of Romans, he began to understand that salvation is a gift of teaching critical thinking to children, God by grace through Christ received by faith alone ( sola fide ). He also came to believe that there should be a clear distinction between law, obedience and salvation by obedience to the will of God by law, and campaign essay, gospel, forgiveness of sins and salvation based on the sacrificial death of essay, Jesus. In 1517 Luther, informed by his growing belief that salvation is by faith alone, presented his concerns to Church officials in the form of ninety-five theses, a series of statements that presented a logical argument against the sale of literacy, indulgences. An account arose later that he nailed the theses to teaching thinking to children, the door of the castle church at literacy campaign essay, Wittenberg as an world criteria, act of defiance. Literacy Campaign! However, as fiery and acerbic as Luther could sometimes be, most historians agree that the account is legendary. Historical research suggests that he sent a letter along with the 95 theses, which included an invitation to friends, discuss the issues openly, to Archbishop Albert of Mainz. Luther wrote the ninety-five thesis with deference to the leadership of the campaign pope. However, he had challenged the authority of the pope to offer the sale of indulgences. In a charged political climate, it was seen by some as an attack on the papacy and therefore on the Church. Coy Mistress! Luther was summoned to Rome to answer charges of heresy. Luther did not respond to the summons, which led to literacy campaign, an escalating controversy between Luther and those who defended the absolute authority of the essay papacy.
Luther continued writing about salvation by faith alone as well as other reforms that he saw needed to occur in the church. As a result, the literacy rift between Luther and those who wanted to defend the authority of the papacy, as well as to protect the lucrative source of history, income from the sale of indulgences, fueled a growing controversy. Finally in literacy campaign essay 1520, the pope issued an ultimatum that Luther must recant some of his writings or face condemnation as a heretic. Luther responded with typical bluntness that the die is cast, that he sought no reconciliation with Rome, and called the coy mistress decisions of the pope a swamp of heresies. In 1521 he was called before an Imperial Diet (an official assembly) at Worms, a city in southwest Germany, to defend his views and recant.
Luther refused and as a result was excommunicated as a heretic and literacy campaign, the Edict of Worms issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the urging of Church officials banned his writings and in vs enemies effect called for his execution. To escape arrest Luther took refuge in Wartburg castle under the protection of literacy campaign essay, Frederick of Saxony, Luther's sovereign. There he translated the New Testament Bible into narrative essay country, German and began working on translating the rest of the Bible, as well as writing numerous articles explaining his theology. Because of ongoing political and religious turmoil in Germany, the Edict of campaign essay, Worms was never enforced. Over the next few years Luther gained in coy mistress essay popularity and since the emperor was preoccupied with other concerns, Luther eventually returned to essay, Wittenberg. He was instrumental in coy mistress essay reforming church worship as well as laying the groundwork for the Reformation, which essentially rejected the authority of the campaign essay Pope and canon law, which is the paper accumulated body of laws, rules, regulations, and traditional dogmas that governed the literacy essay practices of the Church.
Martin Luther continued working for Church reform until his death on February 18, 1546, at age 63. -Dennis Bratcher. The English translation is moving, adapted from Works of campaign essay, Martin Luther , ed. and trans. by Adolph Spaeth, et al. , A. J. Essay! Holman Company, 1915, Vol. Campaign Essay! 1, pp. 29-38. Disputation of essay, Doctor Martin Luther on the power and efficacy of Indulgences.
Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at essay, Wittenberg, under the mix essay presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and duly appointed Lecturer on these subjects at that place. He requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the essay Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Essay Country! Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Repent, willed that the whole life of literacy essay, believers should be repentance.
2. This word cannot be understood to mean the ib english literature sacrament of literacy, penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3. Yet it does not mean inward repentance only; for there is no inward repentance that does not produce outwardly various mortifications of the flesh. 4. Ap European History! The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into essay, the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of canon law. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by teaching critical thinking, God and by assenting to literacy essay, God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment.
If his right to grant remission in friends essay such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at literacy campaign, the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His representative, the priest. 8. The penitential canons apply only to the living, and, according to them, none applies to the dead. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit acting in the person of the pope manifests grace to narrative essay moving different country, us, because in his [the pope’s] decrees he always excludes the dead and campaign, cases of hardship. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the actions of those priests who impose canonical penances on the dead in purgatory.
11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the thinking to children tares that were sown while the literacy essay bishops slept. 12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. The dying are freed by death from narrative essay, all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14. The imperfect piety and love of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and campaign essay, the smaller the love, the thinking to children greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is sufficient in itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to campaign, constitute the critical thinking skills to children penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16.
There seems to be the same difference between hell, purgatory, and heaven as there are between despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of campaign essay, safety. 17. The horror of souls in friends vs enemies purgatory should grow less and literacy campaign essay, love ought to increase. 18. It seems unproven, either by coy mistress, reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to essay, say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproven that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own salvation, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Mix Essay Paper! Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself.
21. Literacy Campaign Essay! Therefore those preachers of indulgences who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from critical, every penalty and campaign, saved are in world literature criteria error; 22. Indeed he cannot pass on to souls in purgatory any penalty which canon law declares should be paid in this life. 23. If it is at campaign essay, all possible to grant to anyone the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission could be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few. 24. Therefore it must be the case that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and coy mistress essay, highsounding promise of release from penalty.
25. Literacy Campaign! The power which the pope has, in general, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in particular, within his own diocese or parish. 26. The pope does well when he grants remission to moving different country, souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of literacy campaign, intercession. 27. There is marketing mix essay paper, no divine authority for preaching that so soon as the campaign essay penny jingles into the money-box, the mix essay paper soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the essay Church is in coy mistress the power of God alone. 29.
Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Literacy! Severinus and Paschal.* [*This legend tells of two saints who were willing to remain in torment in vs enemies purgatory to suffer for others.] 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31. The man who sincerely buys indulgences is as rare as the man that is truly penitent; that is, such men are most rare. 32.
They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Men must be on literacy essay their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. It is not according to Christian doctrine to dbq essay, preach and teach that contrition is not necessary for those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional licenses. 36. Campaign! Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.
38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the coy mistress essay Church] which are granted by campaign, the pope are in no way to be despised, for as I have said, they are the declaration of divine remission. 39. Friends! It is most difficult, even for the very best theologians, to literacy campaign essay, commend to the people the abundance of pardons while at the same time encouraging true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but generous pardons only narrative essay moving different, relax penalties and cause them to literacy campaign essay, be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Teaching Thinking To Children! Papal pardons should be preached with caution, lest people falsely think they are preferable to literacy essay, other good works of love. 42.
Christians should be taught that the pope does not intend the moving different country purchase of literacy, pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy. 43. Christians should be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and critical thinking, a man becomes a better man; but by pardons he does not grow better, only escapes penalty. 45. Literacy Campaign Essay! Christians should be taught that he who sees a person in need, and passes him by, and then purchases pardons, purchases not the vs enemies essay indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of literacy campaign essay, God.
46. Christians should be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep what is thinking to children, necessary for their own families, and should by no means squander it on pardons. 47. Christians are to campaign essay, be taught that the buying of pardons is a voluntary matter, and coy mistress essay, not a legal requirement. 48. Campaign Essay! Christians should be taught that in granting pardons the teaching pope needs and desires their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring.
49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful only literacy, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if they lose their fear of God because of ib english literature essay, them. 50. Essay! Christians should be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the essay pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church be reduced to ashes than be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51. Campaign! Christians should be taught that it would be the critical thinking to children pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money, even though the church of St.
Peter might have to be sold, to many of literacy campaign, those from whom certain hawkers of narrative essay moving, pardons cajole money. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is literacy campaign essay, useless, even though the commissary, or indeed even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it. 53. They are enemies of vs enemies essay, Christ and of the pope, who forbid the Word of God to be preached at all in some Churches, in literacy campaign order that pardons may be preached in others. 54. Injury is done the word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this word. 55.
It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and narrative moving different country, ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently spoken of or known among the people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is literacy campaign, certainly evident, for different many of the vendors do not grant such treasures freely, but only collect them. 58.
Nor are they the merits of Christ and campaign, the Saints, for essay even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59. St. Campaign! Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the history dbq essay questions Church's poor, but he used the term in accordance with the custom of his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the literacy Church are that treasure, given by Christ's merit; 61. For it is clear that the power of the pope is of itself sufficient for teaching thinking skills the remission of penalties and of reserved cases,
62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the literacy glory and ap european history dbq essay, the grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly desired to fish for men of wealth. 66. Now, the treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they fish for the wealth of men. 67.
The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are in essay fact truly such only when they promote financial gain. 68. Coy Mistress Essay! Yet they are in literacy essay truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the narrative essay different Cross. 69. Literacy Essay! Bishops and curates are bound to marketing, receive the literacy campaign commissaries of papal pardons, with all reverence. 70. But they are under greater obligation to watch closely and thinking skills, listen carefully lest these men preach their own imaginings instead of the commission of the campaign pope. 71. He who speaks against the validity of ap european history dbq essay questions, apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! 72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!
73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any means, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth. 75. It is folly to think that the campaign papal pardons are so powerful that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God. 76. We say, on the contrary, that the essay country papal pardons are not able to literacy essay, remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. 77. Mix Essay Paper! It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St.
Peter and against the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; specifically, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in campaign essay 1 Corinthians 12. 79. Friends Vs Enemies! To say that the cross emblazoned with the literacy papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the different Cross of campaign essay, Christ, is ib english world literature essay criteria, blasphemy. 80.
The bishops, curates and theologians who permit such assertions to be spread among the people will be held accountable for it. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to defend the respect due the pope from campaign, false accusations, or even from the astute criticisms of the laity; 82. For example: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for friends vs enemies essay the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he can redeem an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church?
The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Again: -- Why do funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continue to be said? Why does the pope not return or permit the repayment of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for those now redeemed? 84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow an impious man who is literacy, their enemy to buy out of purgatory the questions devout soul of essay, a friend of God, when they do not allow that pious and beloved soul to be redeemed without payment for pure love's sake or because of its need of redemption?
85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canon laws long, which in friends essay actual fact and campaign, practice are long obsolete and dead, now satisfied by ib english world essay criteria, the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in effect? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealthiest of the wealthy, build just this one church of St. Literacy Campaign! Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of thinking skills, poor believers? 87. Again: -- What is it that the pope dispenses to people, and what participation does he grant, to campaign, those who have a right to full remission and participation because of their perfect repentance? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does only once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope seeks the salvation of marketing paper, souls rather than money by his pardons, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted before now, since these have equal efficacy?
90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to campaign essay, expose the critical thinking Church and the pope to literacy, the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to marketing mix essay paper, the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; indeed, they would cease to exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to literacy, the people of Christ, Peace, peace, where there is no peace! 93. Marketing Mix Essay! Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, the cross, the cross, where there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95.
And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. Note: The Latin version is literacy essay, here numbered to marketing mix essay, correspond to the English translation. Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum. Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Literacy Essay! Amen. 1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit. 2. Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi.
3. Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes. 4. Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum. 5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit. 6. Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret. 7. Coy Mistress Essay! Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario. 8. Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi.
9. Inde bene nobis facit spiritussanctus in papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis. 10. Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in purgatorium reservant. 11. Campaign! Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata. 12.
Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. 13. Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem. 14. Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa. 15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori. 16.
Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt. 17. Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem. 18. Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis. 19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus.
20. Essay! Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum. 21. Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. 22. Literacy Campaign Essay! Quin nullam remittit animabus in thinking to children purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere. 23. Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. paucissimis, dari. 24.
Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem. 25. Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter. 26. Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per literacy campaign modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem. 27. Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam. 28. Certum est, nummo in coy mistress essay cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius.
29. Quis scit, si omnes anime in campaign purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur. 30. Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis. 31. Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. e. rarissimus. 32. Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute.
33. Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo. 34. Teaching Skills To Children! Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas. 35. Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio. 36. Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam. 37. Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam.
38. Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine. 39. Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo. 40.
Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione. 41. Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis. 42. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie. 43. Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet.
44. Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per campaign essay venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior. 45. Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. 46. Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere. 47.
Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta. 48. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam. 49. Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant. 50.
Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Moving! Petri in cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum. 51. Literacy Essay! Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt. 52. Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro moving country illis impigneraret. 53.
Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent. 54. Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi. 55. Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur. 56. Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi. 57. Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum. 58.
Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris. 59. Thesauros ecclesie s. Campaign Essay! Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore. 60. Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum. 61. Essay! Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape. 62. Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei.
63. Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos. 64. Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos. 65. Literacy! Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum. 66. Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum.
67. Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum. 68. Ap European Dbq Essay! Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate. 69.
Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere. 70. Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent. 71. Essay! Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus. 72. Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus. 73. Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur,
74. Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur, 75. Ap European! Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per literacy campaign impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. 76. Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam. 77. Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam. 78.
Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum c. ut 1. Co. XII. 79. Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. 80. Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in populum licere sinunt. 81. Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm. 82.
Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam? 83. Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare? 84. Item.
Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate? 85. Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in essay semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi? 86. Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri?
87. Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis? 88. Item.
Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret? 89. Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per campaign venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces? 90. Teaching Critical Thinking! Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere. 91. Campaign Essay! Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent. 92. Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Pax pax,' et non est pax.
93. Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Crux crux,' et non est crux. 94. Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant, 95. Vs Enemies! Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per securitatem pacis confidant. - Dennis Bratcher , ed.
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8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an important step in literacy essay, the startup process. It helps you and critical thinking your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. But because of all the effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of literacy sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from coy mistress scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the pain out of the process. Small business owners can benefit from simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and more time launching. Essay? Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on a napkin at marketing, a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of essay questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences. It covers everything from what you sell and who will buy it to how you will get paid, hustle to find customers, foresee challenges and overcome the friends vs enemies essay obstacles all in campaign essay, a single page. Critical Thinking? [Writing a Business Plan?
Do These 5 Things First] Not all small businesses are concerned with credit lines, partnerships and literacy essay office space at least not in the beginning. Mix Essay Paper? So why should their initial business plans include these things? Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan doesn#39;t. Instead, it offers a business-plan template fit for the real would-be entrepreneur#39;s world. Whereas most business-plan templates assume all businesses are uniform, Copyblogger#39;s Remarkably Simple Business Plan was created to get to what entrepreneurs really need to know to start a business: the ins and outs of the product or service, how customers will find the business and how the business will make money. Simply copy and paste the template of the Remarkably Simple Business Plan, created by Sonia Simone, co-founder and literacy chief content officer of Copyblogger Media, and you#39;re good to go.
Founded in 2011, Enloop is regarded as an innovative player in the business-plan-creation industry. Like many others, the service uses an online interface to help automate your business plan#39;s creation. To get started, users enter basic information about their businesses, including product details. Dbq Essay? Then, Enloop#39;s software uses metrics to help predict the literacy financial performance of the company in comparison with others in the sector. Coy Mistress Essay? According to campaign essay, CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available. LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the paper way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans.
From there, users can create the presentation necessary to literacy campaign, pitch their business ideas to would-be investors. Ib English Literature Essay? Once off the ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against campaign essay forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface. Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company. Created by The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to address to start a business: their vision for ib english world literature essay criteria the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for campaign essay setting out goals, strategies to make the business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to be done.
Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of ap european history questions text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Literacy Essay? Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to coy mistress, help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by separating a single page into different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments. Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and then stick it on the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sticky notes for literacy campaign essay better organization. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to better fit the direction in which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool.
The fact that the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the world SBA#39;s offerings before. The agency has a wealth of literacy free planning, financing and thinking skills to children consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for literacy business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is tied to that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to history questions, and changed as the company#39;s plans progress. The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to use their generated plans to discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. Literacy Campaign Essay? The SBA#39;s tool is available online at no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out don#39;t need lengthy business plans. What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to ib english, get started. The internal working plan consists of literacy essay four simple questions that make up the simple business plan: What is friends essay your product or service?
Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and essay when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of ib english essay criteria answering each question in his blog post on the subject. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for literacy campaign essay information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for free.
Updated on May 1, 2015. Additional reporting by world, Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.
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essay that analyzes You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for literacy campaign, what feels like hours, trying to figure out marketing paper how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into literacy campaign, the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to ib english world criteria get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
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These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of friends vs enemies essay, Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to literacy essay get really creative and play around with formatting. In the vs enemies, flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. Literacy! But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of ib english literature criteria, claims, evidence to support those claims, and literacy essay, how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence.
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The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the literacy essay, other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Essay! Tie that evidence to the topic sentence.
You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the literacy campaign, prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out essay that it had to campaign essay be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to narrative different die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to literacy do that. They’re not needed in ap european history questions, the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of campaign, Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy.
For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Narrative Moving Country! Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of campaign, closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for teaching thinking to children, the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst.
98% of campaign, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over teaching thinking 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is campaign, a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on coy mistress essay, Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome!
Glad you liked it. Campaign Essay! #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. Paper! #128578; Thanks for the comment. This is campaign essay, undoubtedly very much helpful… Thanks a lot. You’re welcome! Thanks for the comment and essay, thanks for reading. #128578;
Hi….Eden thank you for orienting me on how to literacy campaign structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don’t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I’m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to narrative essay moving different support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you’ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet!
Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great. Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I’m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and literacy campaign essay, I’m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it’s also asking me “how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Mix Essay! Please respond to literacy essay this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the essay, dramatic conventions that you’re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the literacy campaign essay, play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the essay, first three conventions I thought of — I’m not sure which ones you’ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to literacy campaign essay each of these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O’Hara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood.
I don’t know how to vs enemies start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I’ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily– Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to campaign essay start with the ap european, quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/
This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for literacy campaign essay, reading and for the nice comment! I’ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We’re happy to ap european history dbq essay help, but don’t sell yourself short just because of literacy campaign essay, your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to world criteria improve this site that is all.
Thanks for keeping us on campaign, our toes, Shayan! No offense taken — we’ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to teaching skills Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Hi there! Although this was really helpful for campaign, literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. I have to essay moving country write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and essay, disease on Native Americans, and friends essay, was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of literacy, each and explaining the effect that each had on marketing mix essay, Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples — giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful.
Woot! That’s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an campaign essay analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I’m stuck. Mix Essay! This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don’t know how to start and literacy, it isn’t even about the whole book, its only for half the book. Ib English Literature Criteria! Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to campaign essay understand this (horrible) essay.
I have to write my first Analytical essay. Moving Different! kind regards to you. And thanks to literacy campaign you for moving, reading! Good luck with your essay — you’ve got this. I have to write an literacy campaign essay analytical essay for my college English course, and moving country, its about an American folk song called “Frankie and literacy campaign, Johnny” and im stuck in mix essay, how to literacy campaign begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said “to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from Oxford Music Online” please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure!
This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago.
Now I think I can manage it. love the marketing paper, example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for essay, reading #128578; I feel motivated and teaching thinking skills, have been trying my best all these days… Grateful for everything. )