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College Essay Tip #2: How to Write Influential Person Essay
Business Plan: Your Financial Plan. The financial part of a business plan includes various financial statements that show where your company currently stands and where it expects to be in the near future. This information helps you determine how much financing your business needs and essay college helps outsiders determine whether lending you money or investing in your business is a wise use of their funds. Hr Cover Letter Entry. Lenders and investors will expect that you have invested your own money in the firm to significant demonstrate that you are committed to your idea and confident that your business will succeed. In Essay. The amount of your own money you will need to essay college have invested in the business compared to the amount you want to finance varies, but it usually ranges from 20% to 50%. You must also determine what type of financing would be most suitable for your business. Essay On Banning. Banks offer several types of person loans to businesses that do not present too much risk. Do you need a short-term working capital loan to on banning phones in school increase your inventory?
Do you want a transaction loan, where you receive all the money at person once, or a line of credit, where you draw on funds as you need them? Do you need an intermediate-term loan to purchase larger assets such as real estate or equipment? Would you prefer revolving credit, which has a longer time frame than a line of automatism credit and allows you to significant person re-borrow funds that you have previously paid back? Or are you a high-risk business that needs to jump through the extra hoops required to automatism essay secure a government-backed Small Business Administration loan? (See Expanding Your Small Business with an person essay college SBA Loan .) Structuring Your Financial Plan. Essay On Banning Cell. Begin your financial plan with information on where your firm stands financially at essay college the end of the most recent quarter what its financial situation has looked like historically. Then lay out your goals with financial projections for entry level, the next three to five years, depending on person, what lenders or investors have asked for.
These are called pro forma statements, and rhetorical questions they are based on your assumptions about essay how your business will perform. Your one-year projections should be broken down by month, while your more distant projections can be broken down by year. Vs Oranges. If your business plan is for college, the expansion of an existing business, your statements will be based on your business's existing financial data. If your business is in essay, new, your statements will be speculative, but you can make them realistic by basing them on the published financial statements of existing businesses similar to yours. If you can’t find this data on your own or if it simply doesn’t exist because your business concept is too unique or all similar companies are privately held, look for an accountant who has experience working with businesses similar to yours and can help you create realistic financial projections. Three Key Financial Statements. Your financial plan should include three key financial statements: the income statement, the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Let's look at what each statement is and why you need it. The income statement, also called the profit and loss statement or PL, summarizes your company's revenue and expenses. Revenues are your company's sales and/or other sources of college income (for example, a cleaning business earns revenues from the hourly or per-room or per-home fee that it charges its clients; a grocery store earns revenue from the foods and to type other products and services it sells. Expenses include items such as the cost of goods sold (the money you spend buying produce, meat and dairy from significant person local farmers, for apples vs oranges essay, example) payroll for employees, payroll, sales and income taxes, business insurance and loan interest.
The bottom line of the income statement shows the company's net income, or its revenue minus expenses. Lenders and investors want to college know what kind of numbers your company is working with and whether your company is profitable or expects to in school be soon. (To learn more, read Understanding The Income Statement .) Balance Sheet. The balance sheet shows your company's assets and liabilities. It's called a balance sheet because the assets must perfectly balance the liabilities. Within each category are numerous subcategories. For example, your assets will include cash, accounts receivable, inventory and college equipment. Your liabilities will include accounts payable, wages and questions salaries, taxes, rent and utilities, and significant person college loan balances.
The balance sheet is important because it shows the company's financial position at a specific point in my paper, time, and it compares what you own to what you owe. (For more information, see Reading The Balance Sheet .) Cash Flow Statement/Cash Budget. The cash flow statement shows the sums you expect to be coming into and going out of your business in a given time frame. Topics you'll need to examine to predict cash flow include sales forecasts, cash receipts vs. credit receipts and the time frame for significant person, collecting accounts receivable. How much will these expenses be, and home business how often will you need to pay them? Will you have trade credit, and college how long will you have to pay your suppliers? Cash flow statements not only show potential investors that you know what you're doing, they also help you to make sure your business model is financially viable and to establish goals that you want to achieve. (For more on this subject, check out What Is A Cash Flow Statement? and The Essentials Of Cash Flow .) Your financial statements should show both a long- and short-term vision for your business.
In business plans, three-year and five-year projections are considered long term, and your plan will be expected to cover at least three years. Your projections should be neither overly optimistic best-case scenarios, nor overly cautious worst-case scenarios, but realistic in-between projections that you can support. Don’t commit the common error of making hockey-stick projections that predict sudden, sharp growth – that’s a classic way to look like an in essay amateur. Significant College. (For further reading, see What You Need To Know About Financial Statements and our in-depth Financial Statements Tutorial .) Lenders may want your statements presented in home, a certain way, so ask before you draw them up. A bank, for example, may want to significant essay see monthly projections for the first year, quarterly projections for the second year and and insanity annual projections for the third year. In addition to financial statements for person essay, your company, if you are a new business, you may need to provide personal financial statements for each owner. These statements should list each owner’s assets, such as checking and savings account balances, stocks and bonds, retirement account balances and rhetorical questions in essay home equity, as well as liabilities such as mortgages, student loans, taxes owed and other debts. College. When you put together your financial statements, make sure there are absolutely no typos or mistakes in your calculations. If you are inexperienced in preparing these statements, hire an accountant to help you. Even if you and all of your business partners know exactly what you are doing, you may still want to hire an unbiased, outside professional to check your work and give you a second opinion on whether your projects are realistic. You don't want to be blindsided by mistakes or problems in your financial statements when a potential lender or investor reviews your proposal.
What You Can Learn from Your Financial Statements. While the financial statements are helpful in and of my paper themselves, the significant person data they contain can also be used to my paper calculate financial ratios such as gross profit margin, return on significant person, investment and return on owner's equity. Ratios provide helpful information about a company's liquidity, profitability, debt, operating performance, cash flow and pay someone my paper investment valuation. (Learn more about significant financial ratios in our Financial Ratio Tutorial .) Additional Financial Information. In addition to home business plan financial statements, prospective lenders or investors will also want to significant person essay college see a sales forecast and, if your business will have employees, a personnel plan. The sales forecast is a chart that breaks down how much your business expects to sell in various categories by month (for the next year) and by year (for the following two to four years). For a cleaning service business, the sales forecast might list one-time cleanings, monthly cleaning contracts and essay cell phones annual cleaning contracts and further break those down by houses, condos, apartment units, entire apartment buildings and significant person essay college office buildings. Automatism Essay. For a grocery store, the sales forecast might list projected sales of essay college fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, seafood, packaged goods and to type my paper hot prepared meals. If your business sells a product, your sales forecast should include the essay cost of goods sold. If your business will have employees and not just managers, you will need a personnel plan showing what types of apples employees you will have (for example, cashiers, butchers, drivers, stockers and cooks along with what they will cost in terms of essay salary and on banning cell phones wages, health insurance, retirement plan contributions, workers compensation insurance, unemployment insurance, and Social Security and Medicare taxes. Essay. Use of letter Loan or Investment Capital.
You’ve made a strong case for your business idea, its viability and your ability to execute it. So how, exactly, do you plan to use any money that lenders or investors offer you? They’ll want to know. If you’re requesting a $100,000 loan, for example, you might break that down into essay college, the amount that will go toward equipment such as cash registers, shelving and pay someone to type my paper refrigerated display cases; purchasing inventory; and carrying out your marketing campaign. Significant College. If you’re seeking capital to expand your business, you might show how much you plan to spend on remodeling or adding store locations. Proposed Repayment Schedule or Exit Strategy. Potential lenders will want to know how and when you intend to repay the loan or line of credit, so you should put together a proposed repayment schedule and terms. They may not agree with your suggestion, but offering proposed terms shows that you are considering the loan from the lender's perspective.
Also describe what collateral is available to secure the loan, such as inventory, accounts receivable, real estate, vehicles or equipment. Be aware that lenders do not count the full value of your collateral, and each lender may count a different percentage. Potential investors will want to know when their investment will pay off and how much of a return to expect. They will also want to see that you have an questions in essay exit strategy to college cash out on your investment and theirs. Do you plan to sell the business outright to another individual or company? Hold an initial public offering and cell go public?
What will your exit strategy be if the business is significant person, failing? At what point have you determined that you will cut your losses and sell or close down, and essay how will you repay investors if this happens? (See Top Exit Strategy Tips for Small Businesses and A Look At Exit Strategies .) Remember, no one has to college lend you any money or invest in your company, and pay someone to type my paper when they are considering doing so, they will be comparing the risk and significant person essay return of working with you to the risk and return they could get from lending to or investing in based business, other companies. You have to convince them that your business is the most promising option.
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Sample Essays: Influential Person - Infoplease
Possibilities of Power and Purpose. Politics is significant essay, a spectrum of the possibilities of power. It defines relations among humans and the purposes they pursue. At one end of the spectrum is sheer exploitative domination, where the only question is, as Lenin said, ‘Who [is able to in essay dominate] whom?’ There was no single birth of the idea of domination; all too many societies in human history have been marked by it. At the other end of the spectrum of person essay college, politics is hr cover letter entry level, a much rarer ideal: that of a regime of free and equal citizens with the power to decide and act.
There is no monopoly on this practice either; it has evolved in many places and in many forms. Yet one set of ideas, from one particular era and one part of the world, has been enormously influential in delineating a vision of that ideal that continues to person essay resonate powerfully in our own times. The ancient Greeks and Romans gave birth to a vocabulary still at work in the analyses and essay on banning cell phones, aspirations of many of those concerned with politics across the globe today. One important dimension of Greek and college, Roman political ideas includes the claims and practices of self-government, exemplified especially in Athenian democracy and the Roman republic. What makes their ideas so rich a resource for thinking politically is that those forms of self-rule were accompanied by philosophical and on banning phones, literary and rhetorical challenges to them. Some orators and writers debunked political ideals of self-rule, of justice and equality, as illusory or exploitative; others argued that self-rule was better achieved in ethics than in politics, or in essay college, some form of fellowship distinct from the existing political community. In other words, Greek and Roman political philosophy embodies both those practices of hr cover letter level, self-government and the reactions to them.
This makes it a resource not only for those who want to celebrate politics today, but also for those who are critical of it. This book treats historical practices and philosophical reflections together, on the grounds that what makes Greek and essay, Roman ideas such good resources for apples essay, thinking is the remarkably wide spectrum of college, possibilities of power that they covered. It is hard to letter find a modern critique of Greek and Roman politics (on slavery, on gender, on elitism, on imperialism) that some particular Greek or Roman did not make first. For every incarnation of a political regime, there were critics scrutinizing its claims. Alongside the distinctive ideas of democracy and republic, Greeks and Romans also explored the limits of those political ideals of citizenship; investigated the significant essay claims of oligarchies, kingships and even tyrannies; and questioned whether any claim to embody justice in civic relations could be valid.
Rather than confine the value of the Greeks and Romans to just one position on rhetorical the spectrum of politics – as either proudly committed to popular self-rule or philosophical critics of it, for example – we can learn most by exploring the significant person essay whole range of ideas that they generated. To respond to letter level the ranks of critics and to the plight of the outsiders, to significant essay think for ourselves about the value and limits of politics, we need to understand the development of these influential classical ideas. Why turn back to classical ideas and models rather than simply think about what these terms have come to apples vs oranges essay mean today? Greek and significant person college, Roman versions of these ideas are radical in the original sense of the term. They serve as the roots (the etymological meaning of ‘radical’) of a multitude of modern ideas, roots that have sprouted in automatism and insanity, many different ways in the intervening centuries, in the West but also beyond it. Person Essay College? Indeed, these ideas have been recovered, revised and contested in all parts of the world where the classical thinkers have been read or classical practices prevailed. They have been debated from Marseille to Ai Khanoum in Afghanistan (where a student of Aristotle inscribed celebrated Greek maxims on a funerary monument), from Tunis to Tarsus, in automatism essay, Byzantium and among its Ottoman conquerors; and also in the parts of the world where Greek and Roman ideas were brought by person college conquest and colonization, taken up by rulers and ruled alike, across other parts of essay cell phones, Africa and college, Asia as well as Latin America. Roots bear little visible resemblance to apples vs oranges essay the plants that spring from them. Sometimes the Greeks and Romans are held to be too different from college modern peoples to be of much use for current understandings. Perhaps they are of little use because they are too good for us: in this light they are sometimes celebrated as public-spirited citizens in comparison with our modern self-interested counterparts.
Or perhaps it is because we are too smart or too lucky for them to be relevant any more: in this alternative perspective, liberal and representative democracy in automatism essay, the context of capitalism is seen as a game-changing innovation that makes ancient models of only limited use. Both points are intertwined in significant essay, Enlightenment philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s critique of ancient politics as irrelevant to entry modern circumstances, a critique that manages to be at essay college, once nostalgic in tone and uncompromising in implication. Rousseau in 1764 issued a warning to apples essay the citizens of college, Geneva (of whom he was one by birth) that they should not be tempted by flattering comparisons of home plan, themselves as citizens of a ‘republic’ with the peoples of classical times: Ancient Peoples are no longer a model for essay college, modern ones; they are too alien to them in every respect … [Addressing Genevans as ‘you’] You are neither Romans, nor Spartans; you are not even Athenians. Leave aside these great names that do not suit you. You are Merchants, Artisans, Bourgeois, always occupied with their [ sic ] private interests, with their work, with their trafficking, with their gain; people for whom even liberty is rhetorical, only a means for acquiring without obstacle and for possessing in safety.1. The fundamental political implication of this contrast, Rousseau concludes, is that ‘Not being idle as the ancient Peoples were, you cannot ceaselessly occupy yourselves with the Government as they did.’2 In other words, Rousseau implies that without the slaves and the wartime spoils that allowed Greek and Roman citizens to person essay be idle, their distinctive brand of political involvement is impossible, and so there is little or nothing to be learned from it. But, in fact, against his insinuation, the allocation of effort and leisure is a political allocation that both classical and modern societies have made, one that is not wholly determined by economic forces. Slavery was one (brutal and important) form of exploitative wealth-appropriation, but it was not the pivotal or dominant form of wealth accumulation in home plan, Greek or Roman societies outside certain specialized sectors; conversely, plenty of similar societies had slaves without devoting themselves to politics. Meanwhile, modern societies have accumulated sources of wealth, energy and college, capacity (through the division of labour, non-animal energy sources and new media, among others) that could be used to allow more people to devote time to politics, if they (we) so chose.
Certainly there are striking differences between ancient and modern societies in terms of economics, technology, religion and bureaucracy. The Greeks and Romans had productive economies based on plan agriculture, mining and artisanal production as well as trade and wartime plunder, but no exponential economic or technological growth, nor any idea of a capitalist market relatively emancipated from college other aspects of the social order. Apples Vs Oranges? They had communal religious rites honouring a range of deities, rather than monotheistic religions that could be divorced from public control. And they had no notion of a state as an person college abstract separate entity, distinct from the particular personnel who govern it and also from the home people who compose it. These differences are real, but the very differences can reveal certain important points about politics more clearly. Significant Person Essay? Without an extensively bureaucratized and specialized state apparatus, the Greeks and Romans conceived of politics as fundamentally about relations among those in the political community, and apples, about relations with those who were inside or outside its boundaries without full membership. Indeed, this is significant college, why it is sometimes even said that they had no special idea of ‘politics’ at all as something distinct from general community concerns: politics was not separate and specialized, but a pervasive and abiding concern for the matters belonging to the community in common.3 This means that classical ideas can provide a lens for focusing on the broad constitution and purposes of a community – something that is too often obscured in modernity by so many specialized aspects of the political apparatus. This is based plan, not to say that all Greeks and Romans idealized those relations among citizens (or that their societies were composed of citizens only: the politics of significant essay, exclusion and inclusion were also a form of politics). On the contrary, some saw civic ties and pursuits as inherently exploitative or as less fulfilling than other ways of automatism, spending one’s life. Person College? Those criticisms are as instructive as the ideas and ideals that they challenge. This book will explore both the similarities and letter entry level, differences between ancient and modern politics.
The point is not to come up with a net tally – are they more different or more similar? Rather, it is to reveal a range of ancient and modern preoccupations, so that common ground can be traced and light shed on those areas where they differ – and to do so in a way that is most productive for person college, thinking about politics in whatever circumstances one finds oneself. And Insanity Essay? Ancient ideas may prove radical both in the etymological sense of serving as roots, and also in the sense of offering profound challenge. Person Essay College? For example, the entry level internet and social media magnify the realization that politics today is dominated by rhetoric, just as it was in Athens; we are forever searching for new mechanisms to produce the social knowledge that the person essay Athenians enjoyed. The opinionated blogosphere makes the questions of Plato and Aristotle – whether social knowledge is apples, enough, and how politics can take account of scientific expertise – pressing once again. And, meanwhile, rising levels of economic inequality and social immobility raise a challenge faced continually in antiquity, with fresh force: how, and in what circumstances, if at all, can the significant person college rich and the poor be enabled to essay in school act as political equals? To explore classical ideas with an eye to their modern resonances, I have chosen eight ideas that are vital for significant essay, thinking politically today and that have Greek and Roman roots (even though not always exact Greek or Latin translations). A more thoroughgoing antiquarian concerned only to represent Greek and Roman ideas in their historical contexts, with no thought of the present, would probably choose some startlingly different candidates: Polytheism, say, or Patronage. Equally, a modern philosopher guided only by automatism and insanity contemporary politics would undoubtedly choose differently too: Rights, say, or Legitimacy.
My guiding principle has been to choose ideas that can be used to illuminate key aspects of ancient thought while also informing contemporary reflections. They provide an overview of essential aspects of political thought and significant person essay college, practice in ancient Greece and Rome over 700 years, from the late 6th century BCE to the late 2nd century CE , with a special focus on the ‘classical eras’ from roughly the 5th to the 1st centuries BCE (remember that BCE centuries are numbered downward to the birth of Christ, which marks the beginning of the Christian era, as in Figure 1). Each chapter is centred around an idea, while each idea in turn is presented as emblematic of a particular time, place or author, notwithstanding the fact that each was also explored in many others. 5th?4th Century bce. 2nd?1st Century bce. 1st?2nd Century bce. Across such a vast chronological range, a short book must necessarily be far from comprehensive, even in to type my paper, its coverage of the chosen eight ideas. For example, it leaves out the Jewish and Christian thinkers who remade crucial aspects of political thought in Greece and person, Rome. It focuses primarily on 5th- and 4th-century Greece and on the latter half of the history of the rhetorical in essay Roman republic, with only a brief and partial survey of aspects of the early imperial period of Roman history. And even within the classical eras of Greek democracy and significant essay, the Roman republic, it is highly selective, aimed at informing readers who are interested in to type, better understanding the politics of significant essay, Greek and Roman antiquity both in themselves and also as a way of understanding the in essay contemporary world. To explain how those two projects might be connected, I consider now five dimensions of significant person college, politics, along the axes of which power is related to possibility, illustrating them primarily by reference to the Greek societies in which our story begins.
Every idea of politics must answer five questions about how power can be mobilized to shape certain possible outcomes: Who? Where? Why? How? When? While the Greeks lacked a special notion of ‘politics’ as something clearly different from, say, economics or military affairs, they certainly recognized and responded to pay someone to type my paper what have been called the ‘circumstances of politics’. They developed ideas that for us count as political ideas, addressing what they themselves called ta politika : the significant college things or matters of concern to a certain – we would say political – community. Essay On Banning In School? To flesh out the range of ideas that they developed, let us consider how those varying ideas addressed each of the five questions in significant college, turn. Who were those who concerned themselves with ta politika ? Answer: the citizens ( politai , plural of vs oranges, polites ),* understood as sharing in a common condition and significant person essay, concern that made them equals, even though some were rich, others poor. That equality was Janus-faced.
Some lucky few were included as citizens by means of excluding all others (foreigners and slaves) from automatism their common privileges. Most harshly excluded were those whom Greek societies enslaved. Significant Person? Citizens could count themselves as equals even under a tyrant, at questions, least in the sense that even a tyrant would treat citizens and significant college, slaves differently. For the Romans, the common concern would be called res publica , literally the based business plan people’s thing or affair, from which derives the person essay English word ‘republic’. A Roman citizen was someone who was free, as opposed to a slave, who was protected in his private affairs and who enjoyed important powers related to the welfare of the common thing, the common concerns. The place of women as (passive) citizens in the classical regimes – with certain privileges and duties, but no voice in key political forums, albeit sometimes dramatic political agency in a broader sense – will be considered in the chapters that follow. Where did concern for ta politika take place? In Greece, primarily, though not always, in a polis . A polis was a particular kind of territory and settlement, combining an urban core, often walled, with a region of agricultural hinterland. About 1,000 separate polis communities have been counted in archaic and classical Greece. In size of territory, they ranged from less than 12 square kilometres in size to several thousand – with Sparta as an outlier at about 8,000 square kilometres (and with a relatively small population).
In size of vs oranges, population, a polis might include anything from a few thousand upward – with Athens as the outlier at about 250,000 inhabitants, of college, whom about 60,000 were male citizens at its zenith in the time of the pay someone my paper 5th-century statesman and general Pericles (in a relatively large territory of about 2,500 square kilometres).4. While land was important to a polis ’s identity, both practically and symbolically, it was ultimately secondary to the identity of its inhabitants. Person College? A polis was defined most fundamentally in terms of its people. The Greeks never spoke of ‘Athens’ or ‘Sparta’ as political actors in my paper, the way that we speak of ‘France’ or even ‘Paris’; they spoke always of ‘the Athenians’ or ‘the Spartans’. And, in desperate moments, the survival of the polis meant the survival of the people holding ta politika in common, even at the cost of sacrificing some of their land. (Famously, at person essay, one stage in their 5th-century wars with Sparta, the Athenians followed the advice of the general and orator Pericles and abandoned their countryside to the pillagers, crowding together in the urban core of the polis under the protection of the Long Walls, where they continued to care for ta politika together.) Polis is often translated as ‘city-state’, because it was in the urban civic centre that politics was concentrated. Indeed, it can even be translated as ‘citizen-state’, since it was the people, more than the place, who made the polis .5 As we will see throughout the course of the book, this idea of politics as taking place within city walls would later become subject to philosophical critiques that opened up potentially wider and more inclusive ideas of how and where ethical and political communities might arise.
Rome, for its part, also began as an urban centre with a rural hinterland. But it soon grew beyond all recognition into a very different kind of place, a huge geographical expanse incorporating pre-existing political communities by conquest or treaty. After recurrent bouts of conflict, the in school Romans gradually and sometimes grudgingly extended the condition of essay college, citizenship to the inhabitants of their expanded domains: first, to almost all those who were not slaves living in what is now Italy south of the Po River; and, eventually, in 212 CE , to all the free men living in any Roman territory. In the earlier expansion, citizenship was sometimes extended to apples vs oranges essay new groups sine suffragio (without the vote). In another way, too, Roman citizenship was dramatically expansive and inclusive, because slaves who were freed by means of recognized civic procedures thereby became citizens (unlike in Greece).6 Still, relatively few of person essay college, these new citizens created by questions manumission (i.e., by being freed) or incorporation could come to Rome in practice to attend the assemblies where officials were elected and essay college, laws passed. So a gulf opened up between the condition of citizenship and the actual practice of politics – a gulf that is likewise alarmingly wide in many parts of the apples vs oranges world today. Why did Greek citizens so prize the polis and the possibility of caring together for ta politika ? They valued being respected as equals (as well as the possibility of significant person college, being esteemed differentially as individuals), and they valued collective flourishing. The polis was a space in which the collective well-being could be defined, pursued and shared.
Each polis community was vulnerable to invasion and so was constantly jockeying for on banning cell in school, advantage and sometimes even permanent domination over its neighbours. The political community could marshal its men (along with non-citizen residents and mercenaries, and sometimes slaves) to fight others, Greeks and non-Greeks alike: offensively, with the prospect of winning booty and tribute; and defensively, to protect their people and resources against domination – which could mean despoliation, enslavement or death. Though a good number of adventurous spirits chose to significant essay hazard their personal fortunes as merchants or travellers, living abroad to teach, trade or advise, the personal safety and welfare of most Greeks depended crucially on the fate of to type my paper, their polis . In Rome, the standing of a Roman citizen in the republic meant protection from outrage of one’s person, in the form of arbitrary flogging, illegal imprisonment and the like. Many citizens also had the significant essay duty of serving in plan, the military if conscripted – with the prospect of college, gain and hr cover entry, glory, but also the danger of defeat and person college, the horrors that might bring. It is perhaps in and insanity, their answer to how that the Greeks innovated most dramatically: by developing mechanisms of decision-making and accountability that allowed ta politika to significant person college be considered and essay cell in school, determined collectively. These included practices of formal voting in assemblies and courts, sometimes using written ballots; the use of lottery and election to choose officials on a rotating annual basis; and scrutinizing the person college accounts of those officials to hold them accountable for their actions.
Some democracies, most conspicuously Athens, innovated further in using large popular juries to decide almost all legal cases and eschewing professional judges, taking such power out of the hands of archaic aristocratic bodies. These mechanisms were both protective and productive, seeking to protect the polis and its institutions against apples vs oranges essay, damage or corruption, and to marshal its collective powers in pursuit of prosperity. In Rome, the person college election of officials and the making of laws became a peculiar form of art, with elaborate group voting procedures and a key role for certain elected officials in proposing laws to to type those assembled for significant person, the purpose of approving them. In Essay? The Athenian poor defended their interests themselves, especially in the law-courts that they controlled by force of numbers; the Roman commoners forced the significant person essay establishment of special elected officials (‘tribunes’) to protect them. These practices also give us a clue as to when Greek and Roman politics happened: for apples, if politics is the essay domain of power and possibility, it must happen in time as well as in space. That is, while political institutions are bounded by space, the pursuit of actions and decisions within them is done in time. To practise politics is to decide and to act, or to authorize action: using forms of power to make certain possibilities real. Based Plan? The Greeks and Romans controlled the timing of political actions in diverse and complex ways: the Athenians timed the speeches in jury trials by means of a water-clock, for example; while the Romans consulted augurs, priests who were charged with determining when crucial political or military actions should be taken in person essay college, accordance with divine favour.7 Within institutions, opportunities to act were carefully prescribed and allocated; outside them, an ambitious man might perceive and seize the opportunity to rewrite the phones in school rules and significant college, take power as a tyrant or as one of a group of oligarchs. Inside and apples vs oranges, outside established institutions, in classical antiquity and today, politics is in large part an art of timing. Eight ideas will constitute the significant core of this book, and will help us envision what politics might be. All arise at the levels identified earlier: the letter level level of philosophical reflection and the level of political practice.
Two ideas address what power might possibly achieve: Justice (especially a concern in the histories of the classical regimes) and Virtue (especially a concern for the philosophers, who incorporated their own special ideas of justice into it). Six address how to organize and tame the relations of power among people, and the extent to which varying kinds of control should be brought to bear upon significant person essay college, these relations: Constitution, Democracy, Citizenship, Cosmopolitanism, Republic and phones, Sovereignty. All these ideas took special and distinctive forms in Greece or Rome, or both, though related families of ideas may be found in other societies. Significant Person? While all were developed by a wide range of thinkers, my presentation focuses on each one primarily in hr cover letter entry, the context of one or a few thinkers at a certain time period, chosen because they contributed rich material to the development of that idea. This approach will help to guide readers who are less familiar with Greece and Rome on significant person essay what will be a broadly chronological journey, while at the same time highlighting the thematic power of the ideas.
Of course, a case could be made for other ideas over those I have chosen. A list of the most important political ideas of the Greeks and Romans from some absolute standpoint would surely include Equality, Liberty and on banning in school, Law (these three thread throughout most of the chapters here, in fact), and we will also have occasion to think about ideas like Friendship and Sociability. My claim is not that these eight are exclusively or pre-eminently important. It is rather that they offer the best way I have found of essay college, telling a story in these pages that illuminates classical ideas while also resonating with contemporary readers. The eight ideas begin in Chapter 1 with Justice as the fundamental – and contested – basis of home based, common citizenship for all. For if the rich can exploit and even enslave the poor, if the poor are always afraid of the violence or fraud that might be perpetrated upon them by the rich, the person essay college extreme of domination reigns, with little hope that power might be used for any other possibility. Based Plan? To establish justice requires a politeia , often translated in English as ‘constitution’, meaning in Greek a condition of citizenship that involves the broad ordering of the way of life of person college, a society. The Greeks were acutely aware of the merits and demerits of questions in essay, rival constitutions in this sense, as we will see in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 looks at the specific Athenian idea, and constitution, of Democracy. Here the comparison between ancient and modern is most direct. While the people played far more extensive and diverse roles in person essay college, ancient democracy than they do in modern forms of based business plan, government, central ideas, including accountability, control and college, judgement, are common to pay someone my paper both, though institutionally manifest in different ways.
Appreciating the special qualities of Athenian democracy – a task that will involve dispelling a number of myths about it – allows us to think hard about how well modern democracies achieve, or could achieve, the ideas that they value most. Significant? It proves that a political system can exist in based business, which the significant person richest citizens cannot use their wealth to dominate the essay on banning cell phones in school poor or to accumulate a lasting and far-reaching power base in politics. While the rich had certain opportunities and responsibilities in Athens and significant person, could make the most of those, they were always subject to automatism essay the judgements of the wider political community and so restricted, for the most part, to the pursuit of the interests of that wider community, as the dominant group within it saw them. The Greek menu of constitutions was arguably far wider than that served up in polite international society today. But, to a lineage of philosophers living in Athens across three generations, that menu did not go far enough, for it did not include any genuinely valuable regimes. In different ways, these philosophers all argued that existing regimes were marred by greed and lust for significant person essay, power, producing endemic conflicts without actually making their inhabitants truly better off.
As we will see in Chapter 4, the lineage began with Socrates, who questioned his fellow Athenians incessantly about the nature of justice, knowledge and virtue; it continued with Plato, his pupil, born to a privileged family but in thrall to my paper the ugly plebeian Socrates, and the source of our most scintillating writings about him; and then, turning to significant college Chapter 5, it was passed on my paper to Aristotle, who came from a family serving the Macedonian court in northern Greece to join the Academy that Plato had established in Athens, later setting up a rival school of his own. Each of these philosophers envisaged another form of politics, even an ideal politeia (this is the significant person title of rhetorical questions in essay, what we call in English Plato’s Republic ), which would be based on a deeper idea of justice and achieve a more genuine human good. For Plato and Aristotle, Virtue and Citizenship would ideally coincide in a good politeia . For some of person, Socrates’ followers in subsequent generations, however, the rhetorical questions in essay vision of an ideal politeia was radicalized to constitute a permanent ethical fellowship that might never take any conventional political form. This was the birth of the idea of Cosmopolitanism (Chapter 6), referring to the entire universe ( Kosmos ) as a realm of citizens ( politai ), an idea that we will find turned to a dizzyingly wide range of ethical and political purposes. Alongside the debate about Cosmopolitanism in significant person college, the post-classical Hellenistic period of Greek politics following the death of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE was a related discussion about the naturalness of politics and of human fellowship. Was politics truly natural, a feature of human nature, as Aristotle especially would define it? Or might it be a makeshift tool, a useful social contract that does not answer to our highest capabilities of forming relationships? The tensions between politics as rooted in vs oranges essay, natural sociability and politics as rooted in utility, and between a polity limited in space to one’s actual fellow citizens and significant essay college, one in which one’s fellow citizens were one’s true peers in virtue wherever they might reside, were played out again and again in the schools that either followed Socrates or rejected his example in the post-classical era. As we shall see, one school of Hellenistic philosophers, the Stoics, argued for natural sociability and home plan, saw politics as a healthy outgrowth of that, though perfected in the republic of fellow sages; a rival school, the person essay Epicureans, argued for politics as a matter of utility rooted not in nature but in contract, contrasting it with a higher human ideal of apples essay, friendship. In such ways, the philosophers of the late 4th to 1st centuries BCE mapped out basic terms of political debate that set the stage for Roman politics. Essay College? For the Romans came to dominate Greece politically, only to reappropriate Greek philosophical distinctions, which they then put to work in governing the expanding republic and empire – a story we will trace forward into the 2nd century CE . Chapter 7 tells the story of the plan constitution of the Roman republic, seen through the lenses of an analyst of its rise and significant person essay college, a participant in its decline. ‘Republic’ is a transliteration of the Latin term ( res publica ) at the core of the constitution that the Romans developed.
Polybius, a hostage Greek historian who analysed the Roman constitution, viewed that constitution as a balance among three elements – consuls, Senate, and to type my paper, people – each representing one of the simplest three forms of constitution known to the Greeks (kingship, oligarchy and democracy). This idea of powers of significant person, government that are in varying ways divided and balanced (and, for some, mixed) would evolve into the republican ideal of ‘checks and hr cover entry, balances’ adopted by person essay college the American founders and their followers. Animating this recurrent tension was the struggle to attain equal liberty, involving respect for even the commonest and poorest citizen in his person, property and powers. Respect for the poor, however, went alongside special privileges for a meritocratic elite, one largely overlapping with inherited or earned wealth. Apples Vs Oranges Essay? Whereas the significant person Athenians used democratic powers to constrain their elites, the Romans allowed them a more significant and independent set of political powers.
The Romans balanced the role of the political elite (overlapping with the economic elite) against the role of ordinary Romans, whereas the Athenian democrats had allowed the apples vs oranges poor to control and college, adjudicate, in crucial ways, the claims of the elite. Writing in home based business plan, the 2nd century BCE , Polybius, an historian of Rome’s rise who wrote his account in significant person essay college, Greek, witnessed republican Rome at its height – but he prophesied that it could not last. Essay Cell In School? Public devotion to college duty, to the Roman understanding of the virtues that must be exercised if the to type ‘common thing’ (the res publica ) is to be protected, would eventually and inevitably lapse. That undermining was witnessed a century later by the philosopher and statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero, who had clambered up the ladder of significant person essay college, power and honour by sheer exertion of public speaking, but at the same time studied and debated zealously with philosophers of many schools in essay on banning cell, Rome and also in Athens. Like Plato and Aristotle before him, Cicero found that his reflections on politics took him in the direction of imagining a better republic, with a better set of laws, which he set down in his writings just as the significant college integrity of the actual republic was slipping away in a series of bloody struggles for power – in the course of which he himself would be one of rhetorical in essay, those murdered. That vision put a particular understanding of what liberty required at its centre, an understanding giving pride of place to a certain interpretation of private property and the role of law and virtue in essay college, supporting the republican constitution. Cicero died in one of the last convulsions of the republic before the appointment of hr cover letter level, a ‘first citizen’ – a princeps – who was, in 27 BCE , elevated to significant person the new status of ‘Augustus Caesar’. By the time of the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca, in the next century, the ‘first citizen’ had become what we would today recognize as a full-blown emperor – though the title dominus (master or lord) would be officially accorded to the emperor only in 284 CE . With the mutation of republican practices in a new era of imperial leadership (Chapter 8: Sovereignty) came a change in political imagination. Seneca, like Cicero, was a statesman, author and man of affairs who was made to apples vs oranges suffer a violent death.
Instead of significant essay college, dreaming of an ideal republic, he dreamed of an ideal prince. Within Rome, he embellished the original Greek idea of the pay someone my paper monarchical constitution, envisioning how the virtues of mercy and liberality could be fostered in the princeps . So we see that Greek and Roman ideals of politics were not limited to significant essay college democratic or republican models alone. Through the rhetorical ‘mirror for princes’, Seneca and other writers of the imperial age initiated centuries of debate about the values and virtues of monarchical rule. Those who trek to Rome to study the ruins of antiquity will find that the Senate House now standing was not built by the Roman republic. It is person essay, a building constructed for to type, that purpose and on person that site by a later emperor. The distant past of classical antiquity is like many of the mosaics that have been bequeathed to our museums: broken and reset, or refashioned with elements of the original pattern still clearly visible. Apples? When officials today count votes or make speeches, when voters elect ‘senators’ or ‘presidents’, when the United Nations debates how to establish the rule of law in a war-torn society, we see at work both ancient models and more recent rethinking, old ideas and new ways of putting them into person, practice. By engaging with the letter entry level political ideas of the Greeks and Romans, we can equip and empower ourselves to develop our own ideas anew. 1. Rousseau, ‘Ninth Letter from the Mountain’, published in 1764, as translated in Rousseau 2001, pp. 292–3. ? 4. Significant Person College? Figures for territory size are conveniently summarized in Ober 2008a, pp.
43–8, 84–6, who draws on a range of sources, including the important inventory of 1,035 different poleis , the plural of polis (or, strictly, communities that were ‘definitely, probably or possibly’ to be classed as such, in Hansen and Nielsen 2004 (quotation, p. 53)). ? 5. This translation is automatism, coined by Hansen 1993, pp. 7–29. ? 6. On the person college different forms of vs oranges essay, manumission in Rome, noting that only those involving civil procedures (as distinct from college merely the wilful decision of the master) conferred citizenship, see Arena 2012, pp. 16–19, and Bradley 2011, pp. 254–5. ? 7. On Athenian water-clocks, Allen 1996; on Roman augurs, Ogilvie 2011. ? * To sound out Greek and Latin words as you read them, pronounce every syllable (so a ‘citizen’ is ho po-li-tes , as opposed to the plural of the English pronunciation of the questions word ‘polite’). More information about Greek and Latin spelling and pronunciation is given in the glossary. arche ; plural, archas [Greek] : office (in political context); can also mean ‘origin’ archein [Greek] : to rule or govern. arete [Greek] : excellence or virtue. boule [Greek] : will, deliberation or council (in Athens, can refer to the Council of 500, the Senate or agenda-setting body created by Cleisthenes; see ekklesia ) civitas [Latin] : political unit, roughly translatable as ‘state’ (in Roman political context, the most important unit of political activity) Constitutio Antoniniana [Latin] : edict of the emperor Caracalla, which granted almost all free people in the Roman empire citizenship in 212 CE. demokratia [Greek] : literally ‘power of the people’; origin of the English word ‘democracy’ (in political context, refers to a system of person essay college, government where the demos , or ‘people’, hold significant power, with classical Athens being the most noted example of such a system) demos [Greek] : the people (in political contexts, often refers to the ‘people’ or common people in contrast with the elite; can also mean the whole body of citizens) dikasteria [Greek, plural] : the law-courts.
dike , dikaiosune [Greek] : justice; dike can also mean specifically trial, verdict or judgement. ekklesia [Greek] : assembly (in Athens, refers to the more general governmental body, in contrast with the more limited Council of 500, see boule ; in later thought, refers to both political and religious bodies: thus one can speak of the ekklesia as the community of members of a church or of the whole body of Christians) ergon [Greek] : deed or action; frequently contrasted in Greek thought and rhetorical questions in essay, rhetoric with the college words of a speaker (in singular, logos ) gerousia [Greek] : Council of pay someone to type my paper, Elders (in Sparta, refers to the Senate or council) honestas [Latin] : honour, character or reputation, often contrasted with expediency, see utilitas. hubris [Greek] : insolence or wanton violence. imperium [Latin] : command (in later political context, refers to the supreme power of the Roman emperor) isos [Greek] : the equal, sometimes translated as the just; related to isotes , meaning ‘equality’ Kallipolis [Greek] : literally the ‘Beautiful City’ (in Plato’s Republic , refers to the ideal city ruled by significant college philosophers) koinonia [Greek] : communion, association or partnership. kosmopolites [Greek] : citizen of the world (in Stoic thought, refers to the idea that one should properly consider oneself a fellow citizen of every other rational being; gives rise to the idea that the truly significant political community is the world community) kosmos [Greek] : literally ‘order’; often used to refer to the world-order or universe. kurios [Greek, adj.] : powerful or authoritative, sometimes translated as ‘sovereign’ lex de imperio Vespasiani [Latin] : literally the ‘law concerning the command of Vespasian’, which has been partially preserved in an inscription, and describes how the Roman emperor’s authority derives from a legal grant by the people. libertas [Latin] : freedom or liberty.
monarchia [Greek] : rule of one man; origin of the English word ‘monarchy’ (in political contexts, refers to a system in which a king rules) nomos [Greek] : law or custom (in political contexts, is frequently contrasted with nature, see phusis ) officium [Latin] : moral duty. oligarchia [Greek] : rule of the hr cover entry level few; origin of the English word ‘oligarchy’ (in political contexts, refers to a system in which the few wealthy citizens rule) optimates [Latin, plural] : literally the significant ‘best men’ (refers to the Roman political faction in the late republic that supported the power of the elite (patricians and nobles, especially as represented in on banning cell phones, the authority of the essay college Senate) against the plebeians, in contrast with the populares ) phusis [Greek] : nature (in political contexts, is letter level, frequently contrasted with law and custom, see nomos ) polis ; plural, poleis [Greek] : city-state (in Greek political context, the most significant unit of political activity) politeia ; plural, politeiai [Greek] : citizenship, constitution or commonwealth (in general political contexts, refers both to a political community and to its form of government; in Aristotelian thought, can also refer to the well-governed form of rule by the many) polites ; plural, politai [Greek] : citizen. politika , ta [Greek] : political affairs or affairs relating to citizens. politikos [Greek, adj.] : relating to citizens, civic or civil. populares [Latin, plural] : literally the ‘men of the people’ (refers to the Roman political faction in the late republic that supported the concerns of the significant college plebeians against the optimates ) princeps , princeps senatus , princeps civitatis [Latin] : first man, first man of the vs oranges Senate, first man of the essay college state (title received by the first Roman emperor Octavian, after his victory in the civil wars at the end of the Roman republic) psyche [Greek] , using y for the upsilon otherwise transliterated as u , as this produces a more recognizable English root in apples, this case] : spirit or soul. res publica or re publica [Latin] : public affair or concern; used to signify the significant commonwealth. rhetor [Greek] : public speaker in rhetorical questions in essay, political institutions.
senatus [Latin] : origin of the English word ‘Senate’; the advisory and deliberative body of the Roman republic, which survived with increasingly symbolic role in the Roman empire. senatus consultum ultimum [Latin] : literally ‘ultimate decree of the essay college Senate’; a declaration of a state of emergency by the Senate, giving the magistrates extraordinary powers, including the use of force, against enemies of the state. strategos ; plural, strategoi [Greek] : commander, governor or general. suffragio [Latin] : ballot, vote or suffrage. telos [Greek] : end or goal (in Aristotelian thought, can refer to essay cell phones in school the end to which an action, thing or person is directed; the source of the word ‘teleological’, which plays an important role in Greek ideas of ethics and college, politics) turannos [Greek] : an absolute ruler (in political context, refers to one who not only rules absolutely, but also rules without concern for vs oranges, the law or the common good) utilitas [Latin] : expediency, often contrasted with honour, see honestas. Zeus [Greek] : ruler of the gods, frequently equated with the Roman god Jupiter.
Aeschylus (?525–456 BCE ): Athenian tragic dramatist, whose works include the Oresteia , Seven Against Thebes and Suppliants. Alexander the Great (356–323 BCE ): Macedonian king, who conquered the Persian empire and advanced through much of Central Asia and northern India before dying of a fever at essay, Babylon, leaving his generals to fight over his kingdom; his death marks the and insanity beginning of the Hellenistic Age. Antigone : Titular character of the tragedy Antigone by Sophocles who prioritizes her duty to person bury her brother Polyneices over the orders of her uncle Creon, the king of hr cover letter, Thebes; having been sentenced to person essay be buried alive, she commits suicide before Creon’s attempt to commute the rhetorical sentence reaches her. Aristophanes (d. 386 BCE ): Athenian comic dramatist, whose works, including the essay Clouds , Knights and Lysistrata , explore tensions in letter level, Athenian democratic practice and society. Aristotle (384–322 BCE ): Macedonian philosopher and student of significant, Plato, who established his own school at the Lyceum in apples, Athens and produced many works, among which the Politics and significant college, Nicomachean Ethics hold particular importance in political thought. Athens : Greek polis located in Attica, noted for its democratic institutions, its wealth and its philosophical schools; major actor in both the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War. Augustus Caesar : see Octavian. Octavian (63 BCE –14 CE ): Heir of Julius Caesar and first emperor of Rome; following his victories in level, civil wars, first against the assassins of Julius Caesar and person college, then against Mark Antony, the Senate named him princeps and gave him the title Augustus. Brutus, Marcus Junius (?85–42 BCE ): Roman aristocrat and leader, along with Cassius, of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar; after the based business plan assassination, he gathered an army in Greece with the person essay college other conspirators and committed suicide after his defeat at the battle of Philippi; an ancestor of the apples vs oranges essay same name ejected the significant person last Roman king from power, thus initiating the hr cover entry level republican period of Roman politics.
Caesar, Julius (100–44 BCE ): Roman general, who conquered Gaul (modern-day France) and fought a civil war against the optimates , the more aristocratic faction of the significant college Senate, led by pay someone my paper Pompey; he was victorious in this war, but his ambition alienated the person college other senators, and he was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 BCE. Cassius (?80–42 BCE ): Roman aristocrat and leader, along with Marcus Junius Brutus, of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar; after the assassination, he gathered an army in Greece with the other conspirators, and committed suicide after his defeat at the battle of Philippi. Chrysippus (280–207 BCE ): Stoic philosopher, who became the head of the to type my paper Stoa, or Stoic school, in significant person, 232 BCE ; heavily influenced by the thought of questions in essay, Zeno of Citium, he wrote extensively and significant, developed Stoic thought. Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 BCE ): Roman orator and politician, who was both a major political figure of the late Roman republic and the author of various philosophical writings, including De Oratore , De Re Publica and to type my paper, De Officiis ; a noted supporter of the Senate, he was proscribed and executed during the instability that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar. Cleisthenes (late 6th c. BCE ): Athenian politician, who made popular reforms, including the reorganization of the essay college Athenian people into political units called demes and the creation of hr cover letter entry level, ostracism, which helped to establish the institutions of Athenian democracy. Cleon (d.
422 BCE ): Athenian politician, who came from a wealthy but non-aristocratic family; he was a strong supporter of the Athenian multitude’s political power and concerns, participated as both a politician and general in the Athenian decisions during the Peloponnesian War, and was criticized for his methods and outlook by Thucydides and significant essay college, Aristophanes. Diogenes the Cynic (Diogenes of entry, Sinope) (?412–324 BCE ): Cynic philosopher, who lived much of his life in Athens and strove to live his life according to nature; he thus owned almost no property or possessions, and showed no shame at performing all acts publicly, including those normally considered private. Diogenes of Oenoanda (2nd c. CE ): Author of an Epicurean inscription on a portico in Lycia that contains selections from the significant essay works of Epicurus and other Epicurean maxims, as well as the author’s own writings. Ephialtes (5th c. BCE ): Athenian politician and reformer, who initiated reforms to increase the power of the people; he was supported by Pericles and other democratic leaders, but the contentiousness of his policies led to his eventual murder. Epictetus (mid 1st–2nd c. CE ): Stoic philosopher and former slave; he was taught by Musonius Rufus and vs oranges essay, heavily influenced by the thought of Chrysippus, and his writings, including Discourses and significant person essay, the Manual , influenced in turn the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. Epicurus (341–270 BCE ): Founder of Epicureanism, which generally holds, among other doctrines, that the soul is not immortal, that all matter is composed of an infinite arrangement of essay on banning cell in school, atoms and that pleasure, particularly the pleasure of a quiet life with friends, is the proper end of life. Euripides (?484–406 BCE ): Athenian tragic dramatist, whose works include Alcestis , Medea and Trojan Women ; although he lived most of his life at Athens, he eventually left the city and spent the end of his life writing at the court of the Macedonian king Archelaus.
Herodotus ( c. 484–430 BCE ): Greek historian, originally from significant person essay college Halicarnassus, whose Histories offers a thorough account of the wars between the Greek cities and the Persian empire; in this account, he examines, in automatism and insanity essay, part, the differences between the significant person essay college political constitutions of the Greeks and home plan, the Persians, frequently contrasting Greek freedom with Persian despotism. Hesiod (8th–7th c. BCE ): Early Greek poet, whose surviving works, including the Theogony and essay, Works and Days , offer a rare perspective on early Greek mythology, culture and values. Lycurgus (?11th–7th c. BCE ): Legendary founder and lawgiver of Sparta, who is said to have instituted both the Spartan way of life and pay someone my paper, the mixed Spartan constitution, which included two kings, a council, or gerousia , and an assembly. Marcus Aurelius (121–80 CE ): Roman emperor, who was the successor to Antoninus Pius and the last of the subsequently named ‘Five Good Emperors’; heavily influenced by his tutors and person, the works of Epictetus, he lived both by Stoic and by Platonic precepts and on banning phones in school, produced his own philosophical Meditations. Musonius Rufus (?30–101 CE ): Stoic philosopher and Roman equestrian, who was a teacher of Epictetus; his writings survive largely as brief sayings and essay college, dialogues.
Nero (37–68 CE ): Roman emperor and and insanity, noted patron of the arts, whose reign began well, but descended into vice and disorder; his notorious behaviour, including the assassination of his mother and the ordering of his adviser Seneca to commit suicide, led the significant person essay college Senate eventually to resist him, leading to his own suicide. Octavian (63 BCE –14 CE ): Heir of Julius Caesar and first emperor of phones in school, Rome; following his victories in civil wars, first against the assassins of Julius Caesar and then against Mark Antony, the significant essay Senate named him princeps and questions in essay, gave him the title Augustus. Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE ): War primarily between alliances led by Athens and Sparta respectively; Athenian military superiority on the sea and significant person essay college, Spartan military superiority on land created a long stalemate, which eventually concluded with an Athenian defeat. Pericles (495–429 BCE ): Athenian politician, who led Athens both before and during its early involvement in and insanity essay, the Peloponnesian War; his democratic support gave him a near-dominant position in Athenian politics – although this did not prevent him from being tried for embezzlement – and he remained influential until his death from the plague that struck Athens in the early 420s BCE. Persian Wars (490, 480–479 BCE ): Refers to person essay college the two failed attempts of the Persian empire, led by the emperors Darius and Xerxes, to conquer mainland Greece; many of the essay cell in school Greek poleis , most notably Sparta and person essay college, Athens, allied to successfully repel these invasions. Plato (424–348 BCE ): Athenian philosopher, student of questions in essay, Socrates and founder of the Academy, whose writings take the form of essay college, dialogues, many of which include Socrates as a main speaker; among the most politically significant of these are the Apology of Socrates , Crito , Gorgias , Republic , Statesman and Laws. Plutarch (?50–120 CE ): Greek philosopher and biographer, whose writings include moral treatises, rhetorical works and, most famously, his Parallel Lives , a series of biographies that frequently pairs Roman and Greek historical figures. Polybius (?200–118 BCE ): Greek politician and home, historian, sent from the Achaean League to Rome as a hostage; he became a close friend of Scipio Aemilianus and significant person college, wrote his Histories in order to based explain Rome’s swift rise to power. Rome : Capital of the Roman republic and subsequent Roman empire, located in central Italy, and noted for college, martial and dutiful culture; through its military power and inclusive institution of citizenship, it maintained political control of the lands around the Mediterranean Sea for several centuries. Scipio Aemilianus (?185–129 BCE ): Roman politician and general, who captured Carthage in 146 BCE and was a dominant conservative presence in the Roman politics of his period; he was a student and close friend of Polybius, and he appears posthumously as an ideal Roman statesman in the philosophical writings of Cicero. Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (?1–65 CE ): Stoic philosopher, who served first as tutor, then as adviser to the Roman emperor Nero, until ordered by the emperor to commit suicide; his writings include both dramas and various ethical treatises outlining Stoic thought.
Socrates (469–399 BCE ): Athenian philosopher, who frequently challenged his fellow Athenians on their moral beliefs and was tried and on banning phones in school, condemned to person essay death by the Athenian democracy; his thought survives primarily in apples vs oranges, the writings of his followers Plato and significant essay, Xenophon. Solon ( c . Pay Someone To Type? 630– c . 560 BCE ): Athenian politician, lawgiver and poet, who made several political reforms, including debt-forgiveness and a reorganization of political offices, which have led many to regard him as a founder of the person Athenian democracy, or at rhetorical questions in essay, least of its precursor institutions. Sophocles (?496–406 BCE ): Athenian tragic dramatist, whose plays include Oedipus Turannos , Antigone and person, Oedipus at Colonus ; he was additionally an active participant in Athenian political life, serving in pay someone, multiple public offices. Sparta : Greek polis located in the Peloponnesus, famous in antiquity for its austere, martial culture, its mixed constitution and its exploitation of local populations as helot serfs; long-time rival of Athens, which it fought during the Peloponnesian War. Tacitus, Publius Cornelius (?55–118 CE ): Roman historian, who acerbically catalogued the history of the early Roman empire in his Histories and significant college, Annals , and who denounced both the vices of the essay cell phones earlier emperors and person essay college, the servility of the Senate in the face of these vices. Thucydides (?460–400 BCE ): Athenian politician and historian, who served as an and insanity essay Athenian general during the person essay Peloponnesian Warand authoritatively documented this war in his History , in which he examines both the causes of the war and the conduct of the apples essay belligerent parties. Xenophon (430–354 BCE ): Athenian soldier and follower of Socrates, who spent much time away from the city, first as a mercenary commander in person essay, Persia and business plan, then in or near Sparta; among his many writings are the Anabasis , an account of his expedition in Persia, and Memorabilia , Apology and Symposium , which recount the conversations and speeches of Socrates.
Zeno of person essay, Citium (The Stoic) (355–263 BCE ): Founder of essay, Stoicism, a philosophical school that generally holds, among other doctrines, that one should strive to live by significant person nature, that virtue is the only good and that one should consider oneself a fellow citizen of the vs oranges entire world community.
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How to approach the Influential Person essay in the common application
5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. Significant Essay! The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure.
Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the automatism and insanity, story is especially important and significant college meaningful, or for home plan, when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and person college social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to essay reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is significant person essay intriguing; it’s something to business plan talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. College! It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment.
By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. Essay Phones In School! In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the college, end result. An example: for apples essay, a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients.
I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to significant person essay be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. Apples! I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from person essay college what I usually shoot, and posted them on on banning cell phones my personal Facebook page the person college, heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for vs oranges, them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and significant person essay powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Business Plan! Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it.
2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. Person College! For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Apples Vs Oranges! Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to significant essay my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Cell Phones! These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and person essay basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the to type my paper, first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it.
I am also put to significant person essay work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the essay cell phones in school, images, ready for their time, whenever that is. Significant Essay College! TIP: If you think there is letter level something to it, there likely is. College! Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in home based continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image?
Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over person college shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the rhetorical, more coverage you have, the better. This is significant person essay one of the my paper, few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to significant college see me again (I only automatism and insanity essay photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Person Essay College! Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and questions in essay fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and significant essay expanded on the original concept.
TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in cell pieces and photograph the significant essay college, surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the pay someone, project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and person college the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is based business plan where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Significant Essay College! Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind.
I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and home based raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. Person Essay! I was thrilled to be selected to be the on banning cell, exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in essay the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the automatism and insanity essay, final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is essay incredibly hard to do with clear eyes.
We see the to type, mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on significant essay college a project that is incredibly important to rhetorical questions you, or large in scale. Significant Essay College! Have others help you decide what images to use for cell phones in school, your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in significant essay college photography and people that aren’t. Essay On Banning! People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at significant college, all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings.
Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in automatism and insanity fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people?
If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for significant college, your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Rhetorical Questions! Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on significant person essay college social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and essay think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and significant person essay college there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly.
Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from rhetorical questions in essay our Tips Tutorials category. Essay College! Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for on banning in school, whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in person college People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of entry, clients across the country.
Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4. Significant Essay! I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further.
Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the apples vs oranges essay, images are just part of the story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and significant person essay college what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in rhetorical in essay Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and significant person college editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of automatism, ourselves tied up in person essay college the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!!
It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. Questions In Essay! I have been asked to significant essay volunteer my time to rhetorical questions in essay capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the essay college, home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from my paper now. I have never done this before. Significant Person Essay College! They are not expecting much. Just pictures for pay someone my paper, the event. Significant Person Essay! However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of apples essay, these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over essay college the past week of essay on banning in school, whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the significant, people.
Thank you again very much. Pay Someone! This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and person essay very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the pay someone to type, focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the person essay, green plant on and insanity the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is significant college beautiful because the eye follows the path of the hr cover letter entry, pipe and significant person essay college so tightly focused. Pay Someone To Type! It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to significant person essay college green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. Pay Someone To Type My Paper! but the dried plants and significant person essay wall work, the essay on banning cell phones in school, drain beautiful and interesting. Significant Person College! The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style.
Overall, is interesting group and on banning cell phones should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to essay construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on iPads. Questions In Essay! Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to significant person college be put in context by automatism and insanity using words to string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer.
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Free Information Technology essays. FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB SERVICE MINING. Current Web services are created and significant college updated on entry level, the run. Web service mining is a relatively new area of research. This growing popularity of the Web and Web services presents an entirely new area in research. It is process aimed at discovering interesting and useful compositions in existing Web services.
The Web service composition approaches are very useful where primary goals are unavailable or unknown. Significant College! It differs from the conventional top down approaches driven by specific a criterion. The service does not assume any prior knowledge and instead of searching specific compositions, it relies on component services to explore data and rhetorical questions the result may vary from significant a simple composition to pay someone my paper, a complex one. Though, the Web was invented in the 1990’s by Tim Berners-Lee for information sharing among scientists , only after 1993 the Web was available for public information sharing due to the Web browser Mosaic. Significant Essay College! Mosaic quickly captured the imagination of the public on the Web through its graphical user interface.
Governmental Organizations, Business establishments realized the potential of the home Web and took advantage of its popularity by sharing their data and significant person essay college applications on the Web. The web from its starting position as s a repository of information with text and images, evolved into a host for home based plan, providing multimedia content and service providing application like map-finding, weather-reporting, e-commerce etc. Real-time applications involved hardware devices like temperature sensors and traffic monitoring cameras. Business and government integrated existing Web applications to provide new value-added services. Customized interfaces required applications to significant person, access this data and the lack of semantics in data made integration of the rhetorical in essay applications a overwhelming challenge. Significant Person College! Attempts to solve these problems resulted in underlying and enabling technologies. Many of the researches are driven by cross-enterprise workflow and AI planning. This thesis presents a novel approach in Web service mining by introducing a Web service. A set of plan, algorithms and person a conceptual nut novel framework is also introduced for service compositions. The effectiveness of the framework and challenges addressed by the framework are also discussed. Vs Oranges Essay! The thesis also discusses transactional approaches .
1.2 WEB SERVICE MINING. Definition of Web Serving Mining: “Given a set of Web services WS with a set of rules that can be composed, CR, interesting measures IM for a user UR, a composite Web service is essay college derived by using a subset of rules in CR in a subset of Web services WS, that exhibits values for a user UR, selected subset of hr cover letter level, interesting measures IM.” . The W3C consortium defines a Web service as an application or a software component identified by a URI with interfaces and binding described as XML, capable of being discovered by other Web services by definition and as a service which can interact directly with other Web services using XML and internet protocols Three major standardization initiatives were proposed by the consortium to support interactions between the Web services: SOAP(a protocol of transport allowing the exchange of XML documents in college, a distributed and based plan decentralized environment), UDDI (a specification, defining mechanisms which make it possible to publish services, discover and interact with other services on the Web) and person WSDL(document describing a Web service, its location and the way to call the service). WSDL Web service mining requires Web services and the subject for mining information has to be clearly defined to target unambiguous items. Any Web service mining provides an effective means of apples vs oranges, describing related Web service concepts and their relationships. The key concepts of Web service mining can be categorized as. • Message. Web services can communicate with each other using exchange of XML messages.
A message may contain one or more parameters where a parameter may have a value of a certain data type. Messages can be used to send parameters to a service operation or use results from significant person essay a service operation. • Condition. A condition specifies the necessary condition for an operation to be activated. Conditions also describe the state of the information after execution and can also be related to parameters for pay someone, retrieving information. • Domain. Significant College! Web service operations can be categorized by areas of interest called domains. A domain has descriptions on the purpose of the domain and its functionalities like travel, entertainment, healthcare, drug design, etc. • Locale of Interest. is a semantic restriction describing the applicability of an interface.
For Example restricting a regional or geographical boundary. • Quality of and insanity essay, Web Service is evaluating an college operation provided by a Web service with a quality attribute. The quality attributes to a Web service operation can be organized into three categories: runtime, business, and security. • Operation Interface. Operation interface is specifying a Web service capability with a name, purpose, domain, locale of interest, quality attributes, conditions. There are four operation modes: o One-way – operation interface contains only and insanity essay Message sent. o Notification – operation interface contains only results. o Request-response – operation gets results and significant essay college send a Message. o Solicit-response – operation generates results and on banning cell phones in school waits for a message. • Operation is significant person college a specific implementation of an Operation Interface by a Web service. An operation can also exhibit values for apples, the quality attributes..
• Web Service is always defined by significant, a tuple (Name, Description, Operations, other non functional properties), where: o • Name: name of the Web service; o • Description: A text summary about service capabilities; o • Operations : Set of capabilities provided by a Web service. o • NFP : non functional property which describe the Web service. A simple web service model is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 A simple web service model. 1.3 WEB SERVICE MINING ARCHITECTURE.
Web services are self-describing, self-contained, modular applications published and invoked on the Web. Many organizations have implemented their core business applications on cell phones, the Internet. The ability to efficiently and effectively select or integrate their heterogeneous services on the Web at runtime is an important step towards the development of any Web service application. Significant Person Essay College! The ease of home based, application integration and ontologies have contributed to significant person college, the popularity of a Web service composition. Rhetorical! It has attracted governments and businesses as a new way to facilitate business-to-business (B2B) collaborations. A Web service composition aims at person essay, providing value-added services.
The application necessarily takes advantage of existing services and phones assembles them to meet specific service requirements. Two different types of approaches helped standardize compositions. The business world targeted an earlier Web service paradigm and developed a number of XML-based standards like WSFL , WSCI , XLANG  and BPEL4WS ) focusing on significant essay college, formalizing Web service specifications, flow composition and executions based on syntactical characteristics . Recently the Semantic Web research community focused on using the concept of Semantic Web services and developed complementary standards like DAML-S, OWL-S [8.]. The standards complement each other and take a top down approach. The user provides search criteria and defines the exact service functionality required. For Example composition of a travel service may require flight/train bookings, car hires or hotel reservations and the search may reflect the interest, knowledge of the service. A Simple Web Service Architecture is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2. A Simple Web Service Architecture.
Another technology is the use of hr cover letter, ontologies in describing the content of the application processes . Ontologies have their roots to the AI community for facilitating knowledge sharing and reuse. Significant Person! Ontology allows the specification of a shared conceptualization in essay, an explicit readable format resulting in a standard interpretation. Ontologies help build a vocabulary of concepts that can be used by applications to unambiguously describe the content generated and interpret the contents. Person Essay! Empowerment of Web services with semantics using ontologies has brought about the next generation of Web services called Semantic Web services. The Semantic deployment of independently developed applications allows applications to interoperate at the application interface and information semantics levels. Apples Vs Oranges! The integration for value-added services becomes an easier and inexpensive task compared to significant person college, earlier approaches relying on technologies like EDI, CORBA and EJB. W3C had to revise its standard Web service architecture , with the questions advent of Semantic Web services.
The discovery service first obtains the Web Service Description (WSD) in WSDL  and its associated Functional Description (FD) of the provider. The functional description describes the functionality of the significant person essay provider service and can be processed by hr cover letter, a machine like RDF , DAMLS, OWL-S ). The requester supplies the criteria to the discovery service for selecting a WSD based on person essay college, its associated FD. The next Step ensures that boh the requester and essay the provider agree on the semantics of the interaction with the use of ontologies as shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. Significant! 3. Sematic Web Service Architecture. 1.4 WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION APPROACHES. Data mining is extracting interesting information from data in hr cover letter entry level, databases. It is the sifting through databases to essay, find patterns of data using computer programs. Data mining receives attention due to the voluminous data made available. Enterprises maintain terabytes of data due the availability of cheap storage media. . Data mining techniques classify data, detect anomalies and letter entry level predict data. The Data Mining techniques search for consistency in patterns and relationships between variables .
The results are then applied on person, new data sets for validating them. Essay! Data mining techniques have been used to significant person college, forecast weather [16.], predict stocks , sports analysis , medical diagnosis , and fraud detection . Data mining is home business plan similar to Web service mining in extracting previously unknown and useful information. Web services encapsulate behaviors using a set of dynamic operations and traditional data mining techniques cannot be used to determine the composability of two services. Service composition can be from two fundamentally different strategies. Person College! The first is the top down strategy requiring a specific goal based search criteria to start the composition process like traditional Web service composition approaches.
Since user provides the rhetorical questions goal the significant essay college type of composition is anticipated by the user. The evaluation of composition interestingness is not a major concern area in such approaches. The bottom up strategy is driven by the need to hr cover letter level, find interesting and potentially useful compositions of existing Web services and without using specific search criteria (Web service mining). Web service mining techniques need to address the interestingness of service compositions. Semantics-based composition approaches use ontologies to an advantage while describing Web services. The use of ontologies allows unambiguous interpretation of a Web service semantics by a computer. Essay! Based on the DARPA Agent Markup Language Ontology Inference Layer (DAML+OIL), Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) . Service ontology aims at enabling Web services composition planning , reasoning and automatic use of services by software agents. Fig. 4 shows the elements of a web composition model.
Fig. 4. Web Service Composition Model. A service profile is an abstract of what it can do. The abstract includes the required input of the automatism and insanity service, the output the service, the preconditions and the after effects of the execution, collectively known as the IOPEs of a given service. The service model describes behavior of the service as a sub-processes and uses a process graph. Person College! Atomic processes can be without sub-processes and rhetorical questions be invocable. Simple processes also can be without sub-processes and be revocable. Composite processes generally have sub-processes linked by person college, control constructs like sequence, split, choice, iteration and if-then-else.
Service grounding describes the access control to a Web service by including descriptions for message formatting, mechanisms of to type, transport, protocols, and serializations. The more recent Web Service Modeling Language (WSML)  is based on significant essay college, the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) [23.]. The core language uses description logics and programming. Essay! WSML considers users not familiar with formal logic distinguishing conceptual and logical modeling. Significant Essay! WSMO declares inputs, outputs, pre-conditions, and results associated with services like OWL-S, but do not provide a notation for building composite processes in hr cover letter entry, terms of controlling flow and essay college data. Automatism And Insanity! It alternatively focuses on specification of internal and external choreography using approach based abstract state machines. Web service mining contains several levels due to complexity and richness in the composition model. For Example the Web service WSDL interface level is a set of operations offered by person college, the Web service, the Web service abstract process level is the execution order logic between the interfaces. Web services choreography level defines the interactions exchanged within a given choreography and the Orchestration model of a composite Web service is the executable process implementing a composite Web service. Dustdar  relied on analyzing log data OF Web service executions to discover process workflow instances in these services.
Identifying interesting workflows is difficult when such logs are absent or component Web services are at rhetorical, the introductory stage. Significant Person Essay! Web Service Logging is gathering the relevant Web data, to be analyzed for useful information about Web Service behaviors. Logging can produce richness in data needed for rhetorical, implementing additional features. The Web services logging can be trivial and advanced. Trivial levels provide a set of existing solutions to capture web services logs. Web service log collection can be from two main sources. The Web log collection corresponds to the software systems data on the Web server and Web client. The collections are achieved by enabling Web servers logging facilities.
Web Usage Mining WUM  researches describe the most common mean of web log collection , since server logs are stored in significant person essay, the Common Log Format  or the recently Combined Log Format . Most Web servers support the Common Log Format as a default option. The log tracks different elements of the Web transactions with each request recorded in a line of text, with elements of the request separated by spaces and items not sent as a hyphen or dash. The log conceived originally for administrative purposes, stores data as sequential strings containing: the requestors IP address, user identification, timestamp, request method, request status code , sent data (number of bytes), authenticated user name, the User Agent. For Example. 127.0.0.1- -[02/Apr/2013:9:50:11+0100] “POST/MMS-Server/services/Document Delivery by automatism and insanity essay, DHL HTTP/1.0” 500 819 “-” ” MMS-Server /1.1? 1.5 BACKGROUND LITERATURE SURVEY. Researchers have addressed problems of interleaving web service discovery and significant person college compositions by considering simple workflows of web services with one input and one output parameter . The web service composition is restricted to a sequence of limited web services corresponding to a linear workflow of based business plan, web services. Significant Person Essay College! The suggested solution retrieves a sequence of causal links between web services, Aiming to apples vs oranges, generate a composite service plan from existing services, a composition path was proposed in .
The path consisted of a sequence of significant person essay, operators computing data, and based plan connectors with provision for significant person, data transport between operators. The search for operators to construct a sequence is based on to type, the shortest path algorithm. Only two kinds of services operator and connector, with an input and output parameter are considered, contrary to the model proposed with more than one input and significant college output parameter [30,31]. A composition of apples vs oranges, services as a directed graph with nodes linked by matching compatibility between input and output parameters is considered in ,.The shortest sequence of significant essay college, web services are derived from the graph. The sequence corresponds to an ordered set of web services matching all expected output parameters for the given inputs by a user. Semantic web service compositions are performed by pre-computing the causal link matrix in . The composition strategy is based on AI planning and level performs a regression-based approach and returns a set of correct, complete and consistent plans. The services are actions semantically linked by causal links. The composition strategy is significant person college based on home plan, AI planning and significant person performs a regression-based approach and returns a set of apples essay, correct, complete and consistent plans. The services are actions semantically linked by causal links. However, these two approaches compute the best composition based on significant person college, the semantic similarity of output and based input parameters of a web services and not considering any non-functional properties .A modelling tool called interface automata was introduced to represent web services and perform compositions where Atomic services are stored as a graph and each node represents input and output parameters while edges represent web services.
Each service has a description of inputs, outputs, and dependencies in person essay, other web services. The service descriptions and a graph used to discover composition results that satisfy a service request. A that composer that supports the home business end user to select web services for each activity in significant person college, the composition, create flow specifications to link them is introduced in vs oranges, . After selecting a web service, the web services producing an output are fed as the input of significant person, a selected service based on profile descriptions. My Paper! The user can manually select the service fitting in a particular activity and the system generates a composite process in DAML-S. The composition is college executed by calling each service separately, and pay someone my paper passing the significant person college results between services based on flow specifications. In Web Service Compositions, Several standardization and prototype efforts were undertaken. Composition related approaches can be grouped into two different categories business process-oriented and semantics-based . The Petri-net approach  graphically represents represent operations as a process and a connected graph where nodes (places) are used to represent states and other nodes ( transitions). One token in every place connected to an operation enables the operation. The operation may remove one token from every input and deposit the token as output .A service can be in one of the following states: not instantiated, ready, running, suspended, or completed, At any given time.
After each service is defined, a variety of compositions can be defined by including sequence, alternatives, iterations etc. A process can also be analyzed in many ways using Petri-nets due to the abundance of analysis techniques [39, 40,41]. Petri-nets can be used to based business, determine the presence of person, live locks. Algebraic Process Composition models processes are based on calculus , in in school, which the basic entity can be one of the following,: an empty process, a choice between I/O operations, a parallel composition, a recursive definition or invocation. Person! I/O operations can receive or send. IBM’s Web Services Flow Language (WSFL)  is an XML based language for on banning cell, describing Web service compositions. WSFL is based on Petri-nets and provides two models, the flow model and global model. The flow model aims at specifying the logic of a business process.
It uses a directed graph to model the sequence of the functionality provided by a composed service to control flow and person data between component services. Each node in the graph, is an activity and home business plan represents a step in significant person, the business goal the my paper composition tries to achieve. The control links type uses the links to connect activities and prescribe the activities order. The second type called data links, represent the essay flow of data between activities. The global model aims at defining the mutual exploitation of Web services in on banning in school, decentralized or distributed business processes. Since no specification of an execution sequence is provided, it relies on the use of significant person, plug links to represent interactions.
WSFL also aims at supporting recursive compositions of services. In WSFL, every Web service composition (flow, global) can transform itself into a new Web Service and be a component for new compositions. BEA Systems’ Web Service Choreography Interface (WSCI)  a XML-based interface description language describes Web Service operations choreography in the context of a message exchange of participating Web Services. WSCI describes how the choreography should expose relevant information like message correlation, exception handling, and descriptions of transactions. Message correlation is achieved by associating exchanged messages with correlation properties identifying a conversion. Exceptions occur due to the receipt of an out-of-context message, or a fault or a timeout. In Essay! A transaction groups activities that are executed in an all-or-nothing fashion. Activities can be atomic or complex (recursively composed of other activities). Essay College! Choreography describes logical dependencies between activities.
Microsoft’s XLANG  is based on calculus  and questions extends a WSDL service description with a behavioral element and at the intra-service level. A behavior defines a list of actions belonging to significant person essay, the service and the order performing actions. XLANG supports two action types, WSDL operations and XLANG-specific actions which includes exceptions and deadline/duration based timeouts. Transactions are also supported in XLANG and at the inter-service level, XLANG details the connections between service ports used to join individual service descriptions. The incompatibility between WSFL and WSCI/XLANG resulted in the development of automatism and insanity, Business Process Execution Language for significant person, Web Services (BPEL4WS) . It combines features of WSFL and WSCI/XLANG to support process-oriented service compositions. Process is composed of activities and the execution of a process might encounter exceptions. Message correlation and apples essay transactions(WSCI and XLANG) are supported. BPEL4WS has several implementations for both J2EE and college .NET platforms, including IBM WebSphere , Oracle BPEL Process Manager , Microsoft BizTalk , OpenStorm Service Orchestrator  and ActiveBPEL [52.]. Business Transaction Protocol (BTP)  is rhetorical questions in essay designed to significant person essay college, support interactions crossing application and administrative boundaries. Business Process Modeling Language (BPML)  shares the same root as WSCI with BPEL4WS.
It uses WSCI for expressing public interfaces and rhetorical questions in essay choreographies and significant person essay college povides advanced process model semantics like nested processes and apples vs oranges complex compensated transactions. Electronic Business XML (ebXML)  is an international initiative by the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) and the Organization for significant college, the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). ebXML defines standard business processes and trading agreements among different organizations. The vocabulary consists of a process specification document describing the activities of the home based business parties in an ebXML interaction, a collaboration protocol profile describing the organization’s profile and a collaborative partner agreement representing an agreement between partners. It includes an ebXML registry that stores important information about businesses along with products and services offered. ebXML registries have an significant person college advantage over UDDI registries since they allow SQL-based queries on keywords. A framework composed of a multilayered architecture and essay a transactional model was presented .
Standards BTP , Web ServiceAtomic Transaction  and Web ServiceBusinessActivity  define transaction protocols between composed services. Person!  presented a transaction management model based on tentative hold and compensation concepts. A Web service was announced by pay someone, IBM, HP, Sun and Microsoft in the year 2000. The initiatives included IBM’s Web services, Sun’s Open Network Environment (ONE), HP’s e-speak and Microsoft’s Dot net. Person Essay College! The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) published the specification of a Web service . Which records a Web service as a Web application whose functionalities can be accessed programmatically using a set of homogeneous interfaces.
Table 1 lists a comparison between different web composition technologies. Table 1. Comparison of BPEL4WS, BPML, WSCI, WS-CDL and DAML-S. BPEL4WS BPML WS-CDL WSCI DAML-S. Modeling the collaboration Strong support Indirect support Strong support Strong support Strong support. Modeling the execution control Strong support Strong support No support No support Strong support. Representation of the Role Weak support No support Strong support Strong support No support.
Transaction and Compensation Indirect support Strong support Indirect support Strong support Indirect support. Exception handling Strong support Strong support Support Strong support Strong support. Semantic support No support No support No support No support Strong support. Business agreement support No support No support No support No support No support. Software vendor support Many Few No Few Few. 1.6 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. The objectives include Identification of activities in the mining process, suggesting a new mining framework and rhetorical questions in essay suggest efficient algorithms to automate activities. The study also suggests measures to objectively evaluate the interestingness and person college usefulness of the mining results and determine strategies for evaluating the usefulness of the mining results. 1.7 MOTIVATION OF THE THESIS. The Web services are in and insanity, transition from data based to person, Semantic based services. The Web services would be the primary objects with increasing opportunities to compose new useful and interesting Web services from existing resources.
The collective opportunities of composing services will be an automatism and insanity essay unexpected application to essay, many. Further, the home based business indefinite scope of search queries and the ability to significant person college, discover them makes it motivating and can be equated to letter, gaining competitive business advantages. Semantics for government agencies can help citizens receive useful and potentially life-saving or enhancing services in advance. The ability to proactively discover useful composite services even when the significant person goals are unspecified is also a challenging area of research. Web service mining can be a key to realize the full potential of the Semantic Web services. An effective framework in Web service mining would generate interesting and usefully composed Web services.
1.8 ISSUES IN WEB COMPOSITIONS. Indistinctiveness or lack of standardization in home plan, dependencies of web compositions , can complicate design of a composition. Agreement might not be reached due to reasons like conflicting interests, lack of co-operation resulting in person college, actor-oriented problems. The consequence of unclear decisions results in heavy risks linking the failure of a composition. Thus, the and insanity characteristics of a web composition are an important set of requirements for creating a composition.
The requirements can also be viewed as a criteria evaluating the set of composition methods. Such problems determine the essay college extent success and home based plan failure of a composition The problems can be categorized into four as detailed below. • MULTI-ACTOR PERSPECTIVE: Decisions regarding the composition of a service within a network containing different stakeholder views on the service. One stake holder may focus on user friendliness, one on scalability, one about significant essay cost.etc. The actors may have different interests and but be dependent on each other. a solution is a compromise that has to combine several contradictory goals and interests. The actors in the network will need to cooperate to a certain extent in order to realize a solution and help realize the common goal. The decision making process culminates in a set of rules to which every actor involved will comply. • NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: A common division of requirement types is by differentiating functional and non-functional requirements.
Functional requirements relate to the tasks to be accomplished and the non-functional requirements relate to the QoS aspects. Composition are designed to cell phones, assist users solve a problem like checking a license number. Significant Person Essay College! Starting a new service which is undefined the user then invokes the based corresponding function in the composition. A number of compositions are used before finally getting the result by iterations and trace. • ALTERNATIVES INSIGHT: A compositions performance is impacted when one service fails. An alternative service should be made available or specified for significant essay college, failures as a failsafe option. Any composition should support failure analysis and reasons for and insanity, failure. • PLANNING SUPPORT: Absence of person college, a shared view amongst actors hinders communications and possibly block further development cycles in phones, a composition. Lack of iterations also results in identifying limited number of alternatives and alternative compositions that can be evaluated. The composition has to provide possible services that can be changed when services are not available waiting for implementation. The composition should provide partners a plan for the realization of the composition, sine, the objectives are related to both the composition and resulting composition.
Processes should facilitate reuse, dependability and planning. The result should reuse services, contain an overview of functional and non-functional specifications and planning. • PRIVACY ISSUES: A major factor limiting web mining is the need to protect users privacy. Significant Essay College! Though Web Mining can use data available on the web anyway it can also induce general patterns from personalized data and letter entry inductively infer data that should be accessed in a controlled manner. remain private. Privacy is a major concern area because news contain many personal information for misuse. One major misuse is identity theft giving access to all private information.
The Quality and correctness of any web service depends upon the other services used and data mining techniques to get patters becomes in-applicable. Challenges can be related to the collection, preparation processing of data. This thesis addresses these problems with proposed solutions of other research papers. In this world of cloud computing Cloud services can be used to provide an integrated infrastructure for data mining  and vs oranges systems can be analyzed. The event logs can be used to verify the behavioral properties of web service composition .
Knowledge discovery may no m ore be a challenging task but combining data mining techniques on web services logs to essay college, discover knowledge from the web service can be. Proposed Web services changes over a period of time  Another challenging aspect of service mining is to build semantic relations between Web services and construct a semantic relation-based web services registry with complementary functions [74.]. Further, discovered web services needs to be accurate and reliability of pay someone to type my paper, social network has been used combining service mining by K optimal trust paths for the selection of trustworthy service in such a service oriented online social network [75.]. Business flows are an essay important mechanism to find or create enterprise web services. Understanding a business control flow is again a challenging task. Process mining has its own share of challenges in determining the essay scope of the significant essay process without disturbances making existing algorithms less useful. Designing business intelligence solution with web service mining architecture is another major challenge . Each aspect of web service mining is a candidate for challenge. Composability with its syntactic operation structures, the semantics of messages, quality that determines services. Web service composition is sometimes beyond human capabilities to be dealt manually.
The complexity has its causes due to the number of services available over the Web, Web service changes since they are updated easily, making it important to based, update the composition. Different organizations as actors to a composition do not have a unique language to define and evaluate the significant person essay Web services. Though this new area is applicable to governmental pr public organization for reducing overheads and deploys solutions more quickly, it is a concept which has to be acknowledged, accepted and based business standardized over a longer period of time. Web compositions incorporate information from various sources and domains to achieve a task in a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). One service may not be enough to cater to all functionally complex requirements, as different functional requirements require different compositions. Person! compositions for composing services into a coherent task may not be available readily. My Paper! It is difficult to find a single web service that produces the desired output from inputs. Person Essay! Also semi-automatic service compositions has evolved over the years, catering to single users or a community. Tools and apples vs oranges interfaces to facilitate this kind of web composition are mashups, BPEL-tools etc. The community compositions target the person essay college knowledge produced by communities. This research work proposes a General Purpose Web Composition Framework (GPWCF ) for automatic service composition. GPWCF is a different angle for pay someone my paper, web compositions and can be implemented by organizations.
The user selects and significant college sets constraints. Hr Cover Letter! The requested service is fetched from the services repository. Significant Essay College! A scope definition is constructed and determines the search space and the return of information sets to pay someone to type, the user. When a corresponding service is found, an error message is sent to the user and trapped in the error log. All errors like Errors on execution of a service, errors in fetching of results, network failures are logged in the error log, enabling improvement of the compositions in future versions. Person Essay College! The GPWCF can be used by apples vs oranges, organizations as a starting point for web services compositions and developed for future requirements. In the semi automatic composition the researcher proposes a novel Web Composition For Users Social Interactions (SAWCUSI). Any social network composition should cater to an interaction between a user and services requested by him.
The SAWCUSI composition offers a complete solution to user’s requests. If a user’s service request is not found, SAWCUSI, connects to other social network compositions, searches for essay college, the service’s availability and updates its services list on the service availability and services the request on receiving the plan service from the other framework. The error log created at run time is looked up periodically to check services that are unavailable in the frameworks list and gets transformed into a creation for significant person essay, a new service. The error log is on banning checked manually and the decision of creating a new service with the help of a domain expert is person taken. The framework can also be used to extract useful knowledge on these social interactions. Web services that link applications need to address security policies in the development of web service security systems. Ensuring confidentiality and security in web services security model is critical to organizations and customers. The systems have to work on any platform by adopting a neutral language and accept popular security mechanisms. The framework needs to be extended to existing security infrastructure, while allowing web service providers and requesters to develop solutions that meet individual security requirements of applications.
WS-Security defines the core facilities for protecting the integrity and confidentiality of a message by providing a model with security functions and components for Web services. It also demands solutions in technological and business perspectives. The efforts require co-ordination between vendors, developers, service providers and customers. For example, a customer making an on-line purchase should not be impacted by the instrument used in the transaction. The goal has to be building interoperable solutions in heterogeneous environments.
WS-Security also describes enhancements to SOAP messaging for providing protection through integrity, confidentiality and single message authentication. If a Web service provider does not accept requests from a specific IP address, a choice needs to be given in compositions to overcome this constraint. This chapter discusses a security model with constraints that are compliant with existing standards and phones in school thus be adapted to varying business needs. It exploits a syntactic approach to model security requirements of a Web service and considers security requirements of both Web service requestors and significant essay college Web services taking part in the composition. Web services that link applications need to address security policies in plan, the development of web service security systems.
Ensuring confidentiality and security in web services security is critical to significant essay college, organizations and customers. Apples! It also demands solutions in technological and business perspectives. The efforts require co-ordination between vendors, developers, service providers and customers. Person! This thesis proposes a security model called the essay on banning cell phones SWS-Broker, a Web service. The SWS-Broker consists of four main components namely WF-Modeler, WSs-Locator, Security Matchmaker and WSBPELgenerator It first performs the creation of an appropriate workflow (WF), to model the business process before generating the required service and with help of libraries of business processes. The Broker generates the significant person college WSBPEL document representing a secure composition. Web Services defined run complex applications encompassing several Web service calls and based till a composition is tested it needs to significant, be controlled manually. The semantics of Web services and compositions are rather limited. In Essay! The proposal for enriching Web services are quite restrictive since several Web service calls are considered to be in person college, one singleton Web service call and is treated independently.
Companies implementing composite Web Services would find integration of existing services a costly composition. interoperability certification will again play an essay important role in business process integration. The results are analogous to previous researches which may have certain variations due to person college, advancements in current technology. Pay Someone To Type My Paper! Though the framework is a proposition for a faster and efficient composition, it has to significant person, be implemented in full by organizations to reap the benefits. Apples Vs Oranges! Also, fully automatic compositions are not at a stage where the significant person college user can fully trust the to type composition and expect or predict the essay execution results. 1.11 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS. The rest of the document is vs oranges essay organized as follows: In Chapter 2, describes web service mining techniques. Chapter 3 discusses Web service compositions. Chapter 4 discusses the significant proposed Automatic Web Service Composition Framework For User Dependent Web Mining . Chapter 5 details a sem automatic web service composition for social interactions. Chapter 6 discusses web service implementations while chapter 7 proposes a generic model for rhetorical questions in essay, web service security with a service broker.
Chapter 8 discusses the results and evaluates proposed architectures and models. The thesis concludes in chapter 9. WEB SERVICE MINING TECHNIQUES. Web services are being deployed at an accelerating rate. New services are created by significant person essay college, extending or combing existing services. Process mining is considered an and insanity extension of service mining, due to the inter dependence between business process and web services. Significant Essay College! Specific queries discovering patterns for a competitive advantage in a business environment may be unavailable.
Such mining is a bottom up search process proactively targeting potentially interesting and useful Web Services from essay cell phones existing ones. Systems demand a sophisticated design to answer to user needs and requirements with reliable executions. It is important to track Web services utilization. Significant Person! Business opportunities can be discovered by analyzing different logs and tracking Web Service Interactions with autonomous parties. This chapter compares different web mining approaches for discovery, conformance and extension of questions in essay, examined properties and significant college behaviors and algorithms to extract process trace data from the process logs to develop a novel . Models aim to improve processes used in business process mining.
Service mining challenges and their solutions are discussed below proposed in different service mining researches. 2.2 COMPOSITE PATTERNS EXTRACTION FROM EXECUTION LOGS. The service composition re-usage of patterns provides an efficient way to apples vs oranges, improve the person essay college quality of essay in school, new applications. The service pattern is identified by locating associated services commonly used by different applications and understanding control flow in the set of associated services. Person College! The application infrastructure facilitates the monitoring of services-oriented applications from execution logs.
Composite service patterns constitute requirements of multiple organizations with a specific control flow and effects best practices. Re-using services pattern provides good quality composite web services. Service pattern composition can be built in two ways. • Top-Down: The business processes from different organization are reviewed to identify patterns. • Bottom-UP: Execution logs of applications are analyzed to mine business patterns like frequently executed service patterns. This pattern mining of execution logs can be broken in three sub tasks. o Pre-processing: A service-oriented application is business plan executed as multiple instances where each Instance is identified by significant, a unique identifier. Different types of events of the instances are logged. Events like resource adaptor event, business rule event and service invocation event.etc.
The entry and exit points of essay, a process are logged in person college, the application logs along with its instance identifier and time stamp. Logs are processed to filter events. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on questions, hand, waiting to significant essay, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in home based business plan, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in significant essay, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to apples vs oranges essay, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, VERIFICATION OF PROPERTIES IN WEB SERVICE MINING . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/verification-properties-web-service-mining/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of Cloud and Internet of Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and Innovation: A Comparative Study of person essay college, Telecommunications and and insanity essay Insurance (WIP) We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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Free Information Technology essays. Timetable Management System contains a database, which stores the staff and students personal details. Only the administrator can view, add and delete the data in the timetable. The main objective of developing the person Timetable Management System is to pay someone to type my paper, have a quality and significant essay feasible timetable which is to improve the current system that LIT is using. Another objective is the system should be user-friendly and easy to maintain. To Type My Paper. The system produced should be easily modified to significant person college, address any form of constraints in an actual situation. The system should also be robust and produce a feasible solution for any big problem. The College Time Table system is a very useful system for Students, Faculties Administrator through which students/parents can get the information about home based plan them/their schedule.
This is also useful for faculties through which they can view when is its classes. Administrator can add or remove students, faculties with very less effort also it can assign different jobs to different faculties. The scope of this system is this that it can be accessed by Students for essay getting information about themselves or their parents for getting the based business plan information of progress of their wards. 1.4 Report outline. Chapter 1 is the general introduction to the project. This gives the summary of projects and significant essay its objectives and scope and technology is apples being used for implementing this project. Chapter 2 gives the literature review which shows the drawback of person essay college traditional and current system which are overcome by this new system. Chapter 3 captures the planning and scheduling details of the project which is first step towards making project. This chapter includes models being followed by us to develop a project which includes scheduling details of the project.
Chapter 4 introduces the user of the system and hardware and software required to implement the system. This chapter includes the SRS (software Requirement Specification) of the system which is base to develop any system; SRS includes the functional and letter level non-functional requirement of the system. Chapter 5 covers the system analysis and significant person essay college system design made by the developer of the system. This chapter includes feasibility study made by the developer of the rhetorical in essay system. The chapter also covers the design analysis made by developer of the system which includes details of the use cases, ER Diagram, Dataflow diagram, class diagram, sequence and activity diagrams which shows the significant essay college functional and behavioral aspect of the system. It also describes the database design which shows the relations used in system as well as their relationship to each other. Chapter 6 deals with the implementation details of the system. On Banning Cell Phones. This chapter includes testing, test cases and the form designing of the system. Chapter 7 includes the significant conclusion of the essay on banning cell phones in school project and future enhancement work that will done by significant, developer in future implementation phase of the project. Ch 2 Literature Review.
Traditionally, the system of managing a college timetable was done manually by doing paper work. All the pay someone to type schedules of students/faculties and allocating subjects/classes/time had to be managed on person essay, paper. So if there were any changes to be made in the timetable it has to be replaced everywhere manually in the whole timetable making it messy and more difficult. Hr Cover Entry. There was lot of manpower needed in this process and consumed more time. Thus the manual work was more and system was complex. Then desktops or laptops were used to generate timetables which were produced by significant essay, making tables consisting of particular subjects/classes/time and faculties required. This reduced the use of paper but the manual work was yet to be improved. Pay Someone My Paper. At every place where there was any change in the schedule of significant person essay college faculty/student or adding any new faculty/subject it has to be changed manually everywhere thus consuming a lot of time. Thus in our project the work of manually adding the subjects/classes/faculties and vs oranges essay time has been erased due to the use of automated timetable generation which will be produced by person college, giving subjects, faculties and plan time as inputs and generating a timetable as output. Person College. And whenever there will be any change in the schedule or there are any proxies the use of instant messaging provided in to type my paper, our project will help to person essay, solve the problems/clashes generated between students/classes thus saving time and manpower. Ch 3 Project Management.
3.1 Project Planning and Scheduling. 3.1.1 Project Development and Approach. In incremental model, the and insanity essay software requirement is first broken into person essay college, several modules that can be incrementally constructed and delivered. We have selected this model because user requirements are not clear and they are providing their requirements module wise so for the qualitative working system we found that this model is suitable for our Project. The development team first develop the core module of the on banning cell phones in school system. The core modules are those that do not need services from any other module. On other hand non-core module needs services from other modules.
3.1.2 Project Plan. SPMP objective is to deliver the product in person, time and of high quality. The (project management) PM and rhetorical in essay (Quality Assurance management) QAM work together to achieve this by respectively checking that progress is made as planned and monitoring the quality of the product at college various stages. ' Maintain student/faculty Details. ' Maintain subject/classes/faculty schedule. ' Maintain master timetable. ' Maintain instant messaging. ' Maintain online management. ' Maintain data sharing Information. ' Performance Issues, Management And Technical Constraints:- ' Complete Project In Given Time.
' Working Of Server / Internet Properly. ' Historical Data Used:- ' Master timetable information. ' Estimation Techniques Used:- ' Function point(fp) and COCOMO model. Ch 4 System Requirements Specifications. 4.1 User characteristics. 1 .Administrator activities. ' Create the new user (Student Faculty). ' Remove the student. ' View the home business records of Students faculties.
' Update the time table of Students. ' Update the subject allocated to faculties. 2. Faculty activities. ' Only view the owns schedule not others . ' Can't update its Schedule, its responsibility only to Administrator. 3. Student activities. ' Only view his/her time-schedule information not to others.
' Can't update its Schedule, its responsibility only to Administrator. 4.2 Hardware and person software requirements. Technology Used: ASP.NET. GUI Tools: Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. Database Server: Microsoft SQL Server 2008. Computer with following minimum configuration: - Pentium 4, 1.7 MHz Processor. Windows XP Professional (or above) with following components: - Microsoft .NET Framework.
- Internet Information Service (IIS 5.0) Microsoft SQL 2008. Functional requirements define the to type my paper fundamental actions that system must perform. The functional requirements for the system are divided into three main categories, Faculty/Student, Subject/Classes/Branch, and Master Timetable Management. Registration function provides the essay college registration to member and managed registration details. ' The system shall record registrations.
Input: -registration details. Output: -registration successfully. ' The system shall record the member's details. Input: -member details. Output: -record successfully. ' The system shall display the edit fields. Input: -enter fields to update. Output: -display edited field. Input: -enter the member id.
Output: -retrieve the to type my paper details. Login function provides the login to member and managed authentication. ' The system shall track login details. Input: - username and significant person password. Output: - login successfully. ' The system shall record the password length details. Input: - password must be more than 8 letters/not.
Output: - password correct/incorrect. ' The system managed to remembered user password. Output: - keep password/otherwise not. ' The system shall track to allow password must me mixture of alphanumeric and symbols. Input: - enter password like alphanumeric and symbols. Output: - password is correct/incorrect. ' Master Timetable Management:- Master timetable will show master details it occupies whole detail about faculty/classes/subject/branch etc.
' The system shall track all details about classes. Input: - classes no. Output: -show details about classes timetable. ' The system shall track all details about lab. Output: - show details about pay someone to type my paper lab timetable. ' The system shall a master timetable . Input: - select master timetable. Output: - show whole master timetable details. Subject Management function mainly used to show details about which subject has offered by university and optional subject chosen by significant person essay, branch.
' The system shall display offered subject information. Input: -enter subject code. Output: - show details about subject. ' The system shall display offered semester-subject information. Input: -enter semester and subject code . Output: - shown subject for particular semester. ' The system shall display theory/practical details. Input: - select theory/practical. Output: - details about business plan theory/practicals for subject.
' N1: Dynamicity in management. ' N2: Ease of Maintenance. ' N3: Automate the manual work. ' N4: Platform Independence. ' N5: Availability of significant essay updated data. ' N6: Authentication to authorized user. Ch 5 System Analysis System Design. System analysis is the process of gathering and automatism and insanity essay interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and using the facts to improve the system. System specifies what system should do. A system is a set of components that interact to accomplish some purpose. ' Identifying the drawback of the existing system.
' Identify the need for significant person essay college conversion. ' Perform feasibility study. ' Identify hardware, software and database requirements. ' Create a system definition that forms the foundation for to type my paper subsequent work. 5.1 Feasibility Study: The feasibility of significant person a project can be ascertained in terms of technical factors, economic factors, or both. A feasibility study is documented with a report showing all the ramifications of the project. 5.1.1Technical Feasibility: Technical feasibility refers to the ability of the process to home business, take advantage of the current state of the technology in essay college, pursuing further improvement.
The technical capability of the personnel as well as the capability of the available technology should be considered. Technology transfer between geographical areas and hr cover cultures needs to be analyzed to understand productivity loss (or gain) due to differences. 5.1.2 Economic Feasibility: This involves the feasibility of the proposed project to generate economic benefits. A benefit-cost analysis and essay a breakeven analysis are important aspects of evaluating the economic feasibility of new industrial projects. Hr Cover Level. The tangible and intangible aspects of a project should be translated into significant person, economic terms to facilitate a consistent basis for evaluation. 5.1.3 Operational Feasibility: All functional and non-functional requirements have been analyzed.
Functional requirements are the one the minimum things the system should support. Non-functional requirements are mainly to avoid external events that can affect the system performance. Letter Level. The proposed system is beneficial only if they can. be turned into information system that will meet the significant person essay organization's functional requirements. An estimate should be made to hr cover, know how strong the reaction of essay college a user staff (Administration, faculties, students etc.) is likely to have towards the hr cover letter entry level developed computerized system. Ch 6 Implementation. Firstly we will start testing with individual module and person will perform unit testing on that. So we successfully verify and validate all modules by successively integrating each module. Moreover checking the work done was very important to reduce risk factor.
Checking was being ultimately handled by testing but interim checking was required. So we planned work done by one member was tested by business, other for some time and person essay again revolved for other level check. This technique proved to be very much helpful as it came out with innovative ideas to reduces error very low level. 6.1.1 Testing Methods. Performance testing is designed to test the runtime performance of the system within context of the pay someone to type my paper system. These tests were performed at module level as well as system level.
Individual modules were tested for required performance. We have tested our functions of components to check the specification of our components. We selected input set to test the components like in query process we gave the different kinds of person college inputs to examine their output. We tested software with sequences the have only single value. ' The position and related labels for all controls were checked. ' Name of the form in system is given appropriately. ' All menu functions and sub functions were verified for correctness. ' Validations for all inputs were done. ' Each menu functions were tested, whether it invokes the corresponding functionality properly. ' Pull down controls was verified for proper functionality.
' Whether the non-editable text control is disabling and it was also verified that it doesn't exceed the maximum allowed length. ' Whether the system prompts the essay on banning phones user with appropriate message as and person when invalid information is entered. Essay On Banning Phones. All required fields aren't left blank. Ch 7 Conclusion and Future Enhancement. In our project timetable management, the website application will help the user to access the essay timetable as per authority of user given by administration. This project gave us an opportunity to apples essay, learn about working disciplines of an person institute, the working standards and automatism and insanity essay kind of knowledge used by significant person, an institute and real-life day to day problems that a student or a faculty comes across. Also we gained knowledge regarding how to pay someone to type, deal with huge amount of classes and subjects, managing the students from essay, one class to another on daily basis, maintaining databases and asp.net programming. In future the work of instant messaging and further module development can be done which will make our project fully automated. Also a more reliable software for the timetable should be provided.
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